CN109022707A - A kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods - Google Patents

A kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109022707A
CN109022707A CN201810990032.9A CN201810990032A CN109022707A CN 109022707 A CN109022707 A CN 109022707A CN 201810990032 A CN201810990032 A CN 201810990032A CN 109022707 A CN109022707 A CN 109022707A
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China
Prior art keywords
ultrasonic
heat treatment
temperature
steel
salt bath
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CN201810990032.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
陈志浩
曹伟
朱协彬
姚敏
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Anhui Polytechnic University
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Anhui Polytechnic University
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Priority to CN201810990032.9A priority Critical patent/CN109022707A/en
Publication of CN109022707A publication Critical patent/CN109022707A/en
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/04General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering with simultaneous application of supersonic waves, magnetic or electric fields
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/26Methods of annealing
    • C21D1/28Normalising
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/34Methods of heating
    • C21D1/44Methods of heating in heat-treatment baths
    • C21D1/46Salt baths
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D6/00Heat treatment of ferrous alloys
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D2211/00Microstructure comprising significant phases
    • C21D2211/005Ferrite
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D2211/00Microstructure comprising significant phases
    • C21D2211/009Pearlite

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods, it is related to technical field of heat treatment, including salt bath solution preheating, the heat preservation of workpiece salt bath, ultrasonic treatment and air-cooled and etc., the present invention in No. 45 steel normalizing insulating processes by importing the ultrasonic field of certain vibration frequency and power, normalizing holding temperature can be reduced, soaking time needed for austenitizing process is greatly decreased improves normalizing efficiency, improve normalizing heat-treated sturcture, promotes 45 steel comprehensive performances.

Description

A kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field of heat treatment, and in particular to a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods.
Background technique
Heat treatment process is an important basic technology, company usually important as axis, gear, connecting rod etc. in mechanical industry Pipe fitting and important mold all will be through Overheating Treatments, as long as moreover, material selection and being heat-treated and proper will make part Service life at double, even tens times of increase, if material selection and heat treatment are all proper every time, so that it may reach and get twice the result with half the effort Effect.Heat treatment improves metal quality, saves material, reduce energy consumption, improve product for playing metal material Potential performance Service life promotes economic development and all has a very important significance.
Just at present, for China's machine industry when implementing metal heat treatmet technology, there is also some incomplete Place, this, which has metal material thermal effectiveness and material self performance etc., is difficult to obliterated influence.Mainly have following Several deficiencies: 1, energy consumption is big, and energy utilization rate is low;2, thermal treatment production process and equipment fall behind;3, poor product quality, life Produce low efficiency, it is seriously polluted the problems such as.
Following development trend sees that the development prospect of heat treatment mainly has following broad aspect:
Metal material New Technology of Heat Treatment;
Metal material is heat-treated new equipment;
The novel auxiliary material of heat treatment.
No. 45 steel are a kind of carbon constructional quality steel, carbon content 0.42-0.50%.The steel can after heat treatment appropriate Certain toughness, plasticity and wearability are obtained, material source is convenient.Centering, small mould part can obtain after carrying out modifier treatment Higher intensity and toughness, and heavy parts are then advisable with normalized treatment.Normalizing as a kind of technical maturity, using universal Heat treatment method.It is to keep the proper temperature that steel or steel part are heated to critical point Ac3 or Acm or more after a certain period of time It cools down in air, obtains the histioid heat treatment process of pearlite.
No. 45 steel normalizing holding temperatures are generally near 850-870 DEG C, and the soaking time time is longer, generally according to workpiece size Depending on size, if bar work normalizing soaking time is D × 1.5min (D is diameter).In normalizing insulating process, 45 steel original iron elements Body+pearlitic structrure occurs austenite and changes recrystallization behavior, and workpiece tissue is completely transformed into austenite structure after heat preservation. Perlitic transformation occurs for subsequent process air cooler austenite, finally obtains ferrite+pearlitic structrure normalized structure.
As can be seen that the normalizing holding temperature and the control difficulty of time of austenitization stage are larger: normalizing temperature is excessively high, Sample burning is easily led to, the coarse phenomenon of austenite grain occurs;Normalizing temperature is too low, it is incomplete to easily lead to austenitizing, former iron Ferritic, cementite etc. organize coarse grains phenomenon.It is general longer the time required to heat preservation, to guarantee that workpiece tissue can complete austenite Change.
In conclusion current 45 steel normalizing heat treatment technique, there are heat treatment process temperature range is narrow, the normalizing time is long, effect Rate is low, and it is still necessary to further increase No. 45 steel normalized structure performances.Currently, utilizing ultrasonic treatment for normalizing procedure There is no any research conclusions for the organization mechanics performance of No. 45 steel of improvement normalizing process and thereby improvement.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods.To solve current No. 45 steel normalizings Heat treatment process there are heat treatment process temperature ranges narrow, normalizing time long low efficiency and it is still necessary to further increase No. 45 steel The problems such as normalized structure performance.
To achieve the goals above, the technical scheme adopted by the invention is as follows: a kind of provided No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat Processing method includes the following steps:
(1) in salt bath furnace, salt temperature is risen to 800-850 DEG C and is kept the temperature;
(2) No. 45 steel workpieces are put into salt bath solution and are kept the temperature, workpiece temperature is made to rise to salt temperature;
(3) after workpiece temperature rises to salt temperature, ultrasonic field is imported in salt bath solution using ultrasonic device, supersonic frequency model It encloses for 15-50KHZ;Ultrasound intensity is 1-20W/cm2, heat preservation sonication treatment time is D × (1-1.5) min, and wherein D is workpiece Maximum gauge;
(4) ultrasonic device is closed, Ultrasonic probe is taken out, workpiece is quickly removed into salt bath furnace and air-cooled.
Preferably, salt bath liquid medium is neutral salt in the step (1).
Preferably, the mode that ultrasonic field imports in salt bath solution in the step (3) is to directly input, input and connect indirectly Workpiece inputs any one in three kinds.
Preferably, the method directly inputted is to be inserted into Ultrasonic probe above workpiece under saline solution surface at 1-2cm, Open ultrasound.
Preferably, the method inputted indirectly is that Ultrasonic probe connects with salt bath container, opens ultrasound, will be ultrasonic Vibration inputs salt bath solution indirectly.
Preferably, the method for the connection workpiece input is to be tightly fastened Ultrasonic probe with workpiece surface to connect, and is opened Ultrasound is opened, by the directly incoming workpiece substrate of ultrasonic vibration.
Preferably, the salt bath furnace can be replaced by resistance furnace.
Preferably, the neutral salt be (volume fraction) 50%KCl+50%NaCl, using temperature 720-950 DEG C it Between.
Power ultrasound is often referred to energy higher than 1W/cm2, and frequency is lower than the ultrasonic wave of 100kHz, such ultrasonic wave is mainly used In Ultrasonic machining field.Power-sound joint effect of power ultrasound refers to while by the supersonic frequency mechanical oscillation a little of power ultrasound It is applied in allied processes with a series of special acoustic effects, achievees the purpose that final demand by its collective effect.
Applicants have found that the super of certain vibration frequency and power is imported in No. 45 steel matrix in normalizing insulating process Sound field can effectively reduce No. 45 steel austenitizing temperatures (Ac3 or Acm), decline normalizing holding temperature.Lower low temperature just Austenite transition process at fiery temperature is conducive to newborn crystal grain and keeps tiny, is not easy to grow up.And under the conditions of high-frequency vibration, On the one hand promote diffusion, be conducive to forming core, increase new crystal grain quantity, on the other hand promote the atom diffusion motion in 45 structure of steel Speed is accelerated, and crystal boundary is mobile to be reinforced, so that soaking time needed for austenitizing process is greatly decreased, improves normalizing efficiency.
Beneficial effects of the present invention: the present invention is by importing certain vibration frequency and function in No. 45 steel normalizing insulating processes The ultrasonic field of rate can reduce normalizing holding temperature, soaking time needed for austenitizing process is greatly decreased, and improve normalizing efficiency, Improve normalizing heat-treated sturcture, promotes 45 steel comprehensive performances, specific as follows:
1, the ultrasonic field for importing certain vibration frequency and power in No. 45 steel matrix in normalizing heat preservation and process air cooler, can No. 45 steel austenitizing temperatures (Ac3 or Acm) is effectively reduced, declines normalizing holding temperature.
2, austenite transition process at a temperature of lower cryogenic normalizing is conducive to newborn crystal grain and keeps tiny, is not easy It grows up.
3, high-frequency vibration is imported in normalizing insulating process, on the one hand can promote atom diffusion, be conducive to nucleus forming core, increases New crystal grain quantity, on the other hand promotes the atom diffusion motion speed in 45 structure of steel to accelerate, and crystal boundary is mobile to be reinforced, so that Ovshinsky Soaking time needed for body process is greatly decreased, and improves normalizing efficiency.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is 45 steel curved beam routine normalized treatment metallographic microstructures (200 times) in comparative example 1 of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is 45 steel curved beam ultrasound normalized treatment metallographic microstructures (200 times) in the embodiment of the present invention 1.
Fig. 3 is 45 steel curved beam ultrasound normalized treatment metallographic microstructures (200 times) in the embodiment of the present invention 2.
Fig. 4 is 45 steel curved beam ultrasound normalized treatment metallographic microstructures (200 times) in the embodiment of the present invention 3.
Fig. 5 is that the embodiment of the present invention 1, embodiment 2, embodiment 3 and 1 gained normalized structure micron mechanical property of comparative example are bent Line chart.
Specific embodiment
In order to deepen the understanding of the present invention, by aggregate embodiment, the invention will be further described below, the embodiment For explaining only the invention, it is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention..
Embodiment 1
A kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods comprising following steps:
(1) salt temperature in salt bath furnace is risen to 800 DEG C and kept the temperature.Salt bath medium is neutral salt bath, ingredient 50%KCl+ 50%NaCl, using temperature between 720-950 DEG C.
(2) 45 steel workpieces are put into salt bath saline solution and are kept the temperature, maximum thickness of work 12mm.
(3) after workpiece temperature rises to salt temperature, connect with that will be tightly fastened Ultrasonic probe with workpiece surface, open Ultrasound is opened, ultrasonic vibration is directly passed in workpiece substrate, ultrasonic frequency range 40KHZ;Ultrasound intensity is 15W/cm2, protect Warm sonication treatment time is 12min;
(4) ultrasound is closed, Ultrasonic probe is taken out.Workpiece is taken out into salt bath furnace and air-cooled.
Embodiment 2
A kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods comprising following steps:
(1) salt temperature in salt bath furnace is risen to 830 DEG C and kept the temperature.Salt bath medium is neutral salt bath, ingredient 50%KCl+ 50%NaCl, using temperature between 720-950 DEG C.
(2) 45 steel workpieces are put into salt bath saline solution and are kept the temperature, maximum thickness of work 12mm.
(3) after workpiece temperature rises to salt temperature, with i.e. by 1-2cm under saline solution surface above Ultrasonic probe insertion workpiece Place opens ultrasound, ultrasonic vibration is inputted saline solution indirectly.Ultrasonic frequency range is 30KHZ;Ultrasound intensity is 10W/cm2, heat preservation Sonication treatment time is 15min;
(4) ultrasound is closed, Ultrasonic probe is taken out.Workpiece is taken out into salt bath furnace and air-cooled.
Embodiment 3
A kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods comprising following steps:
(1) salt temperature in salt bath furnace is risen to 850 DEG C and kept the temperature.Salt bath medium is neutral salt bath, ingredient 50%KCl+ 50%NaCl, using temperature between 720-950 DEG C.
(2) 45 steel workpieces are put into salt bath saline solution and are kept the temperature, maximum thickness of work 12mm.
(3) after workpiece temperature rises to salt temperature, with Ultrasonic probe connects with salt bath container, ultrasound is opened, it will Ultrasonic vibration inputs saline solution indirectly.Ultrasonic frequency range is 20KHZ;Ultrasound intensity is 5W/cm2, keeping the temperature sonication treatment time is 18min;
(4) ultrasound is closed, Ultrasonic probe is taken out.Workpiece is taken out into salt bath furnace and air-cooled.
Comparative example 1
No. 45 steel routine normalizing heat treatment methods comprising following steps:
(1) salt temperature in salt bath furnace is risen into temperature range between 860 DEG C and kept the temperature.Salt bath medium is neutral salt bath, Ingredient 50%KCl+50%NaCl, using temperature between 720-950 DEG C.
(2) 45 steel workpieces are put into salt bath saline solution and are kept the temperature, maximum thickness of work 12mm.
(3) after workpiece temperature rises to salt temperature, isothermal holding 18min is carried out;
(4) workpiece is taken out into salt bath furnace and air-cooled.
Based on above-mentioned, after normalized treatment is carried out to embodiment 1, embodiment 2, embodiment 3 and comparative example 1 sample progress gold Mutually observation and performance comparison analysis.In figure it can be seen that
1) it can be seen that from Fig. 1 comparison of Fig. 2 of embodiment 1, Fig. 3 of embodiment 2, Fig. 4 of embodiment 3 and comparative example 1 Embodiment 1, embodiment 2,3 normalized structure of embodiment are obviously improved compared with comparative example 1, and ferrite, pearlite are smaller, tissue point Cloth is more uniform.
2) it can be seen that from Fig. 1 comparison of Fig. 2 of embodiment 1, Fig. 3 of embodiment 2, Fig. 4 of embodiment 3 and comparative example 1 Ultrasonic vibration is imported in normalizing insulating process, under the premise of guaranteeing and improving normalizing effect, ultrasonic field in normalizing insulating process Input can significantly reduce normalizing the time required to, reduce normalizing temperature.
3) embodiment 1 is high frequency, large power supersonic inputs in short-term, inputted when embodiment 3 is low frequency, small-power ultrasound is long, 2 ultrasound of embodiment is between 1 embodiment 3 of embodiment.Fig. 2/3/4 of comparative example 1/2/3 is as can be seen that embodiment 2 is imitated Fruit is best.
4) Fig. 5 is the embodiment of the present invention 1, embodiment 2, embodiment 3 and 1 gained normalized structure micron mechanical property of comparative example Can curve graph, curve 1 is 3 normalizing sample of Fig. 4 embodiment in figure, and curve 2 is 1 normalizing sample of Fig. 2 embodiment, and curve 3 is Fig. 3 real 2 normalizing sample of example is applied, curve 5 is 1 normalizing sample of Fig. 1 comparative example.The micron experiment of machanics data reflected in figure as shown in table 1 may be used To find out, compared with comparative example, embodiment intensity hardness obviously rises, and plasticity toughness slightly declines.
1 micron of experiment of machanics data of table
In conclusion the present invention in No. 45 steel normalizing insulating processes by importing the ultrasound of certain vibration frequency and power , normalizing holding temperature can be reduced, soaking time needed for austenitizing process is greatly decreased improves normalizing efficiency, improves normalizing Heat-treated sturcture promotes 45 steel comprehensive performances.
Obviously present invention specific implementation is not subject to the restrictions described above, as long as using method concept and skill of the invention The improvement for the various unsubstantialities that art scheme carries out, or not improved the conception and technical scheme of the invention are directly applied to it Its occasion, it is within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods, which comprises the steps of:
(1) in salt bath furnace, salt temperature is risen to 800-850 DEG C and is kept the temperature;
(2) No. 45 steel workpieces are put into salt bath solution and are kept the temperature, workpiece temperature is made to rise to salt temperature;
(3) after workpiece temperature rises to salt temperature, ultrasonic field is imported in salt bath solution using ultrasonic device, ultrasonic frequency range is 15-50KHZ;Ultrasound intensity is 1-20W/cm2, heat preservation sonication treatment time is D × (1-1.5) min, and wherein D is that workpiece is maximum Thickness;
(4) ultrasonic device is closed, Ultrasonic probe is taken out, workpiece is quickly removed into salt bath furnace and air-cooled.
2. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the step (1) Middle salt bath liquid medium is neutral salt.
3. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment method according to claim 2, it is characterised in that: the step (3) The mode that middle ultrasonic field imports in salt bath solution is to directly input, input indirectly and connect any one in three kinds of workpiece input.
4. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment method according to claim 3, it is characterised in that: described to directly input Method be that Ultrasonic probe is inserted into above workpiece that 1-2cm locates under saline solution surface, open ultrasonic.
5. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment method according to claim 3, it is characterised in that: the indirect input Method be that Ultrasonic probe connects with salt bath container, open ultrasonic, ultrasonic vibration inputted into salt bath solution indirectly.
6. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment method according to claim 3, it is characterised in that: the connection workpiece The method of input is to be tightly fastened Ultrasonic probe with workpiece surface to connect, and opens ultrasound, by the directly incoming work of ultrasonic vibration Part matrix.
7. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the salt bath furnace can It is replaced by resistance furnace.
8. a kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the neutral salt is (volume fraction) 50%KCl+50%NaCl, using temperature between 720-950 DEG C.
CN201810990032.9A 2018-08-28 2018-08-28 A kind of No. 45 steel cryogenic normalizing heat treatment methods Pending CN109022707A (en)

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Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103333995A (en) * 2013-07-05 2013-10-02 武汉理工大学 Technological method and device for ultrasound-assisted quenching
CN105648181A (en) * 2014-12-04 2016-06-08 重庆聆益机械有限公司 Heat treatment process for No.45 steel axle
CN106319163A (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-01-11 山东科技大学 Ultrasonic vibration-assisted screw induction hardening device and technique
CN206328426U (en) * 2016-12-02 2017-07-14 浙江机电职业技术学院 Ultrasonic wave fine grain heater

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103333995A (en) * 2013-07-05 2013-10-02 武汉理工大学 Technological method and device for ultrasound-assisted quenching
CN105648181A (en) * 2014-12-04 2016-06-08 重庆聆益机械有限公司 Heat treatment process for No.45 steel axle
CN106319163A (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-01-11 山东科技大学 Ultrasonic vibration-assisted screw induction hardening device and technique
CN206328426U (en) * 2016-12-02 2017-07-14 浙江机电职业技术学院 Ultrasonic wave fine grain heater

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Application publication date: 20181218