CN109142027B - Visual test method for coal seam outburst caused by face excavation - Google Patents

Visual test method for coal seam outburst caused by face excavation Download PDF

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CN109142027B
CN109142027B CN201810949906.6A CN201810949906A CN109142027B CN 109142027 B CN109142027 B CN 109142027B CN 201810949906 A CN201810949906 A CN 201810949906A CN 109142027 B CN109142027 B CN 109142027B
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coal
test piece
plate
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CN109142027A (en
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刘义鑫
孙路路
王刚
刘震
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Shandong University of Science and Technology
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Shandong University of Science and Technology
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/08Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces
    • G01N3/10Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying steady tensile or compressive forces generated by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
    • G01N3/12Pressure testing

Abstract

The invention discloses a visual test method for coal bed outburst caused by face excavation, which comprises the following steps: the manufacturing test device comprises a concave-shaped sealed cavity and a transparent box, wherein a notch part of the sealed cavity forms a test piece placing cavity, a front pressing plate is provided with a front pressing rod, the left side, the right side and the rear side of the test piece placing cavity are provided with side pressing plates, the head ends of the side pressing plates are provided with air holes, the side pressing plates are provided with side pressing rods, an upper pressing plate is arranged above an upper backing plate in a front-back adjacent mode, the upper pressing plates are provided with upper pressing rods, the end of each upper pressing rod adopts a structure that a spherical ball is arranged between two clamping plates, the side wall of the sealed cavity is provided with a fluid inlet hole, and the side wall of; preparing coal powder; preparing a briquette test piece; mounting a briquette test piece; applying a triaxial stress; applying gas pressure; carrying out a test; other tests in the same group, changing the applied triaxial stress, or changing the gas pressure; and (6) collating the test data. The real-time visual triaxial real simulation test of coal and gas outburst can be realized.

Description

Visual test method for coal seam outburst caused by face excavation
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of coal mine safety, and particularly relates to a visual test method for coal bed outburst caused by face tunneling.
Background
Coal is the main body of energy in China, and it is clearly indicated in the outline of long-term development planning in energy (2004-2020), that "China adheres to an energy strategy of overall development of oil gas and new energy with coal as the main body and electric power as the center". Obviously, the coal industry is the basic industry of China, whether the coal industry can be healthily, stably and continuously developed or not is related to national energy safety. In the primary energy consumption structure of China, coal accounts for about 67%, and is expected to account for more than 50% in 2050, so that the coal is always the dominant main energy of China for a long period of time.
However, the mining disaster accidents such as rock burst, gas, flood and fire, which accompany coal mining, not only cause great loss of people's lives and properties and environmental disasters, but also restrict the development of coal industrial production and the sustainable development of the whole national economy and society. The gas disaster accident is the most prominent in mining disaster accidents, and is a major problem to be solved urgently in the development of mining industry in China.
Coal and gas outburst is an extremely complex dynamic disaster phenomenon, and is a strong dynamic process that coal rock containing gas under a coal mine rapidly moves from a coal rock layer to a working face in a crushed shape and is accompanied with the ejection of a large amount of gas. The coal and gas outburst is actually the result of the coupling effect of the coal bed stress and the gas pressure in the tunneling process of the working face. Therefore, a dynamic test of disturbing a coal bed in the working face tunneling process under the coupling action of stress and gas pressure is developed, the real-time visualization of the coal and gas outburst can be realized through the transparent material, and theoretical support and engineering guidance can be provided for risk identification of the coal and gas outburst.
At present, scholars at home and abroad make more researches on the outburst of coal and gas and research and develop various test devices at the same time. However, an effective test device and method are still lacked to simulate coal and gas outburst caused by dynamic disturbance of the working face tunneling under the true triaxial stress state, so that the influence of various parameters on the coal and gas outburst in the working face tunneling process under the true triaxial stress state is researched.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a visual test method for coal bed outburst caused by face excavation, which is used for researching the influence of various parameters on coal and gas outburst in the face excavation process under a true triaxial stress state.
Therefore, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a visual test method for coal seam outburst caused by face tunneling comprises the following steps:
step one, manufacturing a test device;
the test device comprises a concave-shaped seal cavity, a notch of the seal cavity faces the front, a transparent box which is equal in height and width to the notch is arranged in front of the seal cavity, the rear part and the top of the transparent box are both open and just connected with the notch, the transparent box and the seal cavity share the same bottom plate, and a plurality of front pressure plates made of transparent materials are arranged between the notch of the seal cavity and the transparent box in a left-right close manner, so that the notch of the seal cavity forms a test piece placing cavity;
each front pressure plate is provided with a front pressure rod, the front pressure rods penetrate through the transparent box from front to back to be connected with the corresponding front pressure plate, the front pressure rods corresponding to the front pressure plates are independently controlled, and the tunneling speed of the working face is simulated through sequential unloading; the left side, the right side and the rear side of the test piece placing cavity are respectively provided with a side pressing plate, the head end of each side pressing plate is inserted into the corresponding side wall of the sealed cavity, the head end of each side pressing plate is provided with an air hole for communicating the test piece placing cavity with the sealed cavity, each side pressing plate is respectively provided with a side pressing rod, and the side pressing rods penetrate through the sealed cavity from outside to inside and are connected with the tail ends of the side pressing plates; the upper edge of the inner wall of the test piece placing cavity and the transparent box share the same upper base plate, a plurality of upper pressure plates are arranged above the upper base plate in a front-back adjacent mode, each upper pressure plate is provided with an upper pressure rod, the end of each upper pressure rod adopts a structure that a spherical ball is arranged between two clamping plates, the upper pressure rods corresponding to the upper pressure plates are independently controlled, and different loads are applied to reflect the uneven deformation of the coal seam roof under the non-uniform load;
the side wall of the sealed cavity is provided with a fluid inlet hole, and the side wall of the transparent box is provided with a fluid outlet hole;
step two, preparing coal powder, crushing and grinding raw coal to a required particle size range, screening the ground coal powder through a vibrating screen, and drying for later use;
step three, preparing a briquette test piece, mixing coal powder according to the particle size ratio, adding a coal powder binder in proportion, stirring uniformly, and filling the coal powder into a mold to press the coal powder into a square briquette test piece;
step four, mounting a molded coal test piece, and placing the pressed molded coal test piece into a test piece placing cavity of the test device;
applying triaxial stress, and applying stress to the side pressure rods, the front pressure rod and the upper pressure rod at the left, right and rear parts of the test device to make the briquette test piece be subjected to triaxial constraint;
step six, applying gas pressure, injecting gas into the test device through the fluid inlet hole, and enabling the gas to enter the molded coal test piece through the air holes in the left side pressure plate, the right side pressure plate and the rear side pressure plate, so that a certain gas pressure is formed in the molded coal test piece, and the next step is performed after the gas injection pressure is kept unchanged;
step seven, performing a test, namely sequentially withdrawing the front pressing plate from left to right or from right to left in the direction away from the molded coal test piece according to the set stress or displacement change rate, obtaining coal seam deformation data by recording the displacement of the left side pressing plate, the right side pressing plate, the rear side pressing plate and the upper pressing plate at different positions, simultaneously recording the gas flow change of the fluid outlet, and observing whether coal and gas outburst occurs or not from the front of the experimental device;
step eight, other tests in the same group change the magnitude of the applied triaxial stress or change the gas pressure, and the steps four to seven are repeated;
and step nine, collating the test data.
Preferably, in the first step, the front pressing plate and the transparent box are both made of a transparent material, namely a pamm polycarbonate plate, with ultrahigh strength and toughness, and the strength and toughness are better.
Preferably, in the first step, the two fluid inlet holes are symmetrically arranged on the rear side wall of the sealed cavity; the fluid outlet holes are arranged on the left side wall or the right side wall of the transparent box; accordingly, in step six, gas is simultaneously injected into the test device through the two fluid inlets. The mode that the fluid is symmetrically fed into the rear side wall of the sealed cavity body from left to right is adopted, so that the pressure of the fluid injected into the sealed cavity body is fast and stable, the fluid uniformly enters the test piece placing cavity through the air holes in the side pressure plates in three directions, the test preparation time is saved, and the test efficiency is improved.
More preferably, in the third step, the briquette test piece is a square block with the thickness of 600mm × 600mm × 100mm, and correspondingly, in the first step, the test piece placing cavity is also a square cavity with the thickness of 600mm × 600mm × 100 mm.
More preferably, in the second step, the raw coal is crushed and ground and then dried at 105-110 ℃ for 22-26 hours.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: the stress applied to each pressing plate can truly simulate the triaxial original rock stress state of a coal bed, the gas pressure can be simulated by applying a gas source, the progressive unloading of the front pressing plate simulates the tunneling process of a working face, the unloading speed can simulate the tunneling speed of the working face, the deformation of a briquette test piece can be obtained by obtaining the displacement variation of each pressing rod, and the real-time visualization of coal and gas outburst can be realized through a transparent material. The invention utilizes the test device capable of applying true triaxial stress and optimizes the test steps, thereby carrying out mining disturbance test on the molded coal test piece, providing a visual test method for coal bed outburst caused by face excavation, and providing theoretical support and engineering guidance for safety production of coal mines.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a top view of the test apparatus.
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional view a-a of fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view taken along line B-B of fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged view of the end of the upper platen.
The figures are labeled as follows: the device comprises a seal cavity 1, a transparent box 2, a front pressure plate 3, a front pressure rod 4, a bottom plate 5, a test piece placing cavity 6, a side pressure plate 7, a side pressure rod 8, an upper backing plate 9, an upper pressure plate 10, an upper pressure rod 11, a fluid inlet hole 12, a fluid outlet hole 13, a first seal ring 14a, a second seal ring 14b, a third seal ring 14c, a fourth seal gasket 14d, a cover plate 15, a bolt 16 and a molded coal test piece 17.
Detailed Description
The invention will be further illustrated by the following examples in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
a visual test method for coal seam outburst caused by face tunneling comprises the following steps:
step one, manufacturing a testing device.
Referring to fig. 1-3, the testing device mainly comprises a sealed cavity 1, a transparent box 2, a front pressure plate 3, a front pressure rod 4, a side pressure plate 7, a side pressure rod 8, an upper backing plate 9, an upper pressure plate 10 and an upper pressure rod 11.
The whole sealing cavity 1 is concave, and the notch of the sealing cavity 1 faces the front.
A transparent box 2 with the same height and width as the notch part is arranged in front of the sealed cavity 1. The transparent box 2 is open at the back and the top and is just connected with the notch part. The transparent box 2 and the sealed cavity 1 share the same bottom plate 5, namely the transparent box 2 is only provided with a left side wall, a right side wall and a front side wall. A plurality of front pressing plates 3 made of transparent materials are arranged between the notch part of the seal cavity 1 and the transparent box 2 in a left-right close manner, so that the notch part of the seal cavity 1 forms a test piece placing cavity 6, and the test piece placing cavity 6 is used for placing a briquette test piece 17.
Each front pressing plate 3 is provided with a front pressing rod 4, the front pressing rods 4 penetrate through the transparent box 2 from front to back to be connected with the corresponding front pressing plate 3, the front pressing rods 4 corresponding to the front pressing plates 3 are independently controlled, and the tunneling speed of the working face is simulated through sequential unloading. The front pressing plate 3 and the transparent box 2 are both made of transparent materials, and a tester can observe the crack propagation condition of the surface of the test piece in the test process. The transparent material is especially high strength and toughness transparent polycarbonate plate, and has excellent performance.
The left side, the right side and the rear side of the test piece placing cavity 6 are respectively provided with a side pressing plate 7, the head end of the side pressing plate 7 is inserted into the corresponding side wall of the sealed cavity 1, and the head end of the side pressing plate 7 is provided with an air hole 7a for communicating the test piece placing cavity 6 and the sealed cavity 1. Each side pressure plate 7 is provided with a side pressure rod 8, and the side pressure rods 8 penetrate through the sealed cavity 1 from outside to inside to be connected with the tail ends of the side pressure plates 7. Preferably, the side pressure plate 7 adopts a structure that a vertical parting strip is arranged in a rectangular outer frame, and the vertical parting strip is just staggered with the vent hole 7a, so that fluid in the sealed cavity 1 can enter the test piece placing cavity 6 through the vent hole 7 a.
The upper edges of the inner walls of the test piece placing cavity 6 and the transparent box 2 share the same upper backing plate 9, and a plurality of upper pressure plates 10 are arranged above the upper backing plate 9 in a front-back close mode. Each upper pressure plate 10 is equipped with an upper pressure rod 11, the end of the upper pressure rod 11 adopts a structure (shown in fig. 4) that a spherical ball 11b is installed between two clamping plates 11a, and the upper pressure rod 11 corresponding to each upper pressure plate 10 is independently controlled and reflects the uneven deformation of the coal seam roof under the uneven load by applying different loads. Because the upper pressure plate 10 is arranged by a plurality of blocks, the upper base plate 9 is additionally arranged, the sealing performance of the test piece placing cavity 6 is ensured, and a coal seam roof and a goaf are simulated.
A fluid inlet hole 12 is formed in the side wall of the sealed cavity 1, and fluid is introduced into the sealed cavity 1 through the fluid inlet hole 12; the side wall of the transparent box 2 is provided with a fluid outlet 13, and fluid is discharged through the fluid outlet 13 in the test process. Preferably, the two fluid inlet holes 12 are symmetrically arranged on the rear side wall of the sealed cavity 1; the fluid outlet holes 13 are all arranged on the left side wall or the right side wall of the transparent box 2.
Further, the specimen-placing chamber 6 is preferably a square chamber having the same length and width.
The bottom plate 5 and the cover plate 15 are fixed to the side wall of the sealed cavity 1 by bolts 16. In order to ensure the sealing performance of the test device, a first sealing ring 14a is arranged between the bottom plate 5 and the sealing cavity 1 and between the bottom plate and the test piece placing cavity 6; second sealing rings 14b are arranged between the sealing cavity 1 and the side pressure rod 8 and between the sealing cavity 1 and the side pressure plate 7; a third sealing ring 14c is arranged between the sealing cavity 1 and the cover plate 15; a fourth gasket 14d is disposed between the seal cavity 1 and the upper mat 9.
Preferably, the front pressure lever 4 is in threaded connection with the front pressure plate 3, and the side pressure lever 8 is in threaded connection with the side pressure plate 7, or other fixed connection modes can be adopted.
Preferably, the number of the upper pressing plates 10 is seven, and the upper pressing rod 11 corresponding to each upper pressing plate 10 is controlled by a respective independent control part to reflect the uneven deformation of the coal seam roof; the number of the front pressing plates 3 is six, the front pressing rods 4 corresponding to the front pressing plates 3 are respectively controlled by respective independent control parts, and the tunneling speed of the working face is simulated through sequential unloading.
The test device has the characteristics that:
1. true triaxial stress can be applied from the front and back, the left and right sides and the upper side, the end of the upper pressure plate adopts a structure that a spherical ball is arranged between two clamping plates, and non-uniform load can be applied, so that non-uniform deformation of the top plate is truly simulated.
2. The front pressure plate adopts a structure of combining a plurality of blocks, and the tunneling process of the working face is simulated by gradual unloading; the upper pressure plate adopts a plurality of combined and optimized end head structures of the upper pressure rod, the upper pressure plate is respectively and independently controlled to simulate the loading of non-uniform load of the coal seam roof, and the upper base plate simulates the coal seam roof and a goaf; compared with a manual tunneling mode, the method simulates the actual working condition more truly, and therefore the test precision is improved.
3. The pressure plates on the rear side, the left side and the right side of the test piece are provided with air holes, the test piece can be inflated through the fluid inlet holes to reach certain gas pressure, and the bottom, the front and the upper part of the test piece are provided with no gas source supply holes, so that the actual working condition can be reflected more truly, and the test precision is improved.
4. The test device adopts a sealing structure, and can apply related gas pressure, so that the real working condition is reflected.
And step two, preparing coal powder, crushing and grinding raw coal to a required particle size range, screening the ground coal powder through a vibrating screen, and drying for later use. Preferably, the raw coal is crushed, ground and dried at 105-110 ℃ for 22-26 hours.
And step three, preparing a briquette test piece, namely mixing the coal powder according to the particle size ratio, adding the coal powder binder in proportion, uniformly stirring, and filling the coal powder into a mold to press the coal powder into a square briquette test piece.
Preferably, the briquette coal test piece is a square block with the thickness of 600mm × 600mm, 600mm × 100mm and 100mm, and correspondingly, in the step one, the test piece placing cavity 6 is also a square cavity with the thickness of 600mm × 600mm, 600mm and × 100 mm.
And step four, mounting the molded coal test piece, and placing the pressed molded coal test piece into the test piece placing cavity 6 of the test device.
And fifthly, applying triaxial stress to apply stress to the left, right and rear side compression bars 8, the front compression bar 4 and the upper compression bar 11 of the test device, so that the molded coal test piece is subjected to triaxial constraint.
And sixthly, applying gas pressure, injecting gas into the test device through the fluid inlet holes 12, and enabling the gas to enter the molded coal test piece through the air holes 7a in the left side pressure plate, the right side pressure plate and the rear side pressure plate 7, so that a certain gas pressure is formed in the molded coal test piece, and the molded coal test piece enters the next step after the gas injection pressure is kept unchanged. When there are two fluid inlet holes 12, gas is simultaneously injected into the test device through the two fluid inlet holes 12.
And seventhly, performing a test, namely sequentially withdrawing the front pressing plate 3 from left to right or from right to left in the direction away from the briquette test piece according to the set stress or displacement change rate, obtaining coal seam deformation data by recording the displacement of the left side pressing plate 7, the right side pressing plate 7, the rear side pressing plate 10 and the displacement of the upper pressing plate 10 at different positions, simultaneously recording the gas flow change of the fluid outlet 13, and observing whether coal and gas outburst occurs or not from the front of the experimental device.
Step eight, changing the applied triaxial stress or changing the gas pressure in other tests in the same group, and repeating the steps from the fourth step to the seventh step.
For example, coal powder with different particle sizes is prepared by mixing coal powder with a particle size of less than 40 meshes: 40-60 mesh: 60-80 meshes: 80-100 meshes: mixing the materials in a mass ratio of more than 100 meshes to 1:1:1:1, adding 5% of milk white glue as a bonding agent, pressing the mixture into a briquette test piece, and performing repeated tests according to the following table:
repeated tests are carried out according to the table, and the relation between the vertical stress (stress applied by the upper pressure rod) and the coal and gas outburst in the triaxial stress can be researched. Similarly, the relationship between the stress of other compression bars, the gas pressure and the like and the coal and gas outburst can be researched and changed.
And step nine, collating the test data.

Claims (5)

1. A visual test method for coal seam outburst caused by face tunneling is characterized by comprising the following steps:
step one, manufacturing a test device;
the test device comprises a concave-shaped seal cavity (1), a notch of the seal cavity (1) faces the front, a transparent box (2) which is equal in height and width to the notch is arranged in front of the seal cavity (1), the rear part and the top part of the transparent box (2) are both open and just connected with the notch, the transparent box (2) and the seal cavity (1) share the same bottom plate (5), and a plurality of front pressure plates (3) made of transparent materials are arranged between the notch of the seal cavity (1) and the transparent box (2) in a left-right close manner, so that the notch of the seal cavity (1) forms a test piece placing cavity (6);
each front pressure plate (3) is provided with a front pressure rod (4), the front pressure rods (4) penetrate through the transparent box (2) from front to back to be connected with the corresponding front pressure plate (3), the front pressure rods (4) corresponding to each front pressure plate (3) are independently controlled, and the tunneling speed of a working face is simulated through sequential unloading; the left side, the right side and the rear side of the test piece placing cavity (6) are respectively provided with a side pressing plate (7), the head end of each side pressing plate (7) is inserted into the corresponding side wall of the sealed cavity (1), the head end is provided with an air hole (7a) for communicating the test piece placing cavity (6) with the sealed cavity (1), each side pressing plate (7) is respectively provided with a side pressing rod (8), and each side pressing rod (8) penetrates through the sealed cavity (1) from outside to inside to be connected with the tail end of each side pressing plate (7); the test piece placing cavity (6) and the upper edge of the inner wall of the transparent box (2) share the same upper base plate (9), a plurality of upper pressure plates (10) are arranged above the upper base plate (9) in a front-back adjacent mode, each upper pressure plate (10) is provided with an upper pressure rod (11), the end of each upper pressure rod (11) adopts a structure that a spherical ball (11b) is arranged between two clamping plates (11a), the upper pressure rods (11) corresponding to the upper pressure plates (10) are independently controlled, and different loads are applied to reflect the uneven deformation of the coal seam roof under the non-uniform load;
a fluid inlet hole (12) is formed in the side wall of the sealed cavity (1), and a fluid outlet hole (13) is formed in the side wall of the transparent box (2);
step two, preparing coal powder, crushing and grinding raw coal to a required particle size range, screening the ground coal powder through a vibrating screen, and drying for later use;
step three, preparing a briquette test piece, mixing coal powder according to the particle size ratio, adding a coal powder binder in proportion, stirring uniformly, and filling the coal powder into a mold to press the coal powder into a square briquette test piece;
step four, mounting a molded coal test piece, and placing the pressed molded coal test piece into a test piece placing cavity (6) of the test device;
applying triaxial stress, and applying stress to the left, right and rear side pressure rods (8), the front pressure rod (4) and the upper pressure rod (11) of the test device to make the briquette test piece be subjected to triaxial constraint;
step six, applying gas pressure, injecting gas into the test device through the fluid inlet holes (12), and enabling the gas to enter the molded coal test piece through the air holes (7a) on the left side pressure plate, the right side pressure plate and the rear side pressure plate (7), so that a certain gas pressure is formed in the molded coal test piece, and the molded coal test piece enters the next step after the gas injection pressure is kept unchanged;
seventhly, performing a test, namely sequentially withdrawing the front pressing plate (3) from left to right or from right to left in the direction away from the briquette test piece according to the set stress or displacement change rate, obtaining coal seam deformation data by recording the displacement of the left side pressing plate, the right side pressing plate, the rear side pressing plate (7) and the upper pressing plate (10) at different positions, simultaneously recording the gas flow change of the fluid outlet hole (13), and observing whether coal and gas outburst occurs or not from the front of the experimental device;
step eight, other tests in the same group change the magnitude of the applied triaxial stress or change the gas pressure, and the steps four to seven are repeated;
and step nine, collating the test data.
2. The working face coal seam outburst tunneling visualization test method according to claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: in the first step, the front pressing plate (3) and the transparent box (2) are both made of a transparent material, namely a Pamm polycarbonate plate, with ultrahigh strength and toughness.
3. The working face coal seam outburst tunneling visualization test method as claimed in claim 1 or 2, wherein: in the first step, the two fluid inlet holes (12) are arranged on the rear side wall of the sealed cavity (1) in a bilateral symmetry manner; the fluid outlet holes (13) are arranged on the left side wall or the right side wall of the transparent box (2) in a sharing mode; correspondingly, in step six, gas is injected into the test device simultaneously through two fluid inlet holes (12).
4. The coal seam outburst visualization test method for face excavation according to claim 3, wherein in the third step, the briquette test piece is a square block with the thickness of 600mm × 600mm × 100mm, and correspondingly, in the first step, the test piece placing cavity (6) is also a square cavity with the thickness of 600mm × 600mm × 100 mm.
5. The working face coal seam outburst tunneling visualization test method according to claim 1, characterized by comprising the following steps: in the second step, the raw coal is dried for 22-26 hours at 105-110 ℃ after being crushed and ground.
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CN110308047B (en) * 2019-07-02 2020-09-15 中国矿业大学 Outburst coal seam stress unloading outburst prevention measure and unloading range optimization method
CN110847913B (en) * 2019-11-15 2021-10-08 辽宁工程技术大学 Method for judging optimal tunneling speed of roadway with outburst dangerous coal seam

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