CN109041624A - A kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure - Google Patents

A kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109041624A
CN109041624A CN201810763336.1A CN201810763336A CN109041624A CN 109041624 A CN109041624 A CN 109041624A CN 201810763336 A CN201810763336 A CN 201810763336A CN 109041624 A CN109041624 A CN 109041624A
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China
Prior art keywords
culture
parts
fertilizer
bait
seed
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Inventor
高清竹
参木友
干珠扎布
胡国铮
旦久罗布
万运帆
何世丞
鲍宇红
田波
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Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculturem of CAAS
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Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculturem of CAAS
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Priority to CN201810763336.1A priority Critical patent/CN109041624A/en
Publication of CN109041624A publication Critical patent/CN109041624A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M21/00Apparatus for the destruction of unwanted vegetation, e.g. weeds
    • A01M21/04Apparatus for destruction by steam, chemicals, burning, or electricity
    • A01M21/043Apparatus for destruction by steam, chemicals, burning, or electricity by chemicals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M25/00Devices for dispensing poison for animals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N39/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing aryloxy- or arylthio-aliphatic or cycloaliphatic compounds, containing the group or, e.g. phenoxyethylamine, phenylthio-acetonitrile, phenoxyacetone
    • A01N39/02Aryloxy-carboxylic acids; Derivatives thereof
    • A01N39/04Aryloxy-acetic acids; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • A01N43/36Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/38Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with carbocyclic rings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N47/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid
    • A01N47/08Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid the carbon atom having one or more single bonds to nitrogen atoms
    • A01N47/28Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N<
    • A01N47/36Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N< containing the group >N—CO—N< directly attached to at least one heterocyclic ring; Thio analogues thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N57/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic phosphorus compounds
    • A01N57/18Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic phosphorus compounds having phosphorus-to-carbon bonds
    • A01N57/20Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic phosphorus compounds having phosphorus-to-carbon bonds containing acyclic or cycloaliphatic radicals
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N61/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing substances of unknown or undetermined composition, e.g. substances characterised only by the mode of action

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedures, including seal, breed, seed treatment, sowing and field management.Wherein, it needs to handle plot after sealing, processing mode is first to spread organic fertilizer, then gently harrow meadow, harrows deep 3 ~ 5 cm;Breeding is that field planting grass seeds is mixed in a certain ratio by rapid field planting and at a slow speed, to achieve the purpose that improve grassland bio-diversity;Seed treatment is to mix the grass seeds after warm water impregnates with seed dressing thoroughly, so that seed germination percentage with higher;Sowing is carried out by the way of seeder program request or artificial broadcast;Field management is other than imposing fertilizer, it is also necessary to which herbicide spraying simultaneously launches poison bait simultaneously, beneficial to the normal growth for guaranteeing herbage.Using the method in the present invention, the soil environment of Alpine Grasslands can be significantly improved, it is made to be conducive to the free growth of herbage, can effectively solve the problem that difficult technical problem is repaired on Degraded Alpine meadow.

Description

A kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure
Technical field
The invention belongs to meadow recovery technique fields, and in particular to a kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure.
Background technique
Over the past thousands of years, the grassland agriculture based on meadow is the main economic source and Tibet of tibetan farmers and herdsmen Most important pillar of the economy, it is closely bound up with the production, life and culture of Tibetan, have to development and prosperity Tibet national economy Play the role of it is very important, and to National Ecological Security have important strategic position.It is continuous with population and animal number Increase, unreasonable utilization and management mode in addition, Tibetan highland grassland large area is degenerated, and ecological environment is worsening, excellent Forage ratio reduce, weeds propagation and widespread, thick grass height become it is short, cover degree decline, Grassland rodents and pests are serious, productivity decline, desertify and Desertification aggravation, grassland ecology service function weaken, and system coordination is destroyed, ultimately causes the Alpine Grasslands ecosystem and lose The potential of sustainable development, animal husbandry economy decline in benefits have caused a series of ecology, economy and society problem, direct shadow Ring the ecological safety of Qinghai-Tibet Platean and the whole nation.
Currently, the Tibet Grassland degeneration gross area, up to 3.53 hundred million mu, 1.81 hundred million mu of data provided are investigated on meadow within than 1988 96.03% is increased, in acceleration degradation trend.Natural meadow after-culture is the effective measures of degraded natural grassland improvement, and after-culture is to increase Add an important channel of Grassland Communities external source seed bank.It can be by the good forage seed of addition external source, to increase meadow The ratio of good forage in group.In Tibet in the case where natural meadow general degradation, after-culture improves degeneration meadow with more weight The realistic meaning wanted.For Alpine Grasslands characteristic, people have attempted some interseeding techniques to restore vegetation productivity, such as Wei Xue It is red et al. and superfine people has studied Alpine Grasslands interseeding technique forever, but sow single, effect is undesirable.There is presently no than More mature after-culture recovery technique is applied on Alpine Grasslands, and being badly in need of research and development can be substantially while improving Grassland Herbage yield Spend the method for save the cost.
Summary of the invention
For the above-mentioned prior art, the present invention provides a kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure, to solve to move back Change Alpine Grasslands and repairs difficult technical problem.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is that: a kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology is provided and is mended Broadcast restorative procedure, comprising the following steps:
(1) it seals: sealing the grassland for needing to repair with the wire netting of 15 ~ 20 mesh, then spread by 500 ~ 1000 kg/ mus of dosage Organic fertilizer, then light rake meadow, harrow deep 3 ~ 5 cm;
(2) breed: selection degree of purity be all larger than 95% rapid field planting and be colonized grass seeds at a slow speed, by they by 3 ~ 4:1 mass ratio Uniformly mixing;
(3) seed prepared: being placed in 25 ~ 35 DEG C of warm water 2 ~ 3 h in impregnating by seed treatment, then presses the quality of 1:1 ~ 2 Than uniformly being mixed with seed dressing;Seed dressing comprises the following components in parts by weight: 4 ~ 5 parts of c-type or D type creotoxin, and heteroauxin 5 ~ 10 parts, 1 ~ 3 part of insecticide, 3 ~ 5 parts and 4 ~ 5 parts of sandy soil of fungicide;
(4) it sows: being sowed in late May, seeding method is seeder program request or artificial broadcast, and thickness of sowing is 5 ~ 10 Kg/ mus;Calcium superphosphate after planting is spread fertilizer over the fields by 20 ~ 25 kg/ mus of dosage, then uses disc harrow or artificial rake cover-seeding area Domain, then suppression processing is carried out to sowing region;
(5) field management: after grass seeds emergence, spreading fertilizer over the fields nitrogenous fertilizer before rainfall, and 20 ~ 25 kg/ mus of nitrogen fertilizer amount;In 7 ~ August, every The potash fertilizer that a concentration is 0.3 ~ 0.5 wt% is sprayed within 15 ~ 20 days, continuous spraying 3 times, be 0.3 ~ 0.5 wt% in September spraying concentration Herbicide, while launching poison bait, wherein herbicide includes the component of following mass parts: 2,4-D 2 ~ 4 parts of butyl esters, glyphosate 5 ~ 8 parts and 3 ~ 5 parts of metsulfuron-methyl;
(6) Closed fencing 2 ~ 3 years.
The present invention proposes a kind of new Degraded Alpine oversowing on the basis of with reference to existing degeneration meadow interseeding technique Scheme, this programme sow a variety of arrangement pasture species, can not only increase Grassland Biomass, but also grass seeds emergence speed is different, protects The continuity and protectiveness of emergence are demonstrate,proved, specifically are as follows:
First delineation needs the Degraded Alpine meadow repaired, and is carried out sealing processing with the wire netting of 15 ~ 20 mesh, and wire netting not only may be used To prevent livestock from entering meadow, and since the aperture of wire netting is smaller, additionally it is possible to play the work for stopping rodent to enter With the quantity of reduction rodent, has positive effect to grassland protection to a certain extent.Meadow is first spread fertilizer over the fields after sealing to be had Machine fertilizer, then rake the soil level, organic fertilizer is sufficiently mixed with soil block, since organic fertilizer includes a variety of nutriments and flora, can be significantly improved Soil quality, preservation of fertility carry out grass seeds sowing again on this basis, can not only reduce the dosage of compound fertilizer, reduction pair The ecological disruption of extremely frigid zones, can also fully ensure that careless seedling stablizes growth;When raking the soil level, deep 3 ~ 5 cm are harrowed, compared to existing It is harrowed in technology deep less than 2cm, it is ensured that root system can grow into deeper stratum after grass seeds is taken root, and herbage plant can be preferably High and cold weather and strong wind are resisted, is of great significance to the reparation of Alpine Grasslands.
A variety of arrangement pasture species are sowed when being sowed in the present invention, is combined in seed and is included rapid field planting and be colonized at a slow speed careless Kind, the seed of two kinds of characteristics combines, and ensure that the continuity of grass seeds emergence, i.e., has grass seeds to go out in section in different times Seedling, even if seedling can also obtain sufficient supplement in the environment of awful weather;Moreover, first emerge grass seeds plant can to it is rear go out The seedling of seedling grass seeds is protected, and rear grass seeds survival rate of emerging greatly improves.In addition, prior to seeding, combination seed is first and dresses seed Agent mixes, and the seed dressing in the present invention includes c-type or D type creotoxin, heteroauxin, insecticide, fungicide and sandy soil, creotoxin The quantity of rodent in grassland can be reduced, insecticide, fungicide can avoid seed before germination i.e. by insect pest or harmful bacteria Class is tortured, and germination percentage is fully guaranteed, and heteroauxin can promote grass seeds and root, and sandy soil can prevent seed from reuniting, Seeded dispersion is more uniform when sowing, and growing way is more uniform when subsequent plant strain growth.
The present invention when carrying out field management, in addition to spray promote leaf growth potash fertilizer other than, can also herbicide spraying, this Herbicide specificity in invention is stronger, i.e., only to the weeds in degeneration meadow with growth vigor, such as white luxuriant carpet bugle, spine Beans, Lagotis brachystachya Maxim, Gansu resupinate woodbetony leaf or root etc. work, and can reduce the type and quantity of weeds, reduce herbage growth competitive pressure. In addition, also launching has poison bait, the quantity of rodent is can be effectively controlled in poison bait, and vegetation transition is avoided to bait.
Based on the above technical solution, the present invention can also be improved as follows.
Further, organic fertilizer is that sheep dung and withered grass press the quality of 2 ~ 3:1 than the product after mixed fermentation;Withered grass is by Degenerated The weeds grown in ground obtain after drying.
It is dried after gathering in weeds in the present invention, as the fermentation raw material of organic fertilizer, not only contributes to the life of after-culture herbage It is long, and the organic fertilizer after fermentation contains more profitable strain, and the meadow that can promote after planting is formed high and coldly in a short time Distinctive group of area, meadow repairing effect is more preferably.
Further, nitrogenous fertilizer is also added in fermentation material, nitrogen fertilizer amount accounts for the 0.05 ~ 0.1% of gross mass, fermentation time 5 ~ 7 It.
Nitrogenous fertilizer is added in fermentation material, the C/N of adjustable organic fertilizer is maintained at 25 ~ 30:1, to promote the fast fast-growing of herbage It is long.
Further, rapid field planting grass seeds is Elymus nutans and/or the old awn of wheat, and the grass seeds of field planting at a slow speed is that cold ground is precocious Standing grain.
It selects Elymus nutans and the old awn of wheat as rapid field planting grass seeds in the present invention, selects cool-zone turfgrasses as at a slow speed It is colonized grass seeds, the speed of emergence for being not only due to them is different, also as Elymus nutans and the old awn of wheat are top grass kinds, they Plant it is higher, cool-zone turfgrasses numerous grass seeds under being, plant is shorter, and two kinds of grass seeds cooperate, and forms high and low layered distinctness Phytobiocoenose, ensure that vegetation builds up that rear structure of community is reasonable, and stability with higher prevents weed invasion.
Further, insecticide is imidacloprid, and the fungicide is triazolone.
Further, poison bait is made by following steps:
A, bait is placed in 1 ~ 3 h of immersion in warm water, taking-up is filtered dry, then is uniformly mixed with essence with the mass ratio of 10:1 ~ 2;
B, c-type creotoxin is soluble in water, the c-type creotoxin solution of configuration final concentration of 0.1% ~ 0.2%;
C, the bait after processing of step A is laid on gauze, then bait is sprayed with step B acquired solution, with bait Subject to surface is sufficiently humidified so as to, poison bait is obtained.
Further, bait is oat, highland barley or wheat;The essence is flavor oil.
Further, poison bait put-on method are as follows: meadow is divided into the fritter of 4m*4 m, fritter center is release position, each Release position launches 10 ~ 20 g poison baits.
Meadow is divided into fritter, poison bait is launched in fritter, the throw-in density of poison bait can be regulated and controled, to avoid throwing Put density it is too small and be not achieved eliminate rodent purpose or throw-in density it is excessive, make rodent quantity mistake Destruction that is low and causing biological chain.
The beneficial effects of the present invention are: the thin, climate variability for Tibet Alpine-arctic Pastoral soil layer, soil nutrient is barren, and The features such as more bare soils in degeneration meadow, can generate high density seedling present technology provides a kind of on exposed soil, guarantee Renewable seedling numbers and dry year survival rate of seedling after overwintering, while guaranteeing to soil with sufficient nutrient, to degenerate Grassland vegetation restores to provide seed and nutrient condition, guarantees there are enough revegetations in 2 ~ 3 years, moves back suitable for moderate and severe Change the after-culture reparation of natural meadow.The present invention has a characteristic that
(1) pre-treatment of grass seed and high density seed sowing amount, ensure that under high altitude condition, in awful weather environment, There are higher seedling generation rate and enough seedling supplementary sources;
(2) grass seed of rapid field planting (Elymus nutans and siberian wildrye) and field planting (cool-zone turfgrasses) at a slow speed combination guarantees Emergence continuity and protectiveness, quick emerged plants provide protective effect for slow emergence species;
(3) top grass kind (Elymus nutans and siberian wildrye) and under numerous grass seeds (cool-zone turfgrasses) combination, ensure that vegetation is built Reasonable at rear structure of community, stability with higher prevents weed invasion;
(4) enough organic fertilizer provide enough carbon and nitrogen sources, are metabolized as plant for edaphon and provide nutrient, and Higher C:N can improve utilization rate of nitrogen fertilizer than fertilizer;
(5) that suppresses technology is embodied as preventing strong wind from seed material being caused to be lost, prevent high water under the extreme altitude conditions in Tibet Evaporation rate etc. is divided to occur;
(6) top dressing before rain guarantees that, in the plant growth critical period, moisture is fully utilized.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is after-culture the 3rd year and the comparison of non-after-culture degraded natural grassland plant height;
Fig. 2 is after-culture the 3rd year and the comparison of non-after-culture degraded natural grassland vegetation ground biomass;
Fig. 3 is after-culture the 3rd year and vegetational type's cover degree of non-after-culture degraded natural grassland compares.
Specific embodiment
Below with reference to embodiment, specific embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail.
The present invention is directed to increasingly serious Alpine Grasslands degenerate problem, provides a kind of new solution, that is, is referring to On the basis of existing interseeding technique, the scheme that " rapid field planting+at a slow speed be colonized ", " top grass kind+under numerous grass seeds " combine is proposed, Meadow can effectively be solved to repair slowly, the problem of repairing effect difference.Method in the present invention is mainly used for repairing moderate or severe Degraded Pastures, at this point, Degraded Pastures Cyperaceae and gramineae plant ratio are greatly decreased, weeds (such as white luxuriant carpet bugle, whin, Lagotis brachystachya Maxim, heparin resupinate woodbetony leaf or root etc.) ratio increase, vegetation coverage decline, meadow insect pest start destroy turf, exposed soil Ground is more and more, and rodent transition baits and destroys vegetation, increases exposed soil significantly, meadow is no longer appropriate for putting It herds.
The characteristics of by analysis moderate and heavy-degraded grassland, the present invention has formulated the recovery scenario to match therewith, tool Body are as follows:
(1) seal: delineation needs the grassland repaired, and the concrete stake or timber of high 2m or so is arranged with the interval of 5 ~ 10m around grassland, Then grassland is sealed with the wire netting of 15 ~ 20 mesh, when sealing, the inlet/outlet passed in and out for people is set;After sealing, by 500 ~ 1000 Kg/ mus of dosage spreads fertilizer over the fields organic fertilizer, and the organic fertilizer used in the present invention preferentially uses the product after sheep dung and withered grass fermentation, withered grass Obtained after being dried by the weeds grown in degeneration meadow, weeds extract before seedsetting, in order to avoid seed with organic fertilizer enter grassland after Continuous growth;Fermentation process are as follows: withered grass is crushed, is then uniformly mixed with sheep dung by the mass ratio of 1:2 ~ 3, then by mixed object Material heap is freely fermented at the circular cone of high 1m or so, basal diameter 2m or so;After fermentation 2 ~ 3 days, temperature reaches 65 DEG C or so, It is overturned under this high temperature once, continuation is freely fermented, and fermentation can be completed in one week;In order to adjust the C/N ratio of organic fertilizer, fermenting When, nitrogenous fertilizer can be added in fermentation material, the nitrogenous fertilizer of addition accounts for the 0.05 ~ 0.1% of fermentation material gross mass;After spreading fertilizer over the fields organic fertilizer, use Disc harrow or artificial rake gently harrow meadow, harrow deep 3 ~ 5 cm, mix organic fertilizer uniformly with soil block;
(2) it breeds: in order to guarantee the continuity of emergence, while increasing the structure of community of vegetation, need to select in the present invention a variety of Grass seeds is bred, principle of breeding are as follows: grass seeds emergence speed combines, and plant is high and low layered clearly demarcated, is based on this, sows in seed both It to include the grass seeds of rapid field planting (speed of emergence is fast), the grass seeds again comprising field planting (speed of emergence is slow) at a slow speed, and grass seeds There should be different plant heights.After investigating the common herbage of extremely frigid zones, the rapid field planting grass seeds used in the present invention can be from Selected in the kinds such as Elymus nutans or the old awn of wheat, can also be with a variety of mixed, these kinds are not only emerged fastly, and plant height compared with Height, being colonized grass seeds at a slow speed can select from the kinds such as cool-zone turfgrasses;Breeding is using mass ratio as rapid field planting: being colonized=3 at a slow speed ~ 4:1 is optimal, and the degree of purity for seed used of breeding is all larger than 95%;
(3) seed prepared: being placed in 25 ~ 35 DEG C of warm water 2 ~ 3 h in impregnating by seed treatment, and when immersion is had no guts with water logging Subject to son, seed is removed filter dry after the completion of immersion, then mixes, stirs evenly with seed dressing by the mass ratio of 1:1 ~ 2, so as to In the seed that seed dressing infiltrates through after swelling, seed dressing includes the drug for killing rodent, such as c-type or D type creotoxin, Further include desinsection and germ killing drugs, such as imidacloprid and triazolone, while further including planting in order to promote seed germination, in seed dressing Object auxin, such as heteroauxin, in addition, in order to which seed is not reunited, it can also be including flour or sandy soil in seed dressing, this In invention, the optimal set of seed dressing becomes: 4 ~ 5 parts of c-type or D type creotoxin, and 5 ~ 10 parts of heteroauxin, 1 ~ 3 part of insecticide, sterilization 3 ~ 5 parts and 4 ~ 5 parts of sandy soil of agent;
(4) it sows: being sowed in late May, seeding method is seeder program request or artificial broadcast, using planting with sowing machine When, seeding row spacing is 10 ~ 15 cm, and thickness of sowing is 5 ~ 10 kg/ mus;After planting peroxophosphoric acid is spread fertilizer over the fields by 20 ~ 25 kg/ mus of dosage Then calcium uses disc harrow or artificial rake cover-seeding region, then carries out suppression processing to sowing region, seed is made to submerge soil 3 cm or so;
(5) field management: after grass seeds emergence, spreading fertilizer over the fields nitrogenous fertilizer before rainfall, and 20 ~ 25 kg/ mus of nitrogen fertilizer amount;In 7 ~ August, every The potash fertilizer that a concentration is 0.3 ~ 0.5 wt% is sprayed within 15 ~ 20 days, continuous spraying 3 times, be 0.3 ~ 0.5 wt% in September spraying concentration Herbicide, while launching poison bait;Wherein, herbicide includes dialogue bud carpet bugle, whin, Lagotis brachystachya Maxim, Gansu resupinate woodbetony leaf or root Equal weeds have the component of special author, and such as 2,4-D butyl ester, metsulfuron-methyl, makes its grand, tribenuron-methyl etc. at glyphosate, the present invention In, the optimal set of herbicide becomes: 2,4-D 2 ~ 4 parts of butyl esters, and 5 ~ 8 parts and 3 ~ 5 parts of metsulfuron-methyl of glyphosate;In addition, poison bait is launched When, meadow is divided into the fritter of 4*4m, as release position, each release position launches 10 ~ 20 g poison baits in fritter center, and poison bait is logical Following steps are crossed to be made:
A, the bait such as oat, highland barley or wheat are placed in in 25 ~ 35 DEG C of warm water 1 ~ 3 h of immersion, taking-up is filtered dry, then with oil Essence is uniformly mixed with the mass ratio of 10:1 ~ 2;
B, c-type creotoxin is soluble in water, configure the c-type creotoxin solution of final concentration of 0.1% ~ 0.2% (mass concentration);
C, the bait after processing of step A is laid on gauze, then bait is sprayed with step B acquired solution, with bait Subject to surface is sufficiently humidified so as to, poison bait is obtained.
(6) Closed fencing 2 ~ 3 years.
Below by specific embodiment, yak cold season method for breeding of the invention is described in detail.
Bare soil is selected in the Dangxiong County village Guo Qing or sandstone landscape occupies grassland area ratio 20% hereinafter, weeds ratio (weight ratio) is no more than 40%, and 1000 mu of the taboo grassplot of gently degraded is divided into the plot of 4 pieces of area equations, and divides It is not sealed, while label.The method row after-culture reparation according to embodiment one into embodiment three respectively of 1 ~ No. 3 meadow, No. 4 Plot is without any processing, as control plot.
Embodiment one
(1) it seals: sealing the grassland for needing to repair with the wire netting of 15 mesh, then spread fertilizer over the fields by 1000 kg/ mus of dosage organic Fertilizer, then light rake meadow, harrow depth 3cm;
(2) it breeds: being bred with 5kg/ mus of Elymus nutans, awn of wheat 2.5kg/ mus old, 2.5kg/ mus of cool-zone turfgrasses dosage, it will All seeds uniformly mix;
(3) seed treatment: the seed prepared is placed in 25 DEG C of warm water impregnate in 3 h, then by the mass ratio of 1:1 with mix Kind agent uniformly mixes;Seed dressing comprises the following components in parts by weight: 5 parts of c-type or D type creotoxin, and 5 parts of heteroauxin, insecticide 1 Part, 4 parts and 4 parts of sandy soil of fungicide;
(4) it sows: being sowed in late April, seeding method is artificial broadcast, and thickness of sowing is 10 kg/ mus;After planting press 25 kg/ mus of dosage spreads fertilizer over the fields calcium superphosphate, then uses disc harrow cover-seeding region, then carry out suppression processing to sowing region;
(5) field management: after grass seeds emergence, spreading fertilizer over the fields nitrogenous fertilizer before rainfall, and 25 kg/ mus of nitrogen fertilizer amount;In 7 ~ August, every 20 days The potash fertilizer that a concentration is 0.5 wt% is sprayed, continuous spraying 3 times, in the herbicide that September spraying concentration is 0.5 wt%, is thrown simultaneously Put poison bait, wherein herbicide includes the component of following mass parts: 2,4-D 3 parts of butyl esters, and 5 parts and 5 parts of metsulfuron-methyl of glyphosate;
(6) Closed fencing 2 ~ 3 years.
Embodiment two
(1) it seals: sealing the grassland for needing to repair with the wire netting of 20 mesh, then spread fertilizer over the fields organic fertilizer by 500 kg/ mus of dosage, Meadow is gently harrowed again, harrows depth 5cm;
(2) it breeds: being bred with the dosage of 8kg/ mus of Elymus nutans, 2kg/ mus of cool-zone turfgrasses, all seeds are uniformly mixed;
(3) seed treatment: the seed prepared is placed in 35 DEG C of warm water impregnate in 2 h, then by the mass ratio of 1:2 with mix Kind agent uniformly mixes;Seed dressing comprises the following components in parts by weight: 4 parts of c-type or D type creotoxin, and 8 parts of heteroauxin, insecticide 2 Part, 3 parts and 5 parts of sandy soil of fungicide;
(4) it sows: being sowed in late April, seeding method is artificial broadcast, and thickness of sowing is 5 kg/ mus;After planting press 20kG/ mus of dosage spreads fertilizer over the fields calcium superphosphate, then uses disc harrow cover-seeding region, then carry out suppression processing to sowing region;
(5) field management: after grass seeds emergence, spreading fertilizer over the fields nitrogenous fertilizer before rainfall, and 20 kg/ mus of nitrogen fertilizer amount;In 7 ~ August, every 15 days The potash fertilizer that a concentration is 0.3 wt% is sprayed, continuous spraying 3 times, in the herbicide that September spraying concentration is 0.3 wt%, is thrown simultaneously Put poison bait, wherein herbicide includes the component of following mass parts: 2,4-D 2 parts of butyl esters, and 8 parts and 4 parts of metsulfuron-methyl of glyphosate;
(6) Closed fencing 2 ~ 3 years.
Embodiment three
(1) it seals: sealing the grassland for needing to repair with the wire netting of 20 mesh, then spread fertilizer over the fields organic fertilizer by 800 kg/ mus of dosage, Meadow is gently harrowed again, harrows deep 3 cm;
(2) it breeds: being bred with the dosage of 9 kg/ mus of cool-zone turfgrasses, 3 kg/ mus of cool-zone turfgrasses, all seeds are uniformly mixed It closes;
(3) seed treatment: the seed prepared is placed in 30 DEG C of warm water impregnate in 3 h, then by the mass ratio of 1:1 with mix Kind agent uniformly mixes;Seed dressing comprises the following components in parts by weight: 5 parts of c-type or D type creotoxin, and 10 parts of heteroauxin, insecticide 1 part, 5 parts and 5 parts of sandy soil of fungicide;
(4) it sows: being sowed in late April, seeding method is artificial broadcast, and thickness of sowing is 8 kg/ mus;After planting press 25kG/ mus of dosage spreads fertilizer over the fields calcium superphosphate, then uses disc harrow cover-seeding region, then carry out suppression processing to sowing region;
(5) field management: after grass seeds emergence, spreading fertilizer over the fields nitrogenous fertilizer before rainfall, and 25 kg/ mus of nitrogen fertilizer amount;In 7 ~ August, every 15 days The potash fertilizer that a concentration is 0.5 wt% is sprayed, continuous spraying 3 times, in the herbicide that September spraying concentration is 0.5 wt%, is thrown simultaneously Put poison bait, wherein herbicide includes the component of following mass parts: 2,4-D 4 parts of butyl esters, and 5 parts and 3 parts of metsulfuron-methyl of glyphosate;
(6) Closed fencing 2 ~ 3 years.
Interpretation of result
By taking embodiment one as an example, after planting the 3rd year, being randomly provided 5 areas at the beginning of 6,7,8,9,10 months in sample ground was 50 m* The belt transect of 100 m.It is randomly provided the subquadrat of 10 cm of 50 cm × 50 in each belt transect, records the plant in each sample prescription Then type uses quadrat method (being made of 100 areas for the grid of the cm of 5 cm × 5), measure cover degree of communities and height respectively Degree.Aboveground vegetation part flush with ground in subquadrat is cradled into weighing.The results are shown in Table 1 for its data statistics, moves back as the result is shown The vegetational type's cover degree for changing meadow more comparatively increases 80.64 % (July), and more comparatively vegetation is raw on the ground on after-culture improvement ground Object amount increases 66.00% (August part).
Influence to degraded natural grassland height, cover degree and ground biomass in 1 after-culture of table the 3rd year
The situation of change of range land soil nutrient after being listed in table 2 sowing 3 years, there it can be seen that degeneration meadow is in after-culture (3 years) in a short time afterwards, soil environment have greatly improved, and available nutrient content significantly increases, and are more suitble to draft The free growth of plant.
Influence of 2 after-culture of table to degeneration native pasture soil nutrient
Fig. 1 is after-culture the 3rd year and the comparison of non-after-culture degraded natural grassland plant height, and Fig. 2 is after-culture the 3rd year and non-after-culture is moved back Change the comparison of natural grassland vegetation ground biomass, Fig. 3 is after-culture the 3rd year and the vegetational type of non-after-culture degraded natural grassland lid Degree compares, it can be seen that after-culture repairing effect is very significant.
Although being described in detail in conjunction with attached drawing to a specific embodiment of the invention, should not be construed as special to this The restriction of the protection scope of benefit.In range described by claims, those skilled in the art are without creative work The various modifications and deformation that can make still belong to the protection scope of this patent.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure, which comprises the following steps:
(1) it seals: sealing the grassland for needing to repair with the wire netting of 15 ~ 20 mesh, then spread by 500 ~ 1000 kg/ mus of dosage Organic fertilizer, then light rake meadow, harrow deep 3 ~ 5 cm;
(2) breed: selection degree of purity be all larger than 95% rapid field planting and be colonized grass seeds at a slow speed, by they by 3 ~ 4:1 mass ratio Uniformly mixing;
(3) seed prepared: being placed in 25 ~ 35 DEG C of warm water 2 ~ 3 h in impregnating by seed treatment, then presses the quality of 1:1 ~ 2 Than uniformly being mixed with seed dressing;The seed dressing comprises the following components in parts by weight: 4 ~ 5 parts of c-type or D type creotoxin, indoles second 5 ~ 10 parts of acid, 1 ~ 3 part of insecticide, 3 ~ 5 parts and 4 ~ 5 parts of sandy soil of fungicide;
(4) it sows: being sowed in late May, seeding method is seeder program request or artificial broadcast, and thickness of sowing is 5 ~ 10 Kg/ mus;Calcium superphosphate after planting is spread fertilizer over the fields by 20 ~ 25 kg/ mus of dosage, then uses disc harrow or artificial rake cover-seeding area Domain, then suppression processing is carried out to sowing region;
(5) field management: after grass seeds emergence, spreading fertilizer over the fields nitrogenous fertilizer before rainfall, and 20 ~ 25 kg/ mus of nitrogen fertilizer amount;In 7 ~ August, every The potash fertilizer that a concentration is 0.3 ~ 0.5 wt% is sprayed within 15 ~ 20 days, continuous spraying 3 times, be 0.3 ~ 0.5 wt% in September spraying concentration Herbicide, while launching poison bait, wherein herbicide includes the component of following mass parts: 2,4-D 2 ~ 4 parts of butyl esters, glyphosate 5 ~ 8 parts and 3 ~ 5 parts of metsulfuron-methyl;
(6) Closed fencing 2 ~ 3 years.
2. Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the organic fertilizer is Sheep dung and withered grass press the quality of 2 ~ 3:1 than the product after mixed fermentation;The withered grass is dried by the weeds grown in degeneration meadow After obtain.
3. Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: also add in fermentation material Added with nitrogenous fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer amount accounts for the 0.05 ~ 0.1% of gross mass, and fermentation time 5 ~ 7 days.
4. Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the rapid field planting Grass seeds is Elymus nutans and/or the old awn of wheat, and the grass seeds of field planting at a slow speed is cool-zone turfgrasses.
5. Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the insecticide is Imidacloprid, the fungicide are triazolone.
6. Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the poison bait passes through Following steps are made:
A, bait is placed in 1 ~ 3 h of immersion in warm water, taking-up is filtered dry, then is uniformly mixed with essence with the mass ratio of 10:1 ~ 2;
B, c-type creotoxin is soluble in water, the c-type creotoxin solution of configuration final concentration of 0.1% ~ 0.2%;
C, the bait after processing of step A is laid on gauze, then bait is sprayed with step B acquired solution, with bait Subject to surface is sufficiently humidified so as to, poison bait is obtained.
7. Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure according to claim 6, it is characterised in that: the bait is swallow Wheat, highland barley or wheat;The essence is flavor oil.
8. Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure according to claim 1, which is characterized in that poison bait put-on method Are as follows: meadow is divided into the fritter of 4m*4 m, the fritter center is release position, and each release position launches 10 ~ 20 g poison baits.
CN201810763336.1A 2018-07-12 2018-07-12 A kind of Degraded Alpine grassland ecology after-culture restorative procedure Pending CN109041624A (en)

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CN112314139A (en) * 2020-11-02 2021-02-05 内蒙古自治区农牧业科学院 Fertilizing method for improving grassland productivity

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