CN109047685A - A method of preparing steel ingot - Google Patents

A method of preparing steel ingot Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109047685A
CN109047685A CN201811041752.7A CN201811041752A CN109047685A CN 109047685 A CN109047685 A CN 109047685A CN 201811041752 A CN201811041752 A CN 201811041752A CN 109047685 A CN109047685 A CN 109047685A
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Prior art keywords
metal
steel ingot
ingot
heating
preparing
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CN201811041752.7A
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CN109047685B (en
Inventor
沙波瓦洛夫·维克多
贝克塔基洛夫·法利特
格纳库申科·亚历山大
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Wuhan Shuchi Technology Co ltd
EO Paton Electric Welding Institute Of Nasu
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Wuhan Shuchi Technology Co ltd
EO Paton Electric Welding Institute Of Nasu
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B22CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
    • B22DCASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES
    • B22D7/00Casting ingots, e.g. from ferrous metals

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of methods for preparing steel ingot.It includes the casting metal into the ingot mould with riser, slag charge is added to liquid metal surface, metal is heated using electroslag heating process, the segregation and compensation occurred when in order to inhibit metallic crystal is loose, slag bath is passed through using the liquid metal that particulate bulk furnace charge or metal stock melt, teeming is carried out to steel ingot, pass through the temperature and chemical component of wick-containing in stirring action balanced ingot crystallization process;The particulate bulk furnace charge includes chip, clast, powder or other biscuit metals;The chemical component of the particulate bulk furnace charge or the liquid metal of metal stock fusing is consistent or inconsistent with the chemical component of the steel ingot.The invention can avoid form rarefaction defect in final solidified ingot head centre;It can effectively inhibit to be segregated, balanced ingot chemical component;The Steel ingot feeder head weight for needing to cut off is reduced, ingot yield is improved.

Description

A method of preparing steel ingot
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of methods for preparing steel ingot, and the method including improving ingot quality belongs to metallurgical scope technology Field.
Background technique
Liquid metal will inject ingot mould and solidify in ingot mould during producing steel ingot with ingot mould, it is necessary to assure top Liquid metal can unhinderedly flow into lower section and loose level occur.Doing so can prevent to be formed loose lack in steel ingot It falls into and is segregated, improve the physics and chemical uniformity of steel ingot, the Steel ingot feeder head weight for needing to cut off can also be reduced, improve steel ingot Yield rate.The metal in Steel ingot feeder head must be made to keep liquid thus.To make metal in riser keep liquid for a long time, need pair It carries out supplementary heating.
The method of metal is to utilize mixture heat release in common heating riser.But utilize mixture heat release or other modern times Mode heats the shortcomings that metal, is that their burning times are short, heating effect is poor.In addition metal it is also possible to be mixed object at Divide or the product of oxidation reaction pollutes.
More effective way is that electric energy is converted into thermal energy in riser to carry out supplementary heating to metal.In Metallurgy Industry electric arc Heating is the method for the smelting metal being widely used.But it is not available this method when production steel ingot, because radiation causes energy consumption It is excessive, it there is also metal hot-spot in arcing area, the loss of steel ingot alloying element increases.
Electroslag heating can be to avoid disadvantages mentioned above, and heating metal is realized by slag bath heat release.In addition slag charge is by electric current Fusing and heating, electric current be by be located at slag charge in non-consumable electrode import.When being heated using which, heat is along gold Metal surface evenly distributes, and will not generate individual element oxidation and thermal losses.Also, refining gold can also be supplemented using active slag charge Belong to, excludes objectionable and non-metallic inclusion.
The known method there are electroslag heating Steel ingot feeder head has: 1, author G.S.Tyagun-Belous, D.A.Dudko, opinion Text " carries out electroslag heating to steel ingot and irregularly-shaped castings riser using non-consumable electrode ", publication " automatic welding ", and 1958, № 10.P36-43;2, author S.P.Bakumenko, B.B.Gulyaev, E.V.Verkhovtsev, paper " reduce the waste product of steel ingot Rate ", publication " metallurgy ", 1967, P220;3, author H.F.Bastrakov, Н А .Tulin, B.P.Nemchenko etc., opinion Literary " Bohler electroslag tapping of steel ", publication " metallurgy ", 1978.-P56.Riser volume can be reduced using this electroslag heating means, Improve the quality of ingot head and axial portions.But this method when cannot all compensate metal freezing steel ingot central part separate Existing metal contracts.Steel ingot volume shrinkage mass is likely to be breached 4~7% depending on ingot composition difference.As a result, in final solidified steel ingot Head and axial portions still will form various shrink defects: shrinkage cavity, loose, stomata and hairline.
It is known to exist when preparing steel ingot using slag charge and consutrode heat riser, consutrode melts concurrently in slag charge The method for waving electric action has: 1, author Tyagun-Belous G.S., Dudko D.A., and paper " mend by the electroslag of flat steel ingot Pour ", publication " automatic welding ", 1958, № 11, P66-70;2, patent " a method of prepare steel ingot ", U.S. Patent number 4265295 А.According to this patent, the metal of electrode melting is used for teeming steel ingot, and what compensation generated during metallic crystal dredges Loose position.But when using the method, there is rigid restricting relation between slag bath temperature and electrode melting speed and fusing quantity. Slag bath can not be allowed to keep high temperature for a long time, to keep the liquid of metal in riser for a long time, also can not ensure and compensate and is loose Adaptable lower or adjustable teeming speed.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of methods for preparing steel ingot to be pressed down with preventing disadvantages mentioned above and overcoming above-mentioned difficulties The rarefaction defect occurred in system segregation and the production of effective compensation steel ingot.
The method for realizing above-mentioned purpose is: the casting metal into the ingot mould with riser, and slag charge is added to liquid metal surface, Metal is heated using electroslag heating process, the segregation occurred when in order to inhibit metallic crystal and compensation are loose, use graininess pine The liquid metal for dissipating furnace charge or metal stock fusing passes through slag bath to steel ingot progress teeming, is crystallized by stirring action balanced ingot The temperature and chemical component of wick-containing in the process;
The particulate bulk furnace charge includes chip, clast, powder or other biscuit metals;
The chemical component of the particulate bulk furnace charge or metal stock is consistent or inconsistent with made steel ingot.
Using this method, any teeming speed of amount of metal guarantee of slag bath can be added by changing, make teeming speed It is consistent with liquid metal contraction speed in ingot mould.The metal different from former casting metal chemical component is used if necessary, is adjusted The alloying element content of the steel ingot solidified, including longitudinal with lateral budget metals chemical component along steel ingot, inhibit metal by Liquid is changed into the segregation process occurred when solid-state.
In order to allow the metal that is fed in electroslag heating across slag bath most effectively teeming steel ingot, inhibit segregation, it must It must guarantee that these metals reach all crystal planes and balance the chemical component of there liquid metal.But due in steel ingot temperature and Uneven chemical components especially will appear metal close to the position of riser and melt that liquid stream is dynamic to be slowed down in the wick-containing gradually solidified The even level of half solidification, the teeming and balance chemical component for being given to lower layer cause to hinder.So the present invention is while teeming It also takes measures to be stirred casting metal former in ingot mould with the metal later across slag bath teeming, promotes the liquid solidified The temperature and chemical component of in-core homogenize.
In the method for the invention, steel ingot wick-containing is stirred using a variety of methods: tuyere being immersed into metal bath, mechanical arm stirs It mixes, be powered to liquid metal or apply external magnetic fields to liquid metal.
In the method for the invention, have heat proof material furnace lining riser, metal water-cooling riser or below band refractory material Heating process above furnace lining to carry out the metal surface in the combination riser of metal water-cooling riser.
In the method for the invention, using non-consumable metal electrode, graphite electrode or consumable metal electrode in Steel ingot feeder head Internal heating metal;Condition, steel ingot weight and chemical component needed for depending on production steel ingot to the selection of type of electrodes, in clinker Above-mentioned electrode is interchangeable in heating process.
In the method for the invention, metal is heated using following one or more of electricity consumption systems when heating metal with slag charge:
Heating power is unchanged within entire heating cycle;
Heating power has cyclically-varying;
Heating is staggeredly carried out with pause.
In the method for the invention, when using inert blowing gas gas agitating steel ingot wick-containing, it is molten that the tuyere immerses metal The depth of body is located at steel ingot and does not solidify between 0.1~0.9 depth of part.It shallowly stirs very much because immersing less than wholly liquid state inner core, Adverse effect can be generated to crystal plane deeply very much by immersing.
In the method for the invention, with wick-containing lower junction crystal growth, tuyere is continuing air blowing process to metal bath In steadily above mention.
In the method for the invention, periodically metal bath implementation is blown on the different depth that tuyere immerses metal bath Gas.
The invention has the following advantages that
1, it avoids forming rarefaction defect in final solidified ingot head centre;
2, effectively inhibit to be segregated, balanced ingot chemical component,;
3, the Steel ingot feeder head weight for needing to cut off is reduced, ingot yield is improved.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of electroslag heating and teeming in the present invention, and (a) uses liquid metal teeming, (b) use metal base Expect teeming, (c) uses the teeming of particulate bulk furnace charge.
Respectively label is meant in Fig. 1:
1 pedestal;2 ingot moulds;3 riser;4 slags;5 non-consumable electrodes;6 pouring liquid metals;7 metal baths;8 solid-states gold Belong to;9 metal stocks;10 particulate bulk furnace charges.
Fig. 2 is the metal bath for blowing stirring of inert gas in the present invention through tuyere.
Specific embodiment
Experimental method used in following embodiments is unless otherwise specified conventional method.
Material therefor, reagent etc., are commercially available unless otherwise specified in following embodiments.
Embodiment 1
It is 1300mm to an average diameter, the water cooling riser for being highly 400mm for the six face ingot moulds of 2200mm and height 22t liquid metal is injected, the steel trade mark is 90X Ф.Casting metal reaches the height of riser 100mm.
Slag bath, slag bath are established with the non-consumable graphite electrode and fluoride-oxide slag charge being powered at once after casting metal Height is 200mm.It is completely melt in slag charge, after temperature reaches 1600-1650 DEG C, the metal stock that diameter is 200mm is put into Slag bath, metal stock are identical as made steel ingot chemical component.Start two hours, blank is launched with the speed of 33mm/min, then Delivery rate is gradually reduced, and is down to 1mm/min within seven hours after casting, and metal almost all crystallizes at this time.The metal of teeming consumption About 2.5t.Heating power keeps stablizing during this period, and subsequent one-hour rating gradually decreases until METAL HEATING PROCESS is stopped completely Only.Periodically using blowing stirring of inert gas steel ingot wick-containing in heating metal process.Tuyere immerses metal bath depth At half, gradually promoted.Each gassing time arrives 5min, gas flow 50-500dm3/min for 3.Obtained steel ingot Total weight is 24.5t.The weight for cutting off riser is about 1.5t, or accounts about the 6% of steel ingot total weight.It is raw using traditional handicraft When producing similar steel ingot, the weight for cutting off riser is generally no less than the 15% of steel ingot total weight.Thus with ultrasonic testing detection The roll for cold rolling of steel ingot preparation does not find that equivalent diameter is greater than the defect of 1mm, it was demonstrated that the physical chemistry uniformity of this steel ingot is very It is high.
Embodiment 2
When producing steel ingot with 25 Х, 2 М Ф А steel, it is highly 3600mm, on ingot mould that ingot mould average diameter, which is 2200mm, Riser height of the face with refractory lining is 1200mm, to ingot mould and riser gating 116t liquid metal.Casting metal reaches riser The height of 800mm, riser weight about 23t or accounts about the 20% of steel ingot total weight.
Made using the graphite electrode that diameter is 400mm be highly 250mm slag bath, then graphite electrode is changed to directly Diameter is the metal consumable electrode of 300mm, and metal electrode melts in slag bath, carries out teeming to steel ingot.Metal electrode chemistry at Divide and is substantially consistent with made steel ingot, carbon content exception.The carbon content of consutrode is 0.22~0.23% when teeming starts, teeming At the end of carbon content be 0.17~0.18%.In order to adjust teeming speed, every 0.5 to 1.5 hour by metal consumable electrode more It is changed to graphite electrode.The fluid mass speed of teeming and the fluid mass speed of metal contracts are close.Teeming consumption metal be 5.5t.Electroslag is about 16 hours heating and continuous.In order to guarantee that slag temperature is 1600 DEG C, the mean power of electroslag heating is 2500kW.In steel ingot forming process electroslag heat power be variation, heat great efforts when power it is larger, heating dynamics it is small or Power is smaller when pause heating.
Stirring of inert gas molten bath is periodically blowed into metal bath using the tuyere for immersing metal, ensure that steel ingot liquid Core temperature and chemical component are uniform.When metal bath depth is 3000mm, the immersion depth of tuyere is 2700mm or steel ingot wick-containing The 90% of depth.When the depth of metal bath reduces, the immersion depth of tuyere reduces therewith, but is no less than steel ingot and does not solidify portion Divide the 10% of depth.
The weight of obtained steel ingot is 121.5t.The weight for cutting off riser is 11.5t or less than the 10% of steel ingot total weight. The carbon content of ingot head is not more than 0.27%, and carbon is not almost segregated.To the generator amature prepared with this steel ingot Axis is detected, and all data include the requirement that mechanical performance all meets such product technology condition.
Embodiment 3
With 10 Г, 2 М Ф А steel poured weights be 40-42t, section is 1800 х 1000mm, is highly the flat of 2800mm Flat steel ingot.Combination riser is used, here is the band furnace lining riser that height is 200mm, and the above is that the water cooling that height is 500mm emits Mouthful.Casting metal reaches the height with furnace lining riser 150mm, about 37t.It is subsequently placed into non-consumable metal electrode fusing slag charge, Slag bath height is 220mm.After slag reaches assigned temperature, graphite electrode is changed to metal non-consumable electrode.10 Г, 2 М Ф The chip of А steel is added slag bath and carries out teeming to steel ingot, and weight is about 4t, is twice of the required weight of feeding.It is golden with immersing The tuyere of category blows stirring of inert gas steel ingot wick-containing.Air blowing is carried out continuously, and with metal freezing, gradually promotes the wind of air blowing Mouth.Product qualification rate can be made to connect using non-consumable electrode and in the heating method that steel ingot completion solidification stages gradually decrease power Nearly 100%, excision ingot head is not needed before rolling.Plate is rolled with the ultrasonic testing detection thickness that thus steel ingot rolls, is being rolled Any rarefaction defect and segregation are not found in plate.

Claims (8)

1. slag charge is added to liquid metal surface including the casting metal into the ingot mould with riser in a kind of method for preparing steel ingot, Metal is heated using electroslag heating process, it is characterised in that: the segregation and compensation occurred when in order to inhibit metallic crystal is loose, makes Slag bath is passed through with the liquid metal that particulate bulk furnace charge or metal stock melt, and teeming is carried out to steel ingot, it is flat by stirring action The temperature and chemical component of wick-containing during weighing apparatus ingot crystal;
The particulate bulk furnace charge includes chip, clast, powder or other biscuit metals;
The chemical component of the particulate bulk furnace charge or metal stock is consistent or inconsistent with made steel ingot.
2. the method according to claim 1 for preparing steel ingot, it is characterised in that: the method for stirring steel ingot wick-containing includes with leaching The tuyere for entering metal bath blows, is stirred, is powered to metal bath or from the outside to metal with the mechanical arm for immersing metal bath Melt applies electromagnetic force influence.
3. the method according to claim 1 for preparing steel ingot, it is characterised in that: the heating process of the metal surface is having The combination of the riser of heat proof material furnace lining, metal water-cooling riser or to be below above refractory material furnace lining be metal water-cooling riser emits It is carried out in mouthful.
4. the method according to claim 1 for preparing steel ingot, it is characterised in that: used in slag charge heating metal process Non-consumable metal electrode, graphite electrode or consumable metal electrode;Item needed for depending on production steel ingot to the selection of type of electrodes Part, steel ingot weight and chemical component, above-mentioned electrode is interchangeable in clinker heating process.
5. the method according to claim 1 for preparing steel ingot, it is characterised in that: use following one when heating metal with slag charge Kind or a variety of electricity consumption systems:
Heating power is unchanged within entire heating cycle;
Heating power has cyclically-varying;
Heating is staggeredly carried out with pause.
6. the method according to claim 1 or 2 for preparing steel ingot, it is characterised in that: stirred using the air blowing method When steel ingot wick-containing, the depth that the tuyere immerses metal bath is located at steel ingot and does not solidify between 0.1~0.9 depth of part.
7. according to claim 1, preparing the method for steel ingot described in 2 or 6, it is characterised in that: as wick-containing lower part crystalline solid is raw Long, the tuyere is continuing steadily above to mention in air blowing process to metal bath.
8. according to claim 1, preparing the method for steel ingot described in 2 or 6, it is characterised in that: it is molten to immerse metal in the tuyere Periodically metal bath is implemented to blow on the different depth of body.
CN201811041752.7A 2018-09-07 2018-09-07 Method for preparing steel ingot Active CN109047685B (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111774550A (en) * 2020-07-30 2020-10-16 安徽工业大学 Electroslag feeding device for improving crystallization quality of large steel ingot

Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4265295A (en) * 1975-11-17 1981-05-05 Vereinigte Edelstahlwerke Aktiengesellschaft (Vew) Method of producing steel ingots
CN101480715A (en) * 2009-01-21 2009-07-15 东北大学 Electroslag smelting casting device with additional electromagnetic stirring and method
CN102806322A (en) * 2012-08-20 2012-12-05 东北大学 Device and method for preparing large-size homogeneous steel ingot by stirring with self-consuming stirrer
CN103014366A (en) * 2011-09-20 2013-04-03 东北大学 Large-scale electroslag remelting steel ingot enhancement cooling apparatus and method thereof
CN103406520A (en) * 2013-08-27 2013-11-27 东北大学 Consumable stirrer added device and method for producing large homogeneous electro-slag re-melting steel ingots
CN104439201A (en) * 2015-01-05 2015-03-25 东北大学 Large steel-ingot electro-slag hot-topping device evenly provided with heat sources and large steel-ingot electro-slag hot-topping method
CN104525919A (en) * 2014-12-09 2015-04-22 抚顺特殊钢股份有限公司 Method for manufacturing steel ingots through ultra-supercritical steam turbine blade steel electro-slag remelting

Patent Citations (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US4265295A (en) * 1975-11-17 1981-05-05 Vereinigte Edelstahlwerke Aktiengesellschaft (Vew) Method of producing steel ingots
CN101480715A (en) * 2009-01-21 2009-07-15 东北大学 Electroslag smelting casting device with additional electromagnetic stirring and method
CN103014366A (en) * 2011-09-20 2013-04-03 东北大学 Large-scale electroslag remelting steel ingot enhancement cooling apparatus and method thereof
CN102806322A (en) * 2012-08-20 2012-12-05 东北大学 Device and method for preparing large-size homogeneous steel ingot by stirring with self-consuming stirrer
CN103406520A (en) * 2013-08-27 2013-11-27 东北大学 Consumable stirrer added device and method for producing large homogeneous electro-slag re-melting steel ingots
CN104525919A (en) * 2014-12-09 2015-04-22 抚顺特殊钢股份有限公司 Method for manufacturing steel ingots through ultra-supercritical steam turbine blade steel electro-slag remelting
CN104439201A (en) * 2015-01-05 2015-03-25 东北大学 Large steel-ingot electro-slag hot-topping device evenly provided with heat sources and large steel-ingot electro-slag hot-topping method

Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111774550A (en) * 2020-07-30 2020-10-16 安徽工业大学 Electroslag feeding device for improving crystallization quality of large steel ingot

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Inventor after: Shabovalov Victor

Inventor after: Bektakilov Falit

Inventor after: Gnakushenko Alexander

Inventor after: Xu Xiaohai

Inventor after: Wang Yuan

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