CN109062115B - Rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control - Google Patents

Rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control Download PDF

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CN109062115B
CN109062115B CN201811054299.3A CN201811054299A CN109062115B CN 109062115 B CN109062115 B CN 109062115B CN 201811054299 A CN201811054299 A CN 201811054299A CN 109062115 B CN109062115 B CN 109062115B
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control
rolling ball
mcu
square plate
camera
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CN109062115A (en
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王路露
陈英
熊跃军
谢明华
周远
杨丞
鲍肖肖
刘蒙瑞
蒋国保
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Changsha University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B11/00Automatic controllers
    • G05B11/01Automatic controllers electric
    • G05B11/36Automatic controllers electric with provision for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential
    • G05B11/42Automatic controllers electric with provision for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential for obtaining a characteristic which is both proportional and time-dependent, e.g. P.I., P.I.D.
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B19/00Programme-control systems
    • G05B19/02Programme-control systems electric
    • G05B19/04Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers
    • G05B19/042Programme control other than numerical control, i.e. in sequence controllers or logic controllers using digital processors
    • G05B19/0421Multiprocessor system
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05DSYSTEMS FOR CONTROLLING OR REGULATING NON-ELECTRIC VARIABLES
    • G05D27/00Simultaneous control of variables covered by two or more of the preceding main groups
    • G05D27/02Simultaneous control of variables covered by two or more of the preceding main groups characterised by the use of electric means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/22Pc multi processor system
    • G05B2219/2214Multicontrollers, multimicrocomputers, multiprocessing
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B2219/00Program-control systems
    • G05B2219/20Pc systems
    • G05B2219/26Pc applications
    • G05B2219/2651Camera, photo

Abstract

The invention discloses a rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control.A control system realizes the control of fixed point and track movement of a rolling ball on a square plate through double closed loops based on a position loop and a speed loop; the position ring takes the position information of the rolling ball on the square plate detected by the camera as a feedback signal; the feedback signal of the speed loop comes from the processing of the position information; the actuating mechanism of the control system is 2 electric push rods for controlling the posture of the square plate; the 2 electric push rods are driven by 2 independent motors; the square plate is supported by a universal joint and the 2 electric push rods; the camera is fixed right above the square plate; the control system is based on the MCU; the camera is connected with the MCU; the motor is controlled by the MCU. The camera adopts an openmv module type camera which can directly output the coordinates of the target position. The rolling ball control method based on the double closed-loop control is easy to implement and high in control precision.

Description

Rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control
Technical Field
The invention relates to a rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control.
Background
At the end of the 80 s of the twentieth century, the ball system began to become popular at home and abroad as an experimental setup for testing and studying control algorithms. In the initial simulation stage, in 1989, foreign researchers first applied an approximate linear model to realize the control of a rolling ball system. In China, Zhang Yao professor of the Qinghua university automatic system and the like realize the mathematical modeling of the rolling ball system and specifically prompt three control schemes of the rolling ball system: 1) T-S fuzzy control; 2) hierarchical fuzzy adaptive control; 3) and (5) three-layer hierarchical fuzzy control. In the research of the actual device, in 2004, Phillip research team of professor Maryland university of America developed a rolling ball system experiment platform based on visual feedback, and studied the positioning control algorithm of the rolling ball. A fuzzy control method is designed for the university of Qinghua to carry out controller design on the system, and the stabilization control of the rolling ball on the flat plate is realized. The national teaching equipment manufacturer Shenzhen Yuanxing and science and technology Limited and Shengao science and technology Limited also begin to manufacture and sell rolling ball system laboratory teaching devices.
The rolling ball system is used as a multivariable and nonlinear mechanical platform, which is an extension of a ball bar system, and the main problems of research comprise: 1) dynamic modeling of the system; 2) digital image processing of the sensor; 3) fixed point and track control of the rolling ball; 4) and (4) planning roads under the complex path. In the rolling ball system, the rolling ball is not provided with any sensor, the rolling ball completely depends on the inclination of a flat plate to move, and the system has visual feedback mechanisms, hysteresis of a driving mechanism and a transmission mechanism, friction nonlinear interference and other factors. These all place high demands on the system control. The system is typical in dynamics, visual servoing and modern control theory, and represents a strongly coupled multivariable nonlinear uncertain system in practical engineering. The method can be used as a standard control platform for checking a control algorithm and a research platform for the field of uncertain systems.
Therefore, it is necessary to design a new ball control method based on the double closed-loop control.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control, which is easy to control and has high control precision.
The technical solution of the invention is as follows:
a rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control is characterized in that a control system controls the fixed point and the track motion of a rolling ball on a square plate through double closed loops based on a position loop and a speed loop;
the position ring takes the position information of the rolling ball on the square plate detected by the camera as a feedback signal;
the feedback signal of the velocity loop comes from the processing of the position information (the displacement of 2 points in unit time is divided by the time pole velocity, i.e. v is △ s/△ t);
the actuating mechanism of the control system is 2 electric push rods for controlling the posture of the square plate; the 2 electric push rods are driven by 2 independent motors;
the square plate is supported by a universal joint and the 2 electric push rods;
the camera is fixed right above the square plate;
the control system is based on the MCU;
the camera is connected with the MCU; the motor is controlled by the MCU.
The camera adopts an openmv module type camera which can directly output the coordinates of the target position.
And a flat attitude detection sensor connected with the MCU is arranged on the square plate, the flat attitude detection sensor adopts an MPU-6050 device, and the MPU-6050 device is an integrated 6-axis motion processing component.
MCU links to each other with the display screen, and the display screen is used for showing the state data of square plate and the motion data of spin, and the state data of square plate includes the inclination of square plate, and the motion data of spin includes the position coordinate and the rate of movement of spin.
The MCU is an STM32F407VGT6 main control module.
The motor is a stepping motor, and a driving circuit of the motor is an H-bridge driving circuit based on P, N complementary MOS tubes. The H-bridge module realizes the forward and reverse rotation, braking and speed regulation control of the motor in a mode of combining a gate circuit and an MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) tube.
2 methods are adopted to fuse position data so as to improve the precision of rolling ball position detection; the square plate is provided with the resistance type touch screen connected with the MCU, the point of the resistance type touch screen pressed by the ball is a touch point, the position coordinate of the touch point is output to the MCU by the resistance screen, the position coordinate is fused with the position coordinate obtained based on the image, and the position detection precision can be effectively improved.
And the position ring and the speed ring adopt PID controllers.
The PID parameters of the position outer loop are: p3000, I100, D3100;
the value of the optimal servo loop scaling parameter P is 4500. The inner ring of speed parameter is P3000, I0, D5000.
A rolling ball control system based on camera position detection corresponding to a rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control comprises a base, an electric push rod, a universal joint, a flat plate and a camera; the flat plate is a square flat plate; a flat posture detection sensor is arranged on the flat plate; the flat plate is used as a support platform of the rolling ball;
the number of the electric push rods is 2, and the 2 electric push rods and the universal joint are arranged on the base in a triangular mode to support the flat plate; the 2 electric push rods are driven by 2 independent motors;
the base is provided with a supporting rod in a ruler shape (also called 7 shape, inverted L shape or Г shape) for fixing the camera, the camera is fixed at the upper end part of the supporting rod and is positioned right above the geometric center of the flat plate, and the camera is used for acquiring position data (such as images or position coordinates directly output) on the square plate of the ball;
the rolling ball control system also comprises an MCU, and the push rod motor is controlled by the MCU; the flat posture detection sensor and the camera are both connected with the MCU; and the MCU determines the position and the movement speed of the rolling ball based on the position data.
The MCU is also connected with a display screen and input equipment; the input device is a key or a touch screen, and the display screen and the input device are used as MMI devices, namely man-machine interface devices.
The flat attitude detection sensor adopts an MPU-6050 device, and the MPU-6050 device is an integrated 6-axis motion processing component.
The motor is a stepping motor, and a driving circuit of the motor is an H-bridge driving circuit based on P, N complementary MOS tubes. The H-bridge module realizes the forward and reverse rotation, braking and speed regulation control of the motor in a mode of combining a gate circuit and an MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) tube.
The H-bridge driving circuit comprises 4 NAND gates U5A-U5D and 4 MOS transistors Q1-Q4; wherein Q1 and Q2 are P-MOS tubes, and Q3 and Q4 are N-MOS tubes;
the upper half bridge of the H bridge is a PMOS tube, and the lower half bridge is an NMOS tube.
Because the P-channel power MOS transistor is not generally used in the lower bridge arm as a driving motor, the H-bridge generally has two schemes: the first scheme is that 2P-channel power MOS tubes and 2N-channel power MOS tubes are used for an upper bridge arm and a lower bridge arm respectively, and the other scheme is that 2N-channel power MOS tubes are used for the upper bridge arm and the lower bridge arm respectively.
4 MOS pipes Q1-Q4 form an H bridge: s poles of the Q1 and the Q2 are both connected with a positive end VDD of the direct current power supply; d poles of Q1 and Q2 are connected with D poles of Q3 and Q4 respectively; s poles of Q3 and Q4 are both grounded; d poles of Q1 and Q2 are respectively connected with 2 driving ends of the stepping motor;
the H bridge driving circuit has 2 driving signals, namely PWM5 and PWM7 from the MCU, namely the 2 control signals come from 2 IO ports of the MCU;
the PWM5 is connected with the G pole of the Q1 through a NAND gate U5A and a NAND gate U5B which are connected in series; the G pole of Q1 is short-circuited with the G pole of Q2;
the PWM7 is connected with the G pole of the Q3 through a NAND gate U5C and a NAND gate U5D which are connected in series; the G pole of Q3 is short-circuited with the G pole of Q4;
each nand gate has 2 inputs shorted together.
PWM5 and PWM7 are connected to VDD via pull-up resistors R18 and R19, respectively.
The NAND gate adopts a CD4011 device;
MOS tubes Q1 and Q2 adopt IRF4905 devices; and the P-type channel MOS tube is a PMOS tube.
The MOS transistors Q3 and Q4 adopt IRF3205 devices.
The square plate is provided with the resistance type touch screen connected with the MCU, the point of the resistance type touch screen pressed by the ball is a touch point, the position coordinate of the touch point is output to the MCU by the resistance screen, the position coordinate is fused with the position coordinate obtained based on the image, and the position detection precision can be effectively improved.
The camera is an openmv module type camera, and the camera can directly output the position coordinates of the rolling balls to the MCU.
The MCU is an STM32F407VGT6 main control module.
The square plate is a square plate, the side length of the square plate is 65cm, and the diameter of the rolling ball is 1-2.5 cm.
A double closed-loop control system is adopted, wherein the outer ring of the double closed-loop control system is a position control ring, and the inner ring of the double closed-loop control system is a speed control ring; and the position control loop and the speed control loop both adopt PID controllers.
Has the advantages that:
the rolling ball control method based on the double closed-loop control achieves the aim of controlling the movement state and the position of the rolling ball on the flat plate by dynamically adjusting the inclination angle of the flat plate. The control object of the control system is a plane plate, the plane plate is driven by two push rod motors, the specific position of the rolling ball on the plane plate is obtained through a camera and then fed back to a main control system, and the main control system adopts the existing algorithm to carry out reasoning operation to control the rotation angle of the plane plate. Thereby realizing the track motion control and fixed point control of the rolling ball on the flat plate.
The rolling ball control method based on the double closed-loop control has the following characteristics:
(1) the universal joint and the supporting mechanism with 2 electric push rods are adopted, so that the structure is compact and simple; and the interference of natural factors of external force resistance is strong. According to the structural characteristics of the system, the invention designs a control interface circuit of the actuating motor by the transmission mechanism (universal joint) and the control system, so that the whole system can achieve accurate transmission and has the characteristics of intuitive, simple and stable control.
(2) The modular camera is adopted to directly output the position coordinates of the rolling ball, so that the software and hardware design is simplified, further image processing is not needed, and the implementation is easy;
(3) the ball position detection precision is improved by adopting a fusion algorithm (such as averaging coordinates and the like); specifically, the position information detected by the camera and the position information detected by the resistance touch screen are fused, so that the detection precision can be obviously improved, and data guarantee is provided for a control system.
(3) And a double closed-loop control system is adopted, so that the response is quick and the control precision is high. In the aspect of motion control, the invention applies two system correction measures of system negative feedback control and PID control to reduce the influence of external interference, improve the stability of the system, accelerate the response of the system and reduce the overshoot of the system.
In conclusion, the rolling ball control system disclosed by the invention is compact in structure, easy to control and high in detection precision and control precision.
Description of the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of the overall structure of a control system;
FIG. 2 is a system circuit block diagram;
FIG. 3 is a schematic diagram of an H-bridge driver circuit;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of an opto-isolator circuit;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a B1205D buck isolated power supply;
FIG. 6 is a schematic diagram of an AMS1117_3.3 buck isolation power supply;
FIG. 7 is a gyroscope MPU6050 schematic;
FIG. 8 is a main flow diagram;
FIG. 9 is a schematic diagram of a dual closed loop control system;
FIG. 10 is a schematic diagram of an adjustable amplification amplifier;
fig. 11 is a schematic diagram of a dimming circuit.
FIG. 12 is a circuit schematic of an over-current protection circuit;
fig. 13 is a schematic diagram of a constant current charging circuit.
Fig. 14 is a specific application scenario diagram.
Description of reference numerals: 1-base, 2-electric push rod, 3-flat plate, 4-camera, 5-rolling ball and 6-universal joint.
Detailed Description
The invention will be described in further detail below with reference to the following figures and specific examples:
example 1: as shown in fig. 1-2, the system consists of STM32 master control, push rod motor module machine drive, openmv camera, and power supply. The rotation of the plane plate around the two rotating shafts can be respectively driven by the two motors, the position of the rolling ball on the plane plate is obtained through the camera and then fed back to the control system, and the control system adopts an angle ring and a speed ring to realize the control of the fixed-point and track motion of the rolling ball on the plate. The method comprises the following specific steps:
1. detecting part
(1) And detecting the posture of the flat plate. The accurate detection of the inclined posture of the flat plate is a precondition for controlling the rolling ball to complete various actions on the flat plate according to the specified requirements.
(2) And (4) detecting the state of the rolling ball. The subject requires that the rolling ball rolls on the flat plate according to a specified path and stays in a specified area for a certain time, so that the position and the motion condition of the rolling ball on the flat plate need to be detected.
2. Control section
The control part mainly realizes 2 functions by controlling a driving motor of the flat plate, firstly adjusts the inclination angle of the flat plate to enable the rolling ball to move according to a preset track, and secondly controls the balance of the flat plate to enable the rolling ball to stay stably in a specified area within a specified time.
General idea
Use STM32 as main control chip, regularly shoot the image of spin position on the platform through the camera, STM32 finds out the coordinate of spin to the pixel analysis of image, finally through PID output PWM motor control signal, reachs the control requirement of two rotation directions of platform. As shown in fig. 2.
The support mechanism has the following substitution scheme: the universal joint position is unchangeable, cancels 2 electric putter, fixes two steering wheel motors to the roof, bindes the suspension wire on it, fixes to the bottom plate through the roof pulley, makes the bottom plate unsettled, and the rotation through the motor stimulates the suspension wire and makes the bottom plate take place the slope to control tube ball position and speed. The advantages of the scheme are as follows: the steering engine has the advantages of fast response, small time delay of motor operation reverse direction, negligible error, easy control and compiling of corresponding algorithm and simple structure.
Since the system uses a camera module, a higher processing speed, more I/O ports, and a larger memory are required, and the development time is also limited, STM32F407VGT6 is selected as the main control module.
The push rod motor is an electric drive open-loop device which converts the rotary motion of the motor into the linear reciprocating motion of the push rod. The actuator can be used in various simple or complex process flows. Is an ideal executing mechanism. This solution is easy to obtain materials, the plate is stable, but the stroke cannot be controlled, and mpu6050 is needed to add a second control ring.
Rolling ball detection
The camera module is adopted, the camera is arranged above the flat plate, the flat plate area is within the shooting range of the camera, the flat plate image is collected, the camera module detects the ball and the shape or color information of the circular area on the flat plate by adopting a digital image processing method, the position of the ball on the flat plate can be accurately positioned, and the movement information of the ball can be conveniently obtained. The camera module has higher requirements on color, illumination and the like, and can be solved by means of reasonably matching the colors of a flat plate, a circular area and a rolling ball, controlling the illumination of the environment and the like. The camera is an OpenMV visual sensor with color block tracking and shape recognition functions.
In addition, data fusion is achieved using a resistive touch screen, which converts the physical location of the touch point (X, Y) in a rectangular area to voltages representing X and Y coordinates. The resistance-type touch screen has high accuracy, can reach the grade of pixel points, and is not influenced by dust, water vapor and oil stains.
In addition, a redundancy scheme is provided, on the basis of the previous 2 schemes, the following scheme is added for standby, and once the data of the previous 2 schemes have problems, the data output by the scheme is adopted as detection data, and the scheme specifically comprises the following steps: a large number of photodiodes are distributed on the edges of the board X and the board Y, and in order to realize positioning within 3cm, each side needs 60/3-20 photodiodes, which is low in difficulty, but needs more IO ports, and can be subjected to interface expansion through an FPGA (field programmable gate array) (existing mature technology).
Generally speaking, the STM32F407 is used as a main control chip, images of the position of a rolling ball on a platform are shot at regular time through an OPENMV camera module, the STM32F427 analyzes the pixels of the images to find out the coordinates of the rolling ball, the coordinates are sent to the main control chip STM32F407 through a serial port, and finally, the main control outputs PWM motor control signals through a PID algorithm to control a push rod motor to execute, so that the control requirements of the two rotation directions of the platform are obtained.
A controller: the single chip microcomputer has the advantages of high integration level, small volume, strong function, flexible use, low price, stability, reliability, easy commercialization and the like, so the single chip microcomputer is widely applied to various fields such as the scientific and technological field, household electrical appliances, intelligent instruments and meters, industrial control, the field of computer networks and communication, medical equipment and the like. The invention selects STM32F407 single chip microcomputer of STM series.
The motor is a device for converting electric energy into kinetic energy, and generally, a life contact stepping motor and a servo motor are more.
The stepping motor receives the PWM signal, and the moving angle is rotated by a corresponding stepping angle according to the signal quantity. The stepping motor is controlled in an open loop mode, namely, the stepping motor receives pulses but cannot be guaranteed to rotate to a corresponding angle. The invention adopts a push rod motor, which is an electric drive open-loop device for converting the rotary motion of the motor into the linear reciprocating motion of a push rod. The actuator can be used in various simple or complex process flows. Is an ideal executing mechanism.
PID control technique
PID is short for proportion, integral and differential, is a regulator, and is a closed-loop automatic control technology for reducing uncertainty through a feedback idea. The response of the system is fed back by the deviation value of the actual value of the controlled variable and the expected value. P is the ratio, i.e. the input deviation is multiplied by a coefficient; i is integral, namely integral operation is carried out on input deviation; d is differentiation, the closed loop process of differential operation on input deviation is firstly measurement, then comparison and finally execution, in the practical project, the key is proportional control P, the integral control action eliminates steady-state error, and the differential control action accelerates the response speed of the inertial system. It has wide application, and the user only needs to set three parameters (Kp, Ti and Td) of PID. In practical application, only two units can be used, but the proportional control P cannot be reduced.
The system adopts a position type PID algorithm to control the rotating speed of the stepping motor. The PID algorithm controller consists of a rolling ball position error proportion P, a rolling ball position error integral I and a rolling ball position error differential D[6]. The PID controller adjusts the deviation of the whole control system according to the PID control principle, so that the actual value of the controlled variable is consistent with the preset value required by the process. Assuming that the given value of the system is rin (t) and the actual output value is you (t), a control deviation e (t) is formed according to the given value and the actual output value.
e(t)=rin(t)-yout(t) (1)
The PID control law is as follows:
camera identification technology: the camera selects an openmv module. And detecting the position coordinates of the rolling ball by using an openmv image recognition sensor. Pixy supports the color recognition of multiple objects and colors and simultaneously supports multiple communication modes, an image sensor carried by the Pixy is matched with powerful hardware, and the position coordinate information of a rolling ball can be quickly sent to a microcontroller through an official open source color block recognition program, so that the complexity of the program is greatly simplified, the fact that the Pixy writes an image processing part by himself is omitted, and much time is saved. In practice, all that is needed is to select a rolling ball with a color different from that of the bottom plate, and then package the data and send the data to the main control. That is how to do this since the camera outputs the position information of the ball as feedback? The method comprises the steps of detecting the LAB values of a rolling ball and a platform in advance, processing images, taking the detected LAB values as a template, distinguishing the rolling ball and the platform in the images, identifying the central point of the rolling ball for the first time, scanning the Y direction from 0 to Max, sequentially increasing the value in the X direction until the first point of the rolling ball is found, enabling the Y coordinate of the point to be the Y coordinate of the rolling ball, scanning the X direction at the moment, increasing the Y coordinate and keeping the Y coordinate unchanged, obtaining the first point and the last point on the horizontal line of the rolling ball, calculating, quickly obtaining the X coordinate of the rolling ball, searching the central point to two sides simultaneously when the rolling ball moves, and obtaining the position of the rolling ball until the rolling ball is found again, wherein the image is continuously transmitted to a single chip microcomputer by a camera, and. General block diagram of system
Use STM32F407 as main control chip, regularly shoot the image of spin position on the platform through OPENMV camera module, STM32F427 is to the pixel analysis of image, finds out the coordinate of spin, sends main control chip STM32F407 through the serial ports, and the final main control passes through PID algorithm output PWM motor control signal, and control push rod motor execution to obtain the control requirement of two rotation directions of platform. As shown in fig. 2.
The main control circuit adopts an STM32F407 single chip microcomputer as a main control chip. The STM32 family is based on an ARM Cortex-M3 core specifically designed for embedded applications requiring high performance, low cost, and low power consumption. STM32F407 has the following characteristics: the ARM 32-bit Cortex-M4 inner core is adopted, the highest clock frequency is 168MHz, the highest clock frequency is 1.25DMIPS/MHz, and the rapid instruction execution speed enables the main control chip to run complex filtering and control algorithms. The real-time control capability of the controller is improved.
The invention can display the track of the rolling ball in real time and control the movement of the rolling ball by using the TFT touch screen. In the design, the angle display of the MPU6050 and the instant coordinate display of the rolling ball are mainly used.
Motor drive circuit
The H-bridge module realizes the forward and reverse rotation, braking and speed regulation control of the motor in a mode of combining a gate circuit and an MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) tube. There is both a large output current and flexible control signal logic like L298 as shown in fig. 3.
The interference processing method comprises the following steps: and controlling optical coupling isolation of signals and restraining of power supply peak voltage.
Logic of control signals: control logic like L298 is implemented using gates.
The H bridge implementation method comprises the following steps: the H-bridge is implemented using P, N complementary MOS transistors.
Power supply under-voltage protection: and the reset chip is used for realizing the under-voltage protection.
Optical coupling isolation
LP281-4 is a transistor-output optocoupler that is configured to package a light emitting diode and a phototransistor together. The optical coupling isolation circuit makes no electrical direct connection between the two isolated parts of circuits, and mainly prevents signal interference caused by the electrical connection, as shown in fig. 4.
Power supply circuit
Since the motor greatly affects the voltage and current of the whole system and interferes the normal operation of the system, the main control circuit and the drive circuit are isolated. The selected B1205D isolated power supply can fully meet the power supply requirement of the control system, and the 12V power supply is converted into the 5V power supply, as shown in FIG. 5; the voltage is then converted to 3.3V by AMS1117_3.3, which meets the power requirements of the main control chip, as shown in fig. 6.
Flat posture detection circuit
The MPU-6050 is an integrated 6-axis motion processing component, so that the problem of time axis difference between a combined gyroscope and an accelerator is solved, and a large amount of packaging space is reduced. The MPU-6050 has angular speed sensing range of + -250, +/-500, +/-1000 and + -2000 deg/sec (dps), can accurately track fast and slow motions, and user programmable accelerator sensing range of + -2 g, +/-4 g + -8 g and + -16 g. IIC buses up to 400kHz are supported as shown in FIG. 7.
After the system is powered on and reset, the initialization of each functional module is started, as shown in fig. 8.
PID control
Rolling ball motion state analysis
The XY axes are made by taking the center of the flat plate as the origin, and only one X axis is analyzed for simplicity, so that the system becomes a rod-ball system, and the rolling ball control is the superposition of two rod-ball controls. On this X-axis, the ball is subjected to its own weight only, i.e. the state of the ball under force is related to the tilt angle of this axis, the force represents the acceleration, i.e. the acceleration of the ball is related to the tilt angle of the axis, since the integral of the acceleration is the velocity, the integral of the velocity is the position, and the object of the invention is to go from position 1 to position 2.
Rolling ball motion control analysis
The rolling ball control system is in a nonlinear state due to the particularity of a mechanical structure, so that the PID control is not facilitated, the PID control effect of a common single ring is poor, and a cascade PID algorithm is adopted. Because the push rod motor is not a servo system, an angle inner ring needs to be added, and the angle inner ring is adhered to the lower part of the flat plate in parallel by a gyroscope MPU 6050. The plate deflection angle is obtained by the gyroscope and compared with the expected value to obtain the deviation, and the deviation is sent to the PID controller until the deviation is eliminated, and relatively accurate angle input and output relation can be obtained by the dynamic process. The innermost angle ring is set up, and the inner ring of the cascade PID is the speed regulation degree and the outer ring is used for regulating the position. When the inner ring is adjusted, an axis is adjusted first, the expected speed is set to be zero, an initial speed is given to the rolling ball, and the pid parameter of the inner ring is adjusted to enable the rolling ball speed to be zero as soon as possible. When the outer ring is adjusted, a position ring with a desired position is set
The position ring and the speed ring are used as an outer ring and an inner ring in the control system, in each parameter which is gradually stabilized, a preset position coordinate is firstly input into the controller, a target difference of the position ring is calculated, then the preset position coordinate is input into the motor servo by the position ring, the speed of the rolling ball is driven to reach an unstable state, the speed ring is responsible for controlling the speed of the rolling ball to be zero, when the rolling ball gradually approaches a target position, the speed of the rolling ball is controlled to be zero by the system, namely the rolling ball stops, as shown in figure 9.
Camera identification
The OpenMV is an embedded machine vision module based on Python, has low cost, is easy to expand, is environment-friendly in development, can be used for image processing, and can also use Python to call hardware resources of the embedded machine vision module to perform I/O control and interact with the real world. The user only needs to operate the OpenMV IDE development environment and use the Pythony language. Threshold Editor is used for setting the Threshold of the color block, so that the camera can correctly output position data, and the method is mature in the prior art.
Serial port communication program
The partial program mainly realizes the unidirectional data transmission between the camera module and the controller module. Namely, the rolling ball coordinate data collected by the camera module is packed and sent to the master control through the serial port, and the master control receives the process design that the data is decoded at the same time.
System testing and performance analysis
Rolling ball system push rod step response part test data (servo ring)
TABLE 1 push rod step response part test data
And (3) analysis: when the proportional parameter P value of the optimal servo loop is debugged, the optimal P value is tested by giving a step signal every 500ms period, 4500 optimal P values are obtained by measuring the data waveform of the plate surface angle on the upper computer, and the response limit of the power mechanism is about 70-80 ms because the power mechanism adopts a 12v direct current push rod motor. In addition, the speed inner ring parameter is P3000, I0, and D5000.
Rolling ball single shaft recovery movement fixed point test part data (position outer ring)
TABLE 2 PID parameters
TABLE 3 offset error
And (3) analysis: when the PID parameters of the optimal position ring are debugged, a mode of debugging a single axis is adopted, namely the position ring parameters of an X axis and a Y axis are debugged respectively, and the position deviation error is recorded, so that the X axis error and the Y axis error are minimum when the three PID parameters are debugged to 3000, 100 and 3100 respectively. Indicating that this set of parameters is relatively good.
Content of test
(1) The motor drives the flat plate to keep the rolling ball balanced, the time required by the stabilizing process and the deviation from the central point are recorded, and the measurement is carried out for 6 times.
(2) The ball was placed on the plate area 1 and started to move to area 5, stabilized on area 5, the time required for stabilization was recorded, and the error between the equilibrium position and the position of the centre of area 5 was recorded. The areas are set as follows: arranged in a square matrix, three rows and three columns, a first row area 1,2,3, a second row area 4, 5,6, and a third row area 7,8, and 9.
(3) Controlling the rolling ball to enter the area 4 from the area 1, and staying in the area 4 for not less than 2 seconds; and then re-enter zone 5 where the ball stays for no less than 2 seconds. The time required for completion and the dwell time in zone 4 and zone 5 were recorded.
(4) The ball was controlled to pass from zone 1 into zone 9 within 30 seconds and to dwell in zone 9 for no less than 2 seconds. The residence time was recorded.
(5) Within 40 seconds, the rolling ball is controlled to start from the area 1, enter the area 2 and the area 6, stop in the area 9, and stay in the area 9 for no less than 2 seconds.
(6) Controlling the rolling ball to emit from the area A, enter the area B and the area C in sequence and stop in the area D within 40 seconds; the keyboard used in the test site is sequentially provided with the area number A, B, C, D to control the rolling ball to complete the action.
(7) The ball starts from zone 4 and moves (does not enter) around zone 5, and after not less than 3 weeks the ball stops in zone 9 and remains there for not less than 2 seconds.
Test results
TABLE 4 residence time in zone 2 of not less than 5 seconds
Specified region movement within 515 seconds of the table
Table 620 in-second zone step move
Meter 730 second zone obstacle avoidance
Table 840 seconds zone moves continuously
Random region movement within 940 seconds of the Table
TABLE 10 circular motion of non-designated areas
And (3) analysis: through carrying out multiple tests on the actual 7 test contents of the rolling ball system, the system can reach all requirements and performance indexes, and a failure result does not occur, which indicates that the stability and the precision of the system reach the standard.
Analysis of results
Based on the above test data, the ball control system has achieved substantially all of the requirements and performance criteria, and the following conclusions can be drawn: through creative labor and adjustment of researchers, the finally determined PID parameters can basically meet requirements, and the design scheme is proved to be feasible, and the method is high in precision, easy to control, good in stability and high in reliability.
As shown in fig. 10, the adjustable amplification amplifier comprises an operational amplifier LM393 and a one-out-of-4 selector;
the output end Vin of the optical intensity sensor is a signal end, the signal end is connected with the inverting input end of the operational amplifier LM393 through a resistor R0, the homodromous input end of the operational amplifier LM393 is grounded through a resistor R0, the homodromous input end of the operational amplifier LM393 is also connected with 4 input channels of the 4-to-4 selector through 4 resistors R01-R04 respectively, the output channel of the 4-to-4 selector is connected with the output end Vout of the operational amplifier LM393, and the Vout is connected with the ADC end of the MCU;
2 output ports of the MCU are respectively connected with channel selection ends A and B of the 4-to-one selector.
Calculation formula of Vout and Vin:
vout ═ Vin, (Rx + R0)/R0; wherein Rx ═ R01, R02, R03, or R04; determining which resistance to select based on the gate terminal AB; and R01, R02, R03 and R04 are each different; preferred R04-5-R03-25-R02-100-R01; r01-5 × R0. can conveniently achieve span and precision switching.
As shown in fig. 11, the backlight brightness adjusting circuit includes an MCU, a LED string, a triode, a potentiometer Rx and an a/D converter; the triode is an NPN type triode; a knob switch is arranged on the L-shaped bracket and is coaxially connected with the potentiometer Rx;
the potentiometer Rx and the first resistor R1 are connected in series to form a voltage division branch, one end of the voltage division branch is connected with the positive electrode Vcc of the power supply, and the other end of the voltage division branch is grounded; the connection point of the potentiometer Rx and the first resistor R1 is connected with the input end of the A/D converter; the output end of the A/D converter is connected with the data input port of the MCU;
the LED lamp string comprises a plurality of LED lamps which are connected in series; the anode of the LED lamp string is connected with the anode Vcc of the power supply; the negative electrode of the LED lamp string is connected with the C electrode of the triode, and the E electrode of the triode is grounded through a second resistor R2; the B pole of the triode is connected with the output end of the MCU. The power supply positive pole Vcc is 5V, and the A/D converter is an 8-bit serial output type converter.
As shown in fig. 12, the rolling ball control system further comprises an overcurrent protection circuit for protecting the lithium battery and the whole system, and the overcurrent protection circuit comprises an operational amplifier U1-B, a measuring resistor R18 and a boost protection chip U9;
the measuring resistor R18 is connected in series in a front-end power supply loop of the automobile starting power supply;
the first end of the measuring resistor R18 is connected with the non-inverting input end of the operational amplifier through a resistor R39; the second end of the measuring resistor R18 is connected with the inverting input end of the operational amplifier through a resistor R36;
a resistor R40 is connected between the output end and the inverting input end of the operational amplifier in a bridging way;
the output end of the operational amplifier is connected with the feedback end FB of the boost protection chip U9.
The output end of the operational amplifier is connected with the feedback end FB of the boost protection chip U9 through a diode D20; and the feedback terminal FB is connected to the cathode of the diode D20.
The front-end power supply loop is a USB power supply loop (an energy storage module of a starting power supply is charged through a USB interface); a first terminal of the measurement resistor R18 is grounded (SGND); the second end of the measuring resistor R18 is connected with the negative terminal BAT 1-of the USB charging interface J4.
The model of the operational amplifier is LM258ADR, the model of the boost protection chip U9 is FP5139, and the resistances of the resistors R18, R39, R36 and R40 are 0.01 ohm, 1K ohm and 20K ohm respectively.
The adopted circuit based on the operational amplifier is an inverting amplification circuit, and the amplification factor is about 20 times; the diode D20 is added to play a role in preventing current from flowing backwards, namely, unidirectional conduction is guaranteed; in addition, the boost protection chip has a short-circuit protection function and a boost discharge function, the output current and the output voltage can be adjusted, the functions are rich, the amplification circuit is combined with the protection IC, the overcurrent protection of the circuit can be realized, and the reliability is high.
The rolling ball control system also comprises a lithium battery and a constant current charging circuit for charging the lithium battery; the lithium battery is used for supplying power to the whole system. As in the schematic of fig. 13, the various elements or reference numbers illustrate:
VIN + -input power supply anode. VIN-input negative pole of power supply. VOUT + -output power supply anode. VOUT-output power supply cathode. VREF + - - - - -the positive pole of the reference power supply; c1 is the input filter capacitance. C2 is the output filter capacitance. C3 is current sample feedback filtering. R1, R2, R5 and C3 form a current sampling feedback circuit. And R3 and R4 are voltage sampling feedback circuits. D1 is an isolation diode.
A constant current charging circuit comprises a constant voltage driving chip and a current feedback circuit; (1) the voltage output end of the constant voltage driving chip is a positive output end VOUT + of the constant current charging circuit; the negative output end of the constant voltage driving chip is grounded; the constant voltage driving chip is powered by a direct current voltage power supply end VIN + and VIN-; (2) the current feedback circuit comprises resistors R1, R2 and R5 and a reference voltage end VREF +; the reference voltage end VREF + is grounded through resistors R1, R2 and R5 which are sequentially connected in series; the connecting point of the resistor R5 and the resistor R2 is a negative output end VOUT < - >; the connection point of the resistors R1 and R2 is connected with the feedback terminal FB of the constant voltage driving chip. The constant current charging circuit also comprises a voltage feedback circuit; the voltage feedback circuit comprises resistors R3 and R4 and a diode D1; the resistors R3 and R4 are connected in series and then connected between the positive output end VOUT + of the constant current charging circuit and the ground; the connection point of the resistors R3 and R4 is connected with the anode of the diode D1; the cathode of the diode D1 is connected to the feedback terminal FB of the constant voltage driving chip. A capacitor C2 is connected between the positive output end VOUT + and the negative input end of the constant current charging circuit in a bridging mode. A capacitor C1 is connected across the dc voltage supply terminals VIN + and VIN-. The constant voltage driving chip adopts a ZTP7192 device. Or other constant voltage driving chips on the market. Such as MP1495, MP1593, RT8296, MC34063, FP5138 … … … ….
Description of the working principle: the stable reference power supply is used as a reference voltage, and the voltage which is equal to the voltage FB is obtained by dividing the voltage by R1, R2 and R5, so that the internal PWM of the DCDC IC is adjusted by the voltage FB to control the magnitude of the output current. For example, when the output current becomes larger, the voltage across the sampling resistor R5 will increase, and since VRFE + is a fixed value, the FB voltage becomes larger, FB becomes larger, the duty cycle will decrease, and the output current decreases, thereby completing a complete feedback to achieve the purpose of stabilizing the current output.
Io output current has no relation to output voltage and input voltage, and is only related to vfb.r1, R2, VREF, and these parameters are fixed in the specific design (VFB is fixed in steady state, and for fp7192 constant voltage chip, the steady state value is 0.6v), so K must be a fixed value, so the equation: io K/R5 has excellent linearity and excellent controllability.
Assigning the above parameters to the specific values set above yields:
io ═ (VFB ═ R1+ R2) -R2 ═ VREF +)/R1 ═ R5 ═ 1.25A; constant voltage chip. The cost is about 0.8 yuan
It can be seen from the above equation that this scheme introduces a fixed VREF +, so that Io becomes an equation only having a linear relationship with the R5 sampling resistance, so that Io becomes constant, thereby achieving the purpose of constant current.
The reference voltage constant current method has the characteristics that: and the stable fixing of the VREF + voltage is used, so that the precision control and the stability control are facilitated. The current sampling is changed into resistance voltage division feedback, so that the method is simpler and more reliable. The applicability is wide, and any line needing constant current can be used. The cost is greatly reduced, for example, the IC constant current scheme is used for outputting 12V/1A for more than 3 yuan, and the use scheme is within 1 yuan.

Claims (1)

1. A rolling ball control method based on double closed-loop control is characterized in that a control system realizes the control of fixed point and track movement of a rolling ball on a square plate through double closed loops based on a position loop and a speed loop;
the position ring takes the position information of the rolling ball on the square plate detected by the camera as a feedback signal;
the feedback signal of the speed loop is from the processing of the position information, and the displacement of 2 points in unit time is divided by time to obtain the speed, namely v = △ s/△ t;
the actuating mechanism of the control system is 2 electric push rods for controlling the posture of the square plate; the 2 electric push rods are driven by 2 independent motors;
the square plate is supported by a universal joint and the 2 electric push rods;
the camera is fixed right above the square plate;
the control system is based on the MCU;
the camera is connected with the MCU; the motor is controlled by the MCU;
the camera adopts an openmv module type camera which can directly output the coordinates of the target position;
a flat attitude detection sensor connected with the MCU is arranged on the square plate, the flat attitude detection sensor adopts an MPU-6050 device, and the MPU-6050 device is an integrated 6-axis motion processing component;
the MCU is connected with the display screen, the display screen is used for displaying state data of the square plate and motion data of the rolling balls, the state data of the square plate comprises the inclination angle of the square plate, and the motion data of the rolling balls comprises position coordinates and motion speed of the rolling balls;
the MCU is an STM32F407VGT6 main control module;
the motor is a stepping motor, and a driving circuit of the motor is an H-bridge driving circuit based on P, N complementary MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) tubes;
fusing position information detected by a camera and position information detected by a resistance touch screen, and fusing position data by adopting 2 methods to improve the precision of rolling ball position detection; the square plate is provided with a resistance type touch screen connected with the MCU, the point where the ball presses the resistance type touch screen is a touch point, and the resistance screen outputs the position coordinate of the touch point to the MCU;
the position ring and the speed ring both adopt PID controllers;
the PID parameters of the position outer loop are: p =3000, I =100, D = 3100;
the inner ring of speed parameters is P =3000, I =0, D = 5000;
the adjustable amplification factor amplifier comprises an operational amplifier LM393 and a one-out-of-4 selector; the output end Vin of the optical intensity sensor is a signal end, the signal end is connected with the inverting input end of the operational amplifier LM393 through a resistor R0, the homodromous input end of the operational amplifier LM393 is grounded through a resistor R0, the homodromous input end of the operational amplifier LM393 is also connected with 4 input channels of the 4-to-4 selector through 4 resistors R01-R04 respectively, the output channel of the 4-to-4 selector is connected with the output end Vout of the operational amplifier LM393, and the Vout is connected with the ADC end of the MCU; 2 output ports of the MCU are respectively connected with channel selection ends A and B of a 4-out-of-one selector; calculation formula of Vout and Vin:
vout = Vin (Rx + R0)/R0, wherein Rx = R01, R02, R03 or R04; determining which resistance to select based on the gate terminal AB; and R01, R02, R03 and R04 are each different; r04=5 × R03=25 × R02=100 × R01; r01=5 × R0.
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