CN109024607A - Expand the device and method that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent - Google Patents

Expand the device and method that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109024607A
CN109024607A CN201810779218.XA CN201810779218A CN109024607A CN 109024607 A CN109024607 A CN 109024607A CN 201810779218 A CN201810779218 A CN 201810779218A CN 109024607 A CN109024607 A CN 109024607A
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China
Prior art keywords
swelling agent
area
anchoring
rock mass
anchor pole
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CN201810779218.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
刘杰
兰俊
高素芳
周克虎
张罗送
高进
罗越文
孙涛
黎照
周文俊
莫承林
姜锋
韩绍康
李骁霖
武杰宾
蒋旭
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China Three Gorges University CTGU
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China Three Gorges University CTGU
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Priority to CN201810779218.XA priority Critical patent/CN109024607A/en
Publication of CN109024607A publication Critical patent/CN109024607A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/02Foundation pits
    • E02D17/04Bordering surfacing or stiffening the sides of foundation pits
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D17/00Excavations; Bordering of excavations; Making embankments
    • E02D17/20Securing of slopes or inclines

Abstract

The invention discloses the device and method that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone is expanded using swelling agent, it includes deep rock mass, and there are different broken rock areas and rockmass areas inside the deep rock mass;The anchoring of the inside in the broken rock area and rockmass area has anchor pole, the expansion cement slurry of different content swelling agent is poured inside the broken rock area of different depth or layering where the anchor pole, the anchoring body of different depth is formed, and then by anchor rod anchored inside deep rock mass;Bed course is provided on the anchor pole and positioned at the edge in broken rock area.The invention has many advantages, such as the diameter for substantially shortening anchoring depth, reducing drilling, greatly improves withdrawal resistance, saves construction cost, saves the duration.It is primarily adapted for use in the engineerings such as bridge tunel engineering, port and pier, slope project, mine construction, defence engineering, there is extensive practical engineering value and application prospect.

Description

Expand the device that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent And method
Technical field
The invention mainly relates to a kind of novel expansion body anchorage technologies, and it is broken to deep rock mass difference to expand head effect using swelling agent The method that split plot is reinforced principally falls into the supporting field of deep high-ground stress country rock, is primarily adapted for use in bridge tunel engineering, harbour In the engineerings such as harbour, slope project, mine construction, defence engineering.
Background technique
With the rapid development of our country's economy, anchorage technology is in skyscraper, rail traffic, bridge tunel engineering, Urban Underground The fields such as transport hub, port and pier, reservoir high dam, slope project, mine construction, defence engineering have a wide range of applications.Work Journey circle is just facing a large amount of tunnels, underground chamber, shaft and drift supporting, stability of slope, deep basal pit, structural anti-buoyancy, high-pressure water pipeline etc. Large-scale, technical difficulty and the higher geotechnical engineering stable problem of degree of risk.Existing tunnel anchorage technology exists
Surrouding rock deformation load is larger to cause the supporting of subregion broken surrounding rock difficult, destroy it is serious, anchor rod anchored section it is too long (up to 6~ 12m), the long withdrawal resistance of unit anchor is low, anchor pole failure occurs, the nonlinear deformations such as sprinkler body falls off, roof collapse, wall caving and pucking The problems such as destruction, repair rate is high, and support cost increases.And construction cost is excessively high, it is long in time limit.And novel expansion body anchorage technology is true Protect one of above-mentioned engineering construction safety, economic, efficient and environmentally friendly optimal path.
In view of the above problems the present invention propose one kind in tunnel engineering using swelling agent expand head effect to deep rock mass not With the method that rupture zone is reinforced, the novel enlarging anchor rod and the most significant difference of traditional soil bolt are the two anchoring The difference of section form, conventional anchor carrys out power transmission load by the cohesive force and friction effect of anchoring section and surrounding soil, so anchor Gu the size of power depends on the length of effective anchoring section;And expand squeezed anchor pole rely primarily on expansion extruding expanding body side pressure effect hold It carries, the end loaded area for depending mainly on the size of expansion extruding expanding body of anchor force, so the length of expansion extruding expanding body need to only expire Foot can shorten the effective compacted requirement of the soil body, the length of anchoring section.And this technology has substantially shortening anchoring Segment length, the diameter for reducing drilling greatly improve withdrawal resistance, save construction cost, save the advantages that duration.
Summary of the invention
The invention discloses one kind in tunnel engineering using swelling agent expand head effect to deep rock mass difference rupture zone into The method that row is reinforced, for the rock crusher region of different depth in tunnel engineering, certain content is added in proposition in cement slurry Swelling agent formed in the different layering rock crusher areas of different depth and repeatedly expand head using the self-expanding performance of swelling agent, and One round iron pan is installed in the bottom of conventional anchor, the improvement of traditional tension type anchor pole is become into pressure type anchor rod, utilizes expansion Expand head and pressure type anchor rod makes conventional anchor carry out power transmission load by the cohesive force and friction effect of anchoring section and surrounding soil Working principle become the side pressure effect carrying that the novel anchor rod relies primarily on expansion extruding expanding body, the size of anchor force mainly depends on In the end loaded area of expansion extruding expanding body, the length that head body is expanded in the expansion which is proposed need to only meet and can have to the soil body Compacted requirement is imitated, the length of anchoring section can substantially shorten.The invention, which has, substantially to be shortened anchoring depth, reduces and bore The diameter in hole greatly improves withdrawal resistance, saves construction cost, saves the advantages that duration.It is primarily adapted for use in bridge tunel engineering, harbour code In the engineerings such as head, slope project, mine construction, defence engineering, there is extensive practical engineering value and application prospect.
In order to realize above-mentioned technical characteristic, the object of the present invention is achieved like this: expanding head effect pair using swelling agent The device that deep rock mass difference rupture zone is reinforced, it includes deep rock mass, and there are different to break inside the deep rock mass Split rock mass area and rockmass area;The anchoring of the inside in the broken rock area and rockmass area has anchor pole, the anchor pole place Different depth or layering broken rock area inside pour the expansion cement slurry of different content swelling agent, form different depth Anchoring body, and then by anchor rod anchored inside deep rock mass;Pad is provided on the anchor pole and positioned at the edge in broken rock area Layer.
The globality in the rockmass area is fine, and crack is few, connects closely knit;Broken rock area is the rock piton by rupturing Product forms, and gap is larger, and energy changing of the relative positions fitting, there is certain compressibility between fractured rock.
The broken rock area and rockmass area are layered in different depth inside deep rock mass, are interspersed.
The anchoring body of the different depth includes that the first layer formed in first layer broken rock area expands the anchoring of head swelling agent Body and the second layer formed in second layer broken rock area expand head swelling agent anchoring body.
Aperture circle iron pan is set on the anchor pole, the aperture circle iron pan is fixed on anchor pole by gasket and nut Bottom end.
The anchor pole, which uses, has certain flexibility and stronger steel anchor rod, is connected firmly between disk.
The outside of hole has poured conventional cement mortar where the anchor pole, is added in the conventional cement mortar and centainly contains The swelling agent of amount, the content range of swelling agent is below 40%.
The bed course uses circular flexible rubber material, and centre is machined with hole identical with bar diameter, in turn Separate ordinary cement slurry and expansion cement slurry.
Any one expands the method that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent, and feature exists In the following steps are included:
Step1: material prepares: conventional cement mortar, swelling agent, anchor cable, anchor pole, sonic detector;
Step2: it is detected with sonic detector: being accurately positioned position, quantity and the range of rupture zone, institute using sonic detector It is rockmass area that the velocity of sound, which is measured, in 4000m/s-6000m/s, and the velocity of sound is then broken rock area lower than 4000m/s;
Step3: the hole of corresponding size drilling: is drilled through with drilling machine according to the region divided;
Step4: configuring water: cement: sand: swelling agent according to certain match ratio, and ratio is the expansive cement mortar of a:b:c:d, And prepare a certain proportion of ordinary cement slurry;
Step5: it assembling anchor pole: is tightened with nut in anchor cable one end, then anchor pole is passed through the aperture spiral shell of middle of the disc by shimming Line is subject to gasket in the reverse side of disk again, is then tightened with nut, is closely connected and fixed anchor cable with disk using two nuts Together.
Step6: slip casting;
Step7: conserving the slurry poured, expands head and tension type anchor pole in different depths using expansion after the completion of conserving The rupture zone of degree forms multilayer and expands head anchoring body, expands a compacted country rock by expanding radial force, by the side pressure of expansion extruding expanding body Effect carrying improves anti-pulling of anchor bar.
The specific operation process of the Step6 is, after anchor pole is inserted into hole, using slip casing by pressure in broken rock area First layer area pour bulking agent levels be a expansive cement mortar, so that expansion cement slurry is entered broken rock gap, consolidate Rock forms first layer and expands head swelling agent anchoring body, is laid with bed course after the completion of the first expansion anchoring section pours;And then The rockmass area of one floor rupture zone pours conventional cement mortar by slip casing by pressure equipment, is then laid with gasket, in complete rock The second rupture demixing zone on body area top, pours the expansive cement mortar that bulking agent levels are b, forms the second layer and expand head swelling agent Anchoring body expands on head swelling agent anchoring body in the second layer and pours ordinary cement slurry sealing, forms a complete anchoring body.
The present invention compared with prior art, has the beneficial effect that
1, the innovative proposition of the present invention applies to swelling agent in anchor bolt works, for the country rock of different depth in tunnel engineering Broken region forms in the different layering rock crusher areas of different depth using the self-expanding performance of swelling agent and repeatedly expands head, will Traditional tension type anchor pole improvement becomes pressure type anchor rod, expands head using expansion and pressure type anchor rod makes conventional anchor by anchoring The working principle that section and the cohesive force and friction effect of surrounding soil carry out power transmission load becomes the novel anchor rod and relies primarily on expansion The side pressure of extruding expanding body acts on carrying, the end loaded area for depending mainly on the size of expansion extruding expanding body of anchor force.
2, the advantages of technology is the technology upgrading to conventional anchor, has not only remained original technology, but also to its shortcoming It is improved, improves reliability, the safety of the technology.
3, it is hidden to can effectively avoid the corrosion of tension type anchor pole crack in tension bring for the novel enlarging anchor rod that the invention proposes Suffer from, anchor pole can be made to expand during body section effectively sets, protective layer thickness is increased, be effective against corrosivity underground water and the soil body to reinforcing bar Corrosion, it is ensured that the durability of anchor structure.
4, novel multi-layer proposed by the present invention, which expands head anchor pole, to generate swelling pressure crowd in-out effects to peripheral rock, can improve and enclose The load-carrying properties of rock significantly improve anchor pole bearing capacity, to save project cost 10~15%.
5, the invention utilizes the characteristic of large dosage swelling agent cement, is that entire anchor cable forms multiple expansion heads, improves whole The withdrawal resistance of body efficiently solves the mobility of rupture zone rubble, and country rock generates the changing of the relative positions, and the frictional force between rock increases, Improve the whole intensity of rock with from load.
6, the intensity for expanding water squeezing cement mortar is high, and water repelling property is preferable, and not only durable but also cost performance is high, and cost is relatively low, Durability is good, economical and practical.
7, the invention has the diameter for substantially shortening anchoring depth, reducing drilling, greatly improves withdrawal resistance, saves construction Cost saves the advantages that duration, is primarily adapted for use in the engineerings such as bridge tunel engineering, slope project, has extensive engineering practice meaning Justice and application prospect.
Detailed description of the invention
Present invention will be further explained below with reference to the attached drawings and examples.
Fig. 1 is that the present invention relates to overall structure diagrams.
Fig. 2 is anchor structure schematic detail view involved in the present invention.
In figure, deep rock mass 1, broken rock 2, rockmass area 3, bed course 4, conventional cement mortar 5, ordinary mortar anchoring Section 6, first layer expand head swelling agent anchoring body 7, the second layer expands head swelling agent anchoring body 8, anchor pole 9, round iron pan 10, nut 11, Gasket 12.
Specific embodiment
Embodiments of the present invention are described further with reference to the accompanying drawing.
Embodiment 1:
Referring to Fig.1-2, expand the device that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent, it includes deep Rock mass 1, there are different broken rock areas 2 and rockmass areas 3 inside the deep rock mass 1;The broken rock area 2 and complete The inside anchoring in whole rock mass area 3 has anchor pole 9, pours inside the different depth at 9 place of anchor pole or the broken rock area 2 of layering The expansion cement slurry of different content swelling agent forms the anchoring body of different depth, and then anchor pole 9 is anchored in deep rock mass 1 Portion;Bed course 4 is provided on the anchor pole 9 and positioned at the edge in broken rock area 2.By using the bracing means of above structure, In the construction process, by forming the anchoring body of different depth size in broken rock area 2, and then 9 type of anchor pole is reinforced, Using expansion expand head and pressure type anchor rod make conventional anchor by the cohesive force and friction effect of anchoring section and surrounding soil come Power transmission load.The invention has the diameter for substantially shortening anchoring depth, reducing drilling, greatly improves withdrawal resistance, saves construction Cost saves the advantages that duration.
Further, the globality in the rockmass area 3 is fine, and crack is few, connects closely knit;Broken rock area 2 be by The rock deposit of rupture forms, and gap is larger, and energy changing of the relative positions fitting, there is certain compressibility between fractured rock.It is to influence to enclose The main reason for grotto room stability, can carry out supporting with expansion cement slurry for the section.
Further, the broken rock area 2 and rockmass area 3 are layered in different depth inside deep rock mass 1, hand over Mistake distribution.Broken rock area and rockmass area can be divided by survey meter.
Further, the anchoring body of the different depth include the first layer formed in first layer broken rock area expand it is swollen Swollen dose of anchoring body 7 and the second layer formed in second layer broken rock area expand head swelling agent anchoring body 8.By in different depth point Anchor pole is squeezed into floor, the broken rock area being interspersed, every layer of expanded agent cement paste for pouring different content swelling agent is added Gu being formed its object is to which different expansion head anchoring bodys can be formed in different layering broken rock areas and repeatedly expanding head, can substantially contracted Short anchoring depth and unit withdrawal resistance.
Further, aperture circle iron pan 10 is set on the anchor pole 9, the aperture circle iron pan 10 passes through gasket 12 The bottom end of anchor pole 9 is fixed on nut 11.
Further, the anchor pole 9 is connected firmly between disk using having certain flexibility and stronger steel anchor rod. Make entire anchoring body that there is stronger shear resistance.
Further, the outside of the 9 place hole of anchor pole has poured conventional cement mortar 5, the conventional cement mortar 5 In the swelling agent of certain content is added, the content range of swelling agent is below 40%.Water: water is configured according to suitable match ratio Mud: sand: swelling agent is the expansive cement mortar of a:b:c:d.
Further, the bed course 4 uses circular flexible rubber material, and centre is machined with identical with bar diameter Hole, and then separate ordinary cement slurry 5 and expansion cement slurry.
Embodiment 2:
Any one expands the method that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent, it is characterised in that packet Include following steps:
Step1: material prepares: conventional cement mortar, swelling agent, anchor cable, anchor pole, sonic detector;
Step2: it is detected with sonic detector: being accurately positioned position, quantity and the range of rupture zone, institute using sonic detector It is rockmass area that the velocity of sound, which is measured, in 4000m/s-6000m/s, and the velocity of sound is then broken rock area lower than 4000m/s;
Step3: the hole of corresponding size drilling: is drilled through with drilling machine according to the region divided;
Step4: configuring water: cement: sand: swelling agent according to certain match ratio, and ratio is the expansive cement mortar of a:b:c:d, And prepare a certain proportion of ordinary cement slurry;
Step5: it assembling anchor pole: is tightened with nut in anchor cable one end, then anchor pole is passed through the aperture spiral shell of middle of the disc by shimming Line is subject to gasket in the reverse side of disk again, is then tightened with nut, is closely connected and fixed anchor cable with disk using two nuts Together.
Step6: slip casting;
Step7: conserving the slurry poured, expands head and tension type anchor pole in different depths using expansion after the completion of conserving The rupture zone of degree forms multilayer and expands head anchoring body, expands a compacted country rock by expanding radial force, by the side pressure of expansion extruding expanding body Effect carrying improves anti-pulling of anchor bar.
The specific operation process of the Step6 is, after anchor pole 9 is inserted into hole, using slip casing by pressure in broken rock The first layer area in area 2 pours the expansive cement mortar that bulking agent levels are a, and expansion cement slurry is made to enter 2 gap of broken rock, Consolidated rock forms first layer and expands head swelling agent anchoring body 7, is laid with bed course 4 after the completion of the first expansion anchoring section pours;Tight Then the rockmass area 3 of first layer rupture zone pours conventional cement mortar 5 by slip casing by pressure equipment, is then laid with gasket 11, second on 3 top of rockmass area ruptures demixing zone, pours the expansive cement mortar that bulking agent levels are b, forms second Layer expands head swelling agent anchoring body 8, expands on head swelling agent anchoring body 8 in the second layer and pours ordinary cement slurry sealing, and formation one is complete Whole anchoring body.
The data obtained is arranged, the analysis for the rock sample internal injury variation that rock sample is reflected in load and uninstall process is obtained Table.
Above-described embodiment is used to illustrate the present invention, rather than limits the invention, in spirit of the invention and In scope of protection of the claims, to any modifications and changes that the present invention makes, protection scope of the present invention is both fallen within.

Claims (10)

1. expanding the device that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent, it is characterised in that: it includes Deep rock mass (1), the deep rock mass (1) is internal, and there are different broken rock areas (2) and rockmass area (3);It is described broken The inside anchoring for splitting rock mass area (2) and rockmass area (3) has anchor pole (9), different depth or layering where the anchor pole (9) Broken rock area (2) inside pour the expansion cement slurry of different content swelling agent, form the anchoring body of different depth, and then will It is internal that anchor pole (9) is anchored at deep rock mass (1);Bed course is provided on the anchor pole (9) and positioned at the edge of broken rock area (2) (4).
2. according to claim 1 expand the dress that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent It sets, it is characterised in that: the globality of the rockmass area (3) is fine, and crack is few, connects closely knit;Broken rock area (2) be by The rock deposit of rupture forms, and gap is larger, and energy changing of the relative positions fitting, there is certain compressibility between fractured rock.
3. according to claim 1 or 2 expand what head effect reinforced deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent Device, it is characterised in that: the broken rock area (2) and rockmass area (3) are internal in different depth point in deep rock mass (1) Layer is interspersed.
4. according to claim 1 expand the dress that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent It sets, it is characterised in that: the anchoring body of the different depth includes that the first layer formed in first layer broken rock area expands head expansion Agent anchoring body (7) and the second layer formed in second layer broken rock area expand head swelling agent anchoring body (8).
5. according to claim 1 expand the dress that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent It sets, it is characterised in that: aperture circle iron pan (10) is set on the anchor pole (9), the aperture circle iron pan (10) passes through pad Piece (12) and nut (11) are fixed on the bottom end of anchor pole (9).
6. according to claim 5 expand the dress that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent It sets, it is characterised in that: the anchor pole (9) is connected firmly between disk using having certain flexibility and stronger steel anchor rod.
7. according to claim 1 expand the dress that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent It sets, it is characterised in that: the outside of hole has poured conventional cement mortar (5), the conventional cement mortar where the anchor pole (9) (5) the inner swelling agent that certain content is added, the content range of swelling agent is below 40%.
8. according to claim 1 expand the dress that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent It sets, it is characterised in that: the bed course (4) uses circular flexible rubber material, and centre is machined with identical with bar diameter Hole, and then separate ordinary cement slurry (5) and expansion cement slurry.
9. claim 1-8 any one using swelling agent expand the side that is reinforced to deep rock mass difference rupture zone of head effect Method, it is characterised in that the following steps are included:
Step1: material prepares: conventional cement mortar, swelling agent, anchor cable, anchor pole, sonic detector;
Step2: it is detected with sonic detector: being accurately positioned position, quantity and the range of rupture zone, institute using sonic detector It is rockmass area that the velocity of sound, which is measured, in 4000m/s-6000m/s, and the velocity of sound is then broken rock area lower than 4000m/s;
Step3: the hole of corresponding size drilling: is drilled through with drilling machine according to the region divided;
Step4: configuring water: cement: sand: swelling agent according to certain match ratio, and ratio is the expansive cement mortar of a:b:c:d, And prepare a certain proportion of ordinary cement slurry;
Step5: it assembling anchor pole: is tightened with nut in anchor cable one end, then anchor pole is passed through the aperture spiral shell of middle of the disc by shimming Line is subject to gasket in the reverse side of disk again, is then tightened with nut, is closely connected and fixed anchor cable with disk using two nuts Together;
Step6: slip casting;
Step7: conserving the slurry poured, expands head and tension type anchor pole in different depths using expansion after the completion of conserving The rupture zone of degree forms multilayer and expands head anchoring body, expands a compacted country rock by expanding radial force, by the side pressure of expansion extruding expanding body Effect carrying improves anti-pulling of anchor bar.
10. expand the method that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent according to claim 9, It is characterized by: the specific operation process of the Step6 is, after anchor pole (9) are inserted into hole, ruptured using slip casing by pressure The first layer area in rock mass area (2) pours the expansive cement mortar that bulking agent levels are a, and expansion cement slurry is made to enter broken rock (2) gap, consolidated rock form first layer and expand head swelling agent anchoring body (7), are laid with after the completion of the first expansion anchoring section pours Bed course (4);Conventional cement mortar is poured by slip casing by pressure equipment in the rockmass area (3) of and then first layer rupture zone (5), gasket (11) then are laid with, second on rockmass area (3) top ruptures demixing zone, and pouring bulking agent levels is b's Expansive cement mortar forms the second layer and expands head swelling agent anchoring body (8), expands on head swelling agent anchoring body (8) in the second layer and pour Ordinary cement slurry sealing, forms a complete anchoring body.
CN201810779218.XA 2018-07-16 2018-07-16 Expand the device and method that head effect reinforces deep rock mass difference rupture zone using swelling agent Pending CN109024607A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110397451A (en) * 2019-07-29 2019-11-01 三峡大学 It is a kind of to form the construction method that cavity excavate cavern's pre-reinforcement using deep soft rock
CN111337644A (en) * 2019-12-31 2020-06-26 三峡大学 Tunnel step-by-step excavation simulation device and using method
CN113431060A (en) * 2021-06-17 2021-09-24 三峡大学 Variable cross-section root pile and film bag concrete combined drainage greening slope protection structure and method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
JPH11303073A (en) * 1998-04-23 1999-11-02 Asahi Tec Corp Underground anchor
CN105422153A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-03-23 湖南大学 Segmented anchoring anchor rod used for reinforcing regionally-disintegrated surrounding rocks of roadways
CN107142933A (en) * 2017-06-01 2017-09-08 三峡大学 The device and method of withdrawal resistance is greatly improved in a kind of soil layer anchoring

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110397451A (en) * 2019-07-29 2019-11-01 三峡大学 It is a kind of to form the construction method that cavity excavate cavern's pre-reinforcement using deep soft rock
CN111337644A (en) * 2019-12-31 2020-06-26 三峡大学 Tunnel step-by-step excavation simulation device and using method
CN113431060A (en) * 2021-06-17 2021-09-24 三峡大学 Variable cross-section root pile and film bag concrete combined drainage greening slope protection structure and method

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