CN108934836B - Dragon fruit A-shaped pipe frame double-layer close planting cultivation method - Google Patents

Dragon fruit A-shaped pipe frame double-layer close planting cultivation method Download PDF

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CN108934836B
CN108934836B CN201811109199.6A CN201811109199A CN108934836B CN 108934836 B CN108934836 B CN 108934836B CN 201811109199 A CN201811109199 A CN 201811109199A CN 108934836 B CN108934836 B CN 108934836B
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steel pipe
dragon fruit
branches
plants
grow
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CN108934836A (en
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刘友接
熊月明
王建超
杨凌
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Pomology Research Institute Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Pomology Research Institute Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/12Supports for plants; Trellis for strawberries or the like

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for double-layer close planting cultivation of a dragon fruit A-shaped pipe frame. The A-shaped pipe frame constructed by the method has the advantages of firm structure, strong bearing capacity, good stability and long service time, can fully utilize the land space and illumination by combining double-layer close planting cultivation, enters the full fruit period in advance, obtains higher yield and economic benefit in a shorter time, and keeps the production state with high yield, stable yield and high economic benefit for a long time.

Description

Dragon fruit A-shaped pipe frame double-layer close planting cultivation method
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the field of plant cultivation methods, and particularly relates to a pitaya A-shaped pipe frame double-layer close planting cultivation method.
Background
The pitaya is a perennial climbing fleshy plant of the family Cactaceae, genus Petasites, has strong tree vigor, vigorous growth and strong branch germination, and can grow all the year round; the branches are in a triangular prism or quadrangular prism shape with meat quality, the branches are dark green and strong, the photosynthesis function is realized, the branches grown in the current year are easy to droop, and the fruiting branches are mainly the aged branches; 2-6 short thorns are grown at the concave part of the stem node; the stem node is grown with different amount of aerial roots, and the branch is adsorbed on the bracket by the aerial roots to grow upwards. Therefore, in the production of the dragon fruit, a frame is required to be built for supporting and depending on the growth of the dragon fruit branches. The dragon fruit has the advantages of strong adaptability, fast growth, early fruiting, large fruit, high yield, no big or small years and the like. China mainland in recent years
The development area is about 70 ten thousand mu, which is the trend of rapid development, arising in Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hainan, Fujian and the like.
At present, the common dragon fruit cultivation method in China for dragon fruit production is upright column cultivation and A-shaped tube frame type thin planting cultivation, but the defects of overlong time, lower early-stage yield, serious land waste and the like exist when an orchard enters a high-yield period.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for double-layer close planting cultivation of pitaya A-shaped pipe racks, which can fully utilize the land space and illumination, enter the full fruit period in advance, obtain higher yield and economic benefit in a shorter time and keep the production state with high yield, stable yield and high economic benefit for a long time.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: a method for double-layer close planting cultivation of pitaya A-shaped pipe racks comprises the following steps:
(1) orchard land arrangement: the orchard land is firstly arranged into furrows, the width of one furrow is 200cm, the width of a ditch between the furrows is 50cm, the depth of the ditch is 20cm, the trend of the furrows is the east-west trend, and the direction is consistent with the rising and falling directions of the sun.
(2) Building an A-type pipe frame: the A-shaped pipe frame is formed by welding a row of a plurality of longitudinally parallel A-shaped frames through 7 parallel steel pipes, the middle parts of the A-shaped frames are provided with a steel pipe c, a steel pipe b and a steel pipe a which are parallel to each other from top to bottom, the top ends of two adjacent A-shaped frames are fixedly connected through a first steel pipe, one end of the steel pipe c on each two adjacent A-shaped frames is fixedly connected through a fourth steel pipe, the other end of the steel pipe c is fixedly connected through a fifth steel pipe, the fourth steel pipe and the fifth steel pipe serve as backrests of a first layer of drooping fruit branches, one end of the steel pipe b on each two adjacent A-shaped frames is fixedly connected through a second steel pipe, the other end of the steel pipe b is fixedly connected through a third steel pipe, one end of the steel pipe a on each two adjacent A-shaped frames is fixedly connected through a sixth steel pipe, the other end of the steel;
(3) planting dragon fruit cutting seedlings: before planting, digging a planting ditch with the depth of 10cm and the width of 20cm below an A-shaped pipe frame, applying decomposed organic fertilizer, fully and uniformly mixing the organic fertilizer with soil in the ditch, planting 1 dragon fruit cutting seedling at intervals of 15cm, and completely paving black shading nets at intervals of rows 20cm away from the top of the cutting seedling; planting density: the row spacing is 250cm, the plant spacing is 15cm, and 1778 plants are planted per mu.
(4) And (3) heavy fertilization: in the sapling period, applying 1.2kg of organic fertilizer to each plant every 7 days; in the fruiting period, firstly applying urea and compound fertilizer around the plants, then applying organic fertilizer to cover the plants, applying the fertilizer for 3-4 times, and applying 15kg of organic fertilizer, 3kg of compound fertilizer and 5kg of urea to each plant every year;
(5) fertilizing outside roots: in the growth period, 0.3wt% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution is sprayed every 10 days; spraying 700 times of nucleotide or liquid amino acid solution every seven days in the flowering and fruiting period;
(6) carrying out shaping and pruning on dragon fruit plants:
numbering dragon fruit plants 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 …, bending the dragon fruit plants 1, 4 and 7 … to the same direction of a first steel pipe when the main stems of the dragon fruit plants grow to the first steel pipe, binding the dragon fruit plants on the first steel pipe by using cloth strips, topping when the dragon fruit plants grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, so as to promote the growth of fruit branches, and respectively leaning against a fourth steel pipe and a fifth steel pipe when the fruit branches sag to grow to 60cm, and topping to promote the aging of the fruit branches;
when the trunks of the dragon fruit plants with the numbers of 2, 5 and 8 … grow to a second steel pipe, bending the trunks to the same direction of the second steel pipe, binding the trunks on a sixth steel pipe by using cloth strips, topping when the trunks grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, promoting the growth of bearing branches, and when the bearing branches droop to grow to 70cm long, leaning against the sixth steel pipe and topping to promote the bearing branches to be aged;
when the trunks of the dragon fruit plants with the numbers of 3, 6 and 9 … grow to a third steel pipe, the trunks bend to the same direction of the third steel pipe, the third steel pipe is bound with cloth strips, when the trunks grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, topping is carried out to promote the growth of bearing branches, and when the bearing branches droop and grow to 70cm long, the bearing branches depend on a seventh steel pipe and topping is carried out to promote the aging of the bearing branches;
each dragon fruit plant growing to the first steel pipe in 1 year leaves 4 thick branches to bear fruits, and each dragon fruit plant growing to the second steel pipe and the third steel pipe in 1 year leaves 2 thick branches to bear fruits; each plant of the dragon fruit plants growing to the first steel pipe leaves 10 thick branches for fruiting in 2 years; 5 stout branches are left for each dragon fruit plant growing to the second steel pipe and the third steel pipe in 2 years, and the branch remaining amount of the fruiting branches of the dragon fruit plants growing for more than 3 years is consistent with that of the dragon fruit plants growing for 2 years; after 3 years of growth and careful management, a high-yield orchard is finally formed.
(7) Strengthening flower and fruit thinning: 1 bearing branch and one batch of flowers leave 2 robust flower buds, 1 fruit is left, the same batch of fruits only leaves 3-5 fruits, and the rest are thinned;
(8) bagging: and (4) pulling flowers on day 4 after the flowers are withered, leaving a middle column tube, spraying the insecticidal bactericide once before bagging, and bagging with a black mesh bag.
Preferably, the thickness of the steel pipe in the step (1) is 0.12cm, the diameter of the steel pipe is 1 inch, and a double hot-dip plating process is adopted.
Preferably, in the step (2), two legs of the A-shaped frame are spread by 97cm and enter the ground by 30cm, the vertical distance between the top of the A-shaped frame and the ground is 170cm, the vertical distance between the steel pipe c and the ground is 120cm, two ends of the steel pipe c extend by 15cm respectively, the vertical distance between the steel pipe b and the ground is 100cm, two ends of the steel pipe b extend by 5cm respectively, the vertical distance between the steel pipe a and the ground is 50cm, and two ends of the steel pipe a extend by 15cm respectively.
The invention has the advantages that: 1. the A-type pipe frame has the advantages of firm structure, strong bearing capacity, good stability and long service time; 2. the illumination time is long, the photosynthesis is sufficient, the ventilation effect is good, and the plant diseases and insect pests are few; 3. the land space and the illumination are fully utilized, the full fruit period is advanced, higher yield and economic benefit are obtained in a shorter time, and the production state with high yield, stable yield and high economic benefit is kept for a long time; 4. the mechanical operation is convenient, the standardized production is facilitated, and the demonstration and popularization effect is good.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural view of the A-type pipe rack of the present invention;
in the figure: 1-first steel pipe, 2-second steel pipe, 3-third steel pipe, 4-fourth steel pipe, 5-fifth steel pipe, 6-sixth steel pipe, 7-seventh steel pipe, 8-steel pipe c, 9-steel pipe b, 10-steel pipe a and 11-A type frame.
Detailed Description
In order to facilitate an understanding of the present invention, the following examples are provided to further illustrate the present invention, but are not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
Example (refer to FIG. 1)
(1) Orchard land arrangement: the orchard land is firstly arranged into furrows, the width of one furrow is 200cm, the width of a ditch between the furrows is 50cm, the depth of the ditch is 20cm, the trend of the furrows is the east-west trend, and the direction is consistent with the rising and falling directions of the sun.
(2) Building an A-type pipe frame: firstly, spreading two legs of a series of A-shaped frames by 97cm, putting the A-shaped frames into the ground by 30cm, enabling the vertical distance between the top of the A-shaped frames and the ground to be 170cm, arranging steel pipes c at the positions, with the vertical distance between the A-shaped frames and the ground being 120cm, extending out 15cm from two ends of the A-shaped frames respectively, arranging steel pipes b at the positions, with the vertical distance between the A-shaped frames and the ground being 100cm, extending out 5cm from two ends of the A-shaped frames respectively, arranging steel pipes a at the positions, with the vertical distance between the A-shaped frames and the ground being 50cm, extending out 15cm from two ends of the A-shaped frames respectively, keeping the distance between two adjacent A-shaped frames at 170cm, fixedly connecting the tops of the A-shaped frames through first steel pipes, fixedly connecting one ends of the steel pipes c on two adjacent A-shaped frames through fourth steel pipes and the other ends of the steel pipes through fifth steel pipes, using the fourth and fifth steel pipes as leaning frames for the first layer of the dro, the other end of the pipe frame is fixedly connected through a seventh steel pipe, and the sixth steel pipe and the seventh steel pipe are used as a leaning frame of a second layer of drooping bearing branches to form an A-shaped pipe frame;
(3) planting dragon fruit cutting seedlings: before planting, digging a planting ditch with the depth of 10cm and the width of 20cm below an A-shaped pipe frame, applying decomposed organic fertilizer, fully and uniformly mixing the organic fertilizer with soil in the ditch, planting 1 dragon fruit cutting seedling at intervals of 15cm, and completely paving black shading nets at intervals of rows 20cm away from the top of the cutting seedling; planting density: the row spacing is 250cm, the plant spacing is 15cm, and 1778 plants are planted per mu.
(4) And (3) heavy fertilization: in the sapling period, applying 1.2kg of organic fertilizer to each plant every 7 days; in the fruiting period, firstly applying urea and compound fertilizer around the plants, then applying organic fertilizer to cover the plants, applying the fertilizer for 4 times, and applying 15kg of organic fertilizer, 3kg of compound fertilizer and 5kg of urea to each plant every year;
(5) fertilizing outside roots: in the growth period, 0.3wt% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution is sprayed every 10 days; spraying 700 times of nucleotide or liquid amino acid solution every seven days in the flowering and fruiting period;
(6) carrying out shaping and pruning on dragon fruit plants:
numbering dragon fruit plants 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 …, bending the dragon fruit plants 1, 4 and 7 … to the same direction of a first steel pipe when the main stems of the dragon fruit plants grow to the first steel pipe, binding the dragon fruit plants on the first steel pipe by using cloth strips, topping when the dragon fruit plants grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, so as to promote the growth of fruit branches, and respectively leaning against a fourth steel pipe and a fifth steel pipe when the fruit branches sag to grow to 60cm, and topping to promote the aging of the fruit branches;
when the trunks of the dragon fruit plants with the numbers of 2, 5 and 8 … grow to a second steel pipe, bending the trunks to the same direction of the second steel pipe, binding the trunks on the second steel pipe by cloth strips, topping when the trunks grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, promoting the growth of bearing branches, and when the bearing branches droop and grow to 70cm long, leaning against a sixth steel pipe and topping to promote the bearing branches to be aged;
when the trunks of the dragon fruit plants with the numbers of 3, 6 and 9 … grow to a third steel pipe, the trunks bend to the same direction of the third steel pipe, the third steel pipe is bound with cloth strips, when the trunks grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, topping is carried out to promote the growth of bearing branches, and when the bearing branches droop and grow to 70cm long, the bearing branches depend on a seventh steel pipe and topping is carried out to promote the aging of the bearing branches;
each dragon fruit plant growing to the first steel pipe in 1 year leaves 4 thick branches to bear fruits, and each dragon fruit plant growing to the fourth steel pipe and the fifth steel pipe in 1 year leaves 2 thick branches to bear fruits; each dragon fruit plant growing to the first steel pipe in 2 years is left with 10 robust branches for fruiting, and each dragon fruit plant growing to the fourth steel pipe and the fifth steel pipe in 2 years is left with 5 robust branches for fruiting; the branch remaining quantity of the fruiting branches of the dragon fruit plants with the length of more than 3 years is consistent with that of the dragon fruit plants with the length of 2 years.
(7) Strengthening flower and fruit thinning: one batch of flowers with 1 bearing branch has 2 robust flower buds, 1 fruit is reserved, the same batch of fruits only has 5, and the rest are thinned.
(8) Bagging: and (4) pulling flowers on day 4 after the flowers are withered, leaving a middle column tube, spraying the insecticidal bactericide once before bagging, and bagging with a black mesh bag.
The disease and pest are prevented and controlled by adopting the 'prevention-oriented and comprehensive prevention and control' policy, and finally a high-yield orchard is formed through 3 years of growth and careful management.
Table 1 shows the comparison of the yield of the method for the double-layer close planting of pitaya in the present invention with the currently common double-rod type scaffolding cultivation method and the a-type tube-scaffolding thin planting cultivation method:
the data clearly show that the method is superior to a double-rod type frame-built cultivation method and an A-type pipe frame type sparse planting cultivation method in the aspects of land space utilization and yield, can enter the full bearing period in advance, obtains higher yield and economic benefit in a shorter time, and keeps the production state of high yield, stable yield and high economic benefit for a long time.
The above description is only a preferred embodiment of the present invention, and all equivalent changes and modifications made in accordance with the claims of the present invention should be covered by the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. A method for double-layer close planting cultivation of a dragon fruit A-shaped pipe frame is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
(1) orchard land arrangement: firstly, arranging orchard land into ridges, wherein the width of one ridge is 200cm, the width of a ditch between the ridges is 50cm, the depth of the ditch is 20cm, the trend of the ridges is the east-west trend, and the direction of the ridges is consistent with the rising and falling directions of the sun;
(2) building an A-type pipe frame: the A-shaped pipe frame is formed by welding a row of a plurality of longitudinally parallel A-shaped frames through 7 parallel steel pipes, the middle part of each A-shaped frame is provided with a steel pipe c, a steel pipe b and a steel pipe a which are parallel to each other from top to bottom, the top ends of two adjacent A-shaped frames are fixedly connected through a first steel pipe, one end of each steel pipe c on each two adjacent A-shaped frames is fixedly connected through a fourth steel pipe, the other end of each steel pipe c on each two adjacent A-shaped frames is fixedly connected through a fifth steel pipe, one end of each steel pipe b on each two adjacent A-shaped frames is fixedly connected through a second steel pipe, the other end of each steel pipe b on each two adjacent A-shaped frames is fixedly connected through a third steel pipe, one end of each;
(3) planting dragon fruit cutting seedlings: before planting, digging a planting ditch with the depth of 10cm and the width of 20cm below an A-shaped pipe frame, applying decomposed organic fertilizer, fully and uniformly mixing the organic fertilizer with soil in the ditch, planting 1 dragon fruit cutting seedling at intervals of 15cm, and completely paving black shading nets at intervals of rows 20cm away from the top of the cutting seedling; planting density: planting 1778 plants per mu at row spacing of 250cm and plant spacing of 15 cm;
(4) and (3) heavy fertilization: in the sapling period, applying 1.2kg of organic fertilizer to each plant every 7 days; in the fruiting period, firstly applying urea and compound fertilizer around the plants, then applying organic fertilizer to cover the plants, applying the fertilizer for 3-4 times, and applying 15kg of organic fertilizer, 3kg of compound fertilizer and 5kg of urea to each plant every year;
(5) fertilizing outside roots: in the growth period, 0.3wt% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution is sprayed every 10 days; spraying 700 times of nucleotide or liquid amino acid solution every seven days in the flowering and fruiting period;
(6) carrying out shaping and pruning on dragon fruit plants:
numbering dragon fruit plants 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 …, bending the dragon fruit plants 1, 4 and 7 … to the same direction of a first steel pipe when the main stems of the dragon fruit plants grow to the first steel pipe, binding the dragon fruit plants on the first steel pipe by using cloth strips, topping when the dragon fruit plants grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, so as to promote the growth of fruit branches, and respectively leaning against a fourth steel pipe and a fifth steel pipe when the fruit branches sag to grow to 60cm, and topping to promote the aging of the fruit branches;
when the trunks of the dragon fruit plants with the numbers of 2, 5 and 8 … grow to a second steel pipe, bending the trunks to the same direction of the second steel pipe, binding the trunks on the second steel pipe by cloth strips, topping when the trunks grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, promoting the growth of bearing branches, and when the bearing branches droop and grow to 70cm long, leaning against a sixth steel pipe and topping to promote the bearing branches to be aged;
when the trunks of the dragon fruit plants with the numbers of 3, 6 and 9 … grow to a third steel pipe, the trunks bend to the same direction of the third steel pipe, the third steel pipe is bound with cloth strips, when the trunks grow to 45cm, namely reach another adjacent plant, topping is carried out to promote the growth of bearing branches, and when the bearing branches droop and grow to 70cm long, the bearing branches depend on a seventh steel pipe and topping is carried out to promote the aging of the bearing branches;
each dragon fruit plant growing to the first steel pipe in 1 year leaves 4 thick branches to bear fruits, and each dragon fruit plant growing to the second steel pipe and the third steel pipe in 1 year leaves 2 thick branches to bear fruits; each plant of the dragon fruit plants growing to the first steel pipe leaves 10 thick branches for fruiting in 2 years; 5 stout branches are left for each dragon fruit plant growing to the second steel pipe and the third steel pipe in 2 years, and the branch remaining amount of the fruiting branches of the dragon fruit plants growing for more than 3 years is consistent with that of the dragon fruit plants growing for 2 years; after 3 years of growth and careful management, a high-yield orchard is finally formed;
(7) strengthening flower and fruit thinning: 1 bearing branch and one batch of flowers leave 2 robust flower buds, 1 fruit is left, the same batch of fruits only leaves 3-5 fruits, and the rest are thinned;
(8) bagging: drawing flowers on day 4 after flower withering, leaving a middle column tube, spraying an insecticidal bactericide once before bagging, and bagging with a black mesh bag;
in the step (2), two legs of the A-shaped frame are spread by 97cm and enter the ground by 30cm, the vertical distance between the top of the A-shaped frame and the ground is 170cm, the vertical distance between the steel pipe c and the ground is 120cm, two ends of the steel pipe c extend out by 15cm respectively, the vertical distance between the steel pipe b and the ground is 100cm, two ends of the steel pipe b extend out by 5cm respectively, the vertical distance between the steel pipe a and the ground is 50cm, and two ends of the steel pipe a extend out by.
2. The method for the double-layer close planting cultivation of the dragon fruit A-shaped pipe frame as claimed in claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: and (3) adopting a double hot-dip coating process, wherein the thickness of the steel pipe in the step (2) is 0.12cm, the diameter of the steel pipe is 1 inch.
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