CN109182669B - High-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

High-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN109182669B
CN109182669B CN201811401996.1A CN201811401996A CN109182669B CN 109182669 B CN109182669 B CN 109182669B CN 201811401996 A CN201811401996 A CN 201811401996A CN 109182669 B CN109182669 B CN 109182669B
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steel
hardness
furnace
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CN109182669A (en
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迟宏宵
马党参
周健
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Central Iron and Steel Research Institute
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/02Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing silicon
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/18Hardening; Quenching with or without subsequent tempering
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/26Methods of annealing
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D8/00Modifying the physical properties by deformation combined with, or followed by, heat treatment
    • C21D8/005Modifying the physical properties by deformation combined with, or followed by, heat treatment of ferrous alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C33/00Making ferrous alloys
    • C22C33/04Making ferrous alloys by melting
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/002Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing In, Mg, or other elements not provided for in one single group C22C38/001 - C22C38/60
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/04Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing manganese
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/18Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium
    • C22C38/40Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel
    • C22C38/44Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel with molybdenum or tungsten
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/18Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium
    • C22C38/40Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel
    • C22C38/46Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel with vanadium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22CALLOYS
    • C22C38/00Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys
    • C22C38/18Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium
    • C22C38/40Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel
    • C22C38/58Ferrous alloys, e.g. steel alloys containing chromium with nickel with more than 1.5% by weight of manganese

Abstract

A high-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel and a preparation method thereof belong to the technical field of tool and die steel. The steel comprises the following specific chemical components in percentage by weight: c: 0.20 to 0.30%, Si: 0.20-0.50%, S: less than or equal to 0.030 percent, P: less than or equal to 0.030 percent, Mn: 1.0-2.0%, Ni: 1.5-3.0%, Mo: 0.5-1.5%, Cr: 1.5-2.5%, V: 0.1 to 1.0%, and the balance of Fe and inevitable impurities. Compared with the prior art, the method has the advantages of more excellent tissue uniformity, higher pre-hardening hardness, extremely high toughness, better welding performance and excellent comprehensive performance, is suitable for manufacturing the super-huge pre-hardening plastic die steel module with higher hardness and higher polishing performance, effectively avoids the problem of pre-hardening cracking and improves the cutting processing performance.

Description

High-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel and preparation method thereof
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of tool and die steel, and particularly relates to high-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel and a preparation method thereof; the polishing steel is suitable for various super-huge plastic molds with high polishing performance.
Background
The pre-hardening type plastic die steel is one of important high-end varieties in the plastic die steel, and is delivered in a pre-hardening heat treatment state, so that a user can directly process the pre-hardening type plastic die steel into a die without heat treatment, deformation and cracking of the pre-hardening type plastic die steel are avoided, the manufacturing period of the die is shortened, the production cost is reduced, and the pre-hardening type plastic die steel is more and more widely applied. Particularly, as the demand of large-sized plastic molding dies, such as automobile and home appliance dies, for large-sized pre-hardened plastic die steel is gradually increased, and as the demand for such plastic products is increased, the large-sized automobile and home appliance pre-hardened plastic die steel tends to be large-sized and have high polishing performance (mirror finish). The thickness of the large-scale pre-hardening plastic die steel can reach 1300mm, the width is 1500mm, the length is 2000mm, and the single-block tonnage reaches 30 t. The common traditional 3Cr2MnNiMo pre-hardened plastic die steel is about 800mm in thickness, 32-36 HRC in pre-hardening hardness, larger in section size and higher in pre-hardening hardness, and the steel is insufficient in performances such as toughness, hardenability and tissue uniformity, so that the requirement of an oversize high-polishing-performance pre-hardened plastic die cannot be well met. Meanwhile, the users of the die pay more attention to the combined welding and repair welding performance of the die, and the welding performance of the traditional 3Cr2MnNiMo steel cannot well meet the requirements.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide high-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel and a preparation method thereof, and the pre-hardened plastic die steel is designed through Mn-Ni-Mo-V composite alloying and high-temperature precipitation strengthening. Through high-temperature precipitation strengthening, the reduction of the tempering hardness is delayed, and higher pre-hardening hardness is obtained. The high impact toughness is obtained through the alloying design of low C, Mn-Ni-Mo-V composite alloying, the element and tissue segregation is reduced, and further the better comprehensive performance is obtained, and the excellent welding performance is obtained. More excellent hardenability is obtained through Mn-Ni-Mo-V composite alloying. The invention provides a novel welded pre-hardening plastic die steel which is suitable for manufacturing extra-large section size and has excellent comprehensive properties such as high hardness, high toughness, hardenability, high polishing property, excellent machinability and the like.
The pre-hardened plastic die steel has the advantages of high hardness, high toughness, easy welding, high hardenability, excellent cutting processing performance and excellent comprehensive performance.
The invention designs the relatively low C content, so that the steel is easy to obtain high toughness, segregation caused by overhigh C content is avoided, large-particle carbide is avoided from being formed at the core part of the large-size steel ingot, the easy cutting processing of the steel is realized, and the easy welding of the steel is realized. The Mn-Ni-Mo-V composite alloying technical means is designed to generate a high-temperature precipitation strengthening effect, delay the reduction of the hardness generated by martensite recovery and obtain high pre-hardening hardness; the alloy element configuration is optimized to improve the impact toughness and improve the segregation of the crystalline structure; the quenching performance of the steel is enhanced. The easy-welding pre-hardening plastic die steel with excellent hardness, toughness, hardenability, uniformity and processability is obtained by combining the comprehensive effects.
The steel of the invention comprises the following chemical components in percentage by weight: c: 0.20 to 0.30%, Si: 0.20-0.50%, S: less than or equal to 0.030 percent, P: less than or equal to 0.030 percent, Mn: 1.0-2.0%, Ni: 1.5-3.0%, Mo: 0.5-1.5%, Cr: 1.5-2.5%, V: 0.1 to 1.0%, and the balance of Fe and inevitable impurities.
The functions and the proportion of the elements are as follows:
c: the pre-hardened plastic die steel is provided with solid solution strengthening elements, when the carbon content in the steel is lower, the structure of the steel at room temperature after quenching is fine lath martensite, the low-carbon lath martensite is strong and tough, the supersaturation degree of the martensite is increased along with the increase of the carbon content, the distortion degree is increased, the high-carbon martensite is generally in a needle sheet shape, and the hardness is higher. Higher carbon content will necessarily result in loss of impact toughness. Carbon is a key element affecting the welding performance, and the welding performance is worse as the carbon content is higher. In order to obtain higher impact toughness and better welding performance, the relatively low C content is designed to be 0.20-0.30%.
Si: the content of the deoxidant is controlled to be 0.20 to 0.50 percent.
Mn: in large-scale pre-hardening plastic die steel, manganese is an element for improving the hardenability of the steel, so that the center part can also achieve expected mechanical properties. The proper amount of manganese can also effectively improve the strength of the steel, eliminate the influence of sulfur and oxygen on the hot brittleness of the steel, improve the hot workability of the steel and improve the cold brittleness tendency of the steel. The invention adopts Mn-Mo-V alloying to generate composite action, enters cementite to play a role in stabilizing the cementite, so that the steel obtains excellent tempering softening resistance and further obtains high pre-hardening hardness. Therefore, the Mn content in the invention is controlled to be 1.0-2.0%.
Ni: nickel is an important element for increasing hardenability and in certain steels also improves toughness. The invention utilizes Mn-Ni-Mo-V composite alloying to generate composite action, refine carbide, increase hardenability and improve impact toughness and hardenability of steel. The Ni content in the steel is determined to be 1.5-3.0%.
Cr: chromium can replace iron atoms in cementite to form alloy cementite or form alloy carbide with C, and has the functions of carbide stabilization and tempering softening resistance. The main purpose of Cr in the invention is to improve the temper softening resistance, improve the hardenability and increase the strength of steel. However, the content of Cr must be strictly controlled, and too high Cr forms alloy carbide with C, and is very easy to generate segregation in a large module. Therefore, the content is controlled to be 1.5-2.5% by comprehensively considering the reasons.
Mo: molybdenum is a secondary hardening carbide forming element, and the secondary hardening effect is generated by the composite precipitation strengthening effect of Mo and V, so that the pre-hardening hardness of the steel is improved. The resistance of the steel to tempering softening is improved through Mn-Mo-V composite alloying. Entering into the alloy cementite to delay the growth of the alloy cementite and refine carbides, thereby improving the impact toughness. Molybdenum is also excellent in improving the pitting corrosion resistance of steel, and the addition of molybdenum improves the pitting corrosion resistance of steel. Molybdenum in turn reduces or inhibits temper embrittlement caused by other elements. The content of Mo is controlled to be 0.5-1.5%.
V: vanadium is also an important secondary hardening carbide forming element, and the invention generates secondary hardening effect through Mo and V composite precipitation strengthening action, thereby improving the pre-hardening hardness of steel. The resistance of the steel to tempering softening is improved through Mn-Mo-V composite alloying. Entering into the alloy cementite to delay the growth of the alloy cementite and refine carbides, thereby improving the impact toughness. Vanadium is also an effective element for hindering the growth of crystal grains, and the vanadium is utilized to refine austenite crystal grains and improve the impact toughness. However, when an excessive amount of V is added to steel, element segregation increases, and in the case of a serious case, VC primary carbides are formed. The content of V in the steel is controlled to be 0.1-1.0%.
P: phosphorus forms micro-segregation when molten steel is solidified, and then is segregated at grain boundaries when heated at an austenitizing temperature, so that the brittleness of steel is remarkably increased. The content of P is controlled to be 0.030% or less, and the lower the content, the better.
S: sulphur is an inevitable impurity, forming FeS, giving the strip hot brittleness. The S content is controlled to be less than 0.030%, and the lower the S content is, the better the S content is.
The invention adopts a preparation method similar to the prior art:
the steel can be smelted by an electric arc furnace or an induction furnace, the molten steel is cast into steel ingots, electroslag remelting can be carried out according to requirements, and the steel ingots are forged into materials or are rolled into rods, modules, flat steel and the like after cogging. And then the pre-hardening heat treatment is carried out through quenching and tempering heat, so as to meet the requirements of expected use hardness and service performance. The method comprises the following steps:
(1) smelting: smelting in a converter, an electric furnace, an induction furnace, external refining, electroslag remelting and other modes, casting into steel ingots, and performing slow cooling or heat preservation annealing treatment at 800-900 ℃ on the steel ingots;
(2) forging: fully heating the cast ingot, and slowly heating at the heating speed of 30-70 ℃/s, wherein the heating temperature is 1150-1200 ℃, the initial forging temperature is 1150-1180 ℃, and the final forging temperature is not lower than 850 ℃.
(3) Annealing: after forging, carrying out heat preservation treatment at 850-1000 ℃, slowly cooling to 650 +/-10 ℃ at a speed of 30 ℃/s, carrying out heat preservation, and discharging from the furnace when the furnace cooling is lower than 400 ℃;
(4) the pre-hardening heat treatment process comprises the following steps: carrying out solution treatment at 860-920 ℃, taking out of the furnace, cooling with water or oil to room temperature, and then carrying out tempering treatment at 540-650 ℃;
(5) through tempering at 550-570 ℃, the pre-hardening hardness is more than or equal to 41HRC, the impact toughness is more than or equal to 85J, and the tensile strength is more than or equal to 1350 MPa.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages of high hardness, high impact toughness, easy welding, high polishing performance, excellent cutting performance and other excellent comprehensive properties. Compared with the existing die steel, the die steel has higher strength and toughness, better quenching performance and better welding performance, is suitable for manufacturing super-huge pre-hardening modules, and can better meet the requirements of users.
Detailed Description
According to the designed chemical composition range of the invention, 4 furnaces of the steel of the invention were smelted on a 25kg vacuum induction furnace, and the specific chemical composition thereof is shown in table 1. Casting molten steel into ingots, and forging to obtainAnd (3) a bar material. After annealing, the steel is processed into a sample, and the sample is quenched and tempered (quenched at 860-950 ℃ and tempered at 460-600 ℃), wherein the room-temperature mechanical properties of the sample are shown in the table2~6。
The steel has better toughness on the premise of keeping high hardness.
1. After quenching at the same temperature and tempering at different temperatures, the invention steels 1#, 2#, 3# and 4# have higher tempering hardness than the comparison steel 5# at the temperature of over 540 ℃, the hardness of the comparison steel 5# is in a linear descending trend, and the tempering hardness of the invention steels 1#, 2#, 3# and 4# is in a rebound trend. (see tables 3 and 4)
2. After quenching at the same temperature and tempering at 500-640 ℃, the invention steels No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 have better impact toughness than the comparison steel No. 5, and can better meet the requirements of high hardness, pre-hardening and higher toughness. (see tables 5 and 6)
3. After quenching at the same temperature and tempering at 560-640 ℃, the invention steels No. 1, No. 2, No. 3 and No. 4 have better tensile strength than the comparison steel No. 5, and can better meet the requirement of high strength. (see Table 7)
Table 1 chemical composition, wt% of examples and comparative steels
TABLE 2 hardness values for different temperature quenches of the examples and the comparative steels
TABLE 3 hardness values of the examples and comparative steels tempered at different temperatures of 880 ℃ quenching
TABLE 4 hardness values of the examples and comparative steels at 920 ℃ solution temperatures
TABLE 5 impact toughness of the examples and comparative steels at solid solution at 880 ℃ for different tempers
TABLE 6 impact toughness of examples and comparative steels at 920 ℃ solution temperature tempering
TABLE 7 tensile strength of solid solution at 880 ℃ for tempering of examples and comparative steels
Description of the drawings:
(1) quenching is carried out in a box type resistance furnace, heat preservation is carried out for 30 minutes, and oil cooling is carried out.
(2) Tempering for 2 hours at different temperatures, and air cooling.

Claims (2)

1. The high-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel is characterized by comprising the following specific chemical components in percentage by weight: c: 0.28-0.30%, Si: 0.20-0.50%, S: less than or equal to 0.030 percent, P: less than or equal to 0.030 percent, Mn: 1.0-2.0%, Ni: 2.2-3.0%, Mo: 1.34-1.5%, Cr: 2.04-2.45%, V: 0.55 to 1.0 percent, and the balance of Fe and inevitable impurities;
the process steps and the controlled technical parameters of the die steel are as follows:
(1) smelting: smelting in a converter, an electric furnace, an induction furnace, external refining and electroslag remelting mode, casting into steel ingots, and performing slow cooling or annealing treatment at 800-900 ℃ on the steel ingots;
(2) fully heating the cast ingot, and slowly heating at the heating speed of 30-70 ℃/s, wherein the heating temperature is 1150-1200 ℃, the initial forging temperature is 1150-1180 ℃, and the final forging temperature is not lower than 850 ℃;
(3) annealing: after forging, carrying out heat preservation treatment at 850-1000 ℃, slowly cooling to 650 +/-10 ℃ at a speed of 30 ℃/s, carrying out heat preservation, and discharging from the furnace when the furnace cooling is lower than 400 ℃;
(4) the pre-hardening heat treatment process comprises the following steps: carrying out solution treatment at 860-920 ℃, taking out of the furnace, cooling with water or oil to room temperature, and then carrying out tempering treatment at 540-650 ℃;
(5) through tempering at 550-570 ℃, the pre-hardening hardness is more than or equal to 41HRC, the impact toughness is more than or equal to 85J, and the tensile strength is more than or equal to 1350 MPa.
2. The manufacturing method of the high-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the technical parameters of the process steps and control are as follows:
(1) smelting: smelting in a converter, an electric furnace, an induction furnace, external refining and electroslag remelting mode, casting into steel ingots, and performing slow cooling or annealing treatment at 800-900 ℃ on the steel ingots;
(2) fully heating the cast ingot, and slowly heating at the heating speed of 30-70 ℃/s, wherein the heating temperature is 1150-1200 ℃, the initial forging temperature is 1150-1180 ℃, and the final forging temperature is not lower than 850 ℃;
(3) annealing: after forging, carrying out heat preservation treatment at 850-1000 ℃, slowly cooling to 650 +/-10 ℃ at a speed of 30 ℃/s, carrying out heat preservation, and discharging from the furnace when the furnace cooling is lower than 400 ℃;
(4) the pre-hardening heat treatment process comprises the following steps: carrying out solution treatment at 860-920 ℃, taking out of the furnace, cooling with water or oil to room temperature, and then carrying out tempering treatment at 540-650 ℃;
(5) through tempering at 550-570 ℃, the pre-hardening hardness is more than or equal to 41HRC, the impact toughness is more than or equal to 85J, and the tensile strength is more than or equal to 1350 MPa.
CN201811401996.1A 2018-11-22 2018-11-22 High-hardness high-toughness easy-welding pre-hardened plastic die steel and preparation method thereof Active CN109182669B (en)

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CN109706397B (en) * 2019-01-18 2020-09-29 东北大学 Pre-hardened plastic die steel and preparation method thereof
CN111850399B (en) * 2020-07-07 2021-09-14 鞍钢股份有限公司 Corrosion-resistant plastic die steel with good wear resistance and preparation method thereof
CN111809115B (en) * 2020-07-07 2021-09-14 鞍钢股份有限公司 Super-thick plastic die steel with excellent impact corrosion wear resistance and preparation method thereof

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JP2003003234A (en) * 2001-06-19 2003-01-08 Daido Steel Co Ltd Free-cutting steel for plastic molding die having excellent machinability

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CN104046915B (en) * 2014-04-28 2016-05-11 如皋市宏茂重型锻压有限公司 High performance hot-work die steel and preparation technology thereof for the die casting of heavy in section
CN104532154B (en) * 2014-04-28 2016-08-24 如皋市宏茂重型锻压有限公司 High rigidity height polishing pre-hardening plastic mould steel and preparation technology thereof
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