CN108919321B  A kind of GNSS positioning Detection of Gross Errors method based on trial and error method  Google Patents
A kind of GNSS positioning Detection of Gross Errors method based on trial and error method Download PDFInfo
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 CN108919321B CN108919321B CN201810481017.1A CN201810481017A CN108919321B CN 108919321 B CN108919321 B CN 108919321B CN 201810481017 A CN201810481017 A CN 201810481017A CN 108919321 B CN108919321 B CN 108919321B
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 G—PHYSICS
 G01—MEASURING; TESTING
 G01S—RADIO DIRECTIONFINDING; RADIO NAVIGATION; DETERMINING DISTANCE OR VELOCITY BY USE OF RADIO WAVES; LOCATING OR PRESENCEDETECTING BY USE OF THE REFLECTION OR RERADIATION OF RADIO WAVES; ANALOGOUS ARRANGEMENTS USING OTHER WAVES
 G01S19/00—Satellite radio beacon positioning systems; Determining position, velocity or attitude using signals transmitted by such systems
 G01S19/38—Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system
 G01S19/39—Determining a navigation solution using signals transmitted by a satellite radio beacon positioning system the satellite radio beacon positioning system transmitting timestamped messages, e.g. GPS [Global Positioning System], GLONASS [Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System] or GALILEO
 G01S19/42—Determining position
Abstract
The invention discloses a kind of, and the GNSS based on trial and error method positions Detection of Gross Errors method, realizes process are as follows: construction GNSS observational equation carries out parameter Estimation using least square (LS), to obtain observation residual vector V；Error estimator in unit of account powerBeing adaptively calculated error in weight unit using excess observation number f transfinites threshold value, judges GNSS observation with the presence or absence of rough error；Rough error if it exists then utilizes the thought based on trial and error method to realize accurate Gross postionning；Rejecting is detected containing rough error observation, restarts LS parameter Estimation.This method is not necessarily to carry out observation one by one residual error hypothesis testing, therefore can cause to reject part GPS/BDS observation excessive or very fewly because threshold value setting is unreasonable in avoiding the problem that conventional residual inspection to a certain degree.This method is simple, it is easy to accomplish, application effect is relatively good, and GNSS especially more can be significantly improved in the case where observing environment is poor and is averaged positioning accuracy.
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to GNSS high accuracy positioning fields, are related to a kind of GNSS positioning Detection of Gross Errors knowledge based on trial and error method
Other technology, it is actually to answer with fields such as Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS), Surveying of Precise Control, mobile vehicle location navigations
With background, it can be used for the mobile vehicle high accuracy positioning application side under the conditions of GNSS observation rough error frequently occurs in complex environment
To.
Background technique
Global Satellite Navigation System (GNSS) has many advantages, such as roundtheclock, highprecision, have application to geodesic survey, navigation,
The various fields such as Geological Hazards Monitoring.But GNSS signal is more fragile simultaneously, and especially under complex environment, GNSS observation is difficult
Exempt to be polluted by rough error, if rough error is not dealt carefully with, will lead to final positioning result and deviate reality, give practical application band
It is larger unfavorable to come, therefore Detection of Gross Errors is the important content of GNSS location data processing Quality Control Links.
At present in GNSS data processing, rough error processing can be summarized as both of which, i.e., rough error is included into stochastic model
Robust filter mode and the average drifting mode that rough error is included into function model.It is external in terms of robust mode treatment rough error
Mainly there are robusts scheme, the domestic scholars such as Huber weightfunction method, Tukey weightfunction method and Denmark's weightfunction method to construct robust
The robusts schemes such as IGG scheme, double factor equivalence weight and equivalent variancecovariance function.These schemes have obtained more application,
Generally to power battle array deal with, by containing rough error observation weigh battle array carry out drop power, the influence of the observation containing rough error can be weakened,
But it is likely to encounter the situation of matrix rank defect.The method that rough error is eliminated based on meanshifted models during processing will not be to power
Battle array makes change, will not correspondingly encounter the situation of matrix rank defect.It is usually after testing observation based on meanshifted models
Residual sequence carries out hypothesis testing, such as common normal distributiontest, χ^{2}Distribution inspection, t distribution inspection, by underproof observation
Value is rejected.Traditional residual sequence hypothesis testing has determined the threshold value whether residual error transfinites given confidence level α,
In view of GNSS carrier observations residual error sensibility and may be subjected to the influence of model error, threshold size visits rough error
It is extremely important to survey influential effect, it is bigger than normal may cause cannot accurately by elimination of rough difference, it is less than normal may result in some quality compared with
Good observation is also removed.Real data processing in especially complex environment observation the quality of data it is poor in the case where, very
Difficult matter first gives a very reasonable threshold value, therefore this Detection of Gross Errors method effect is frequently not highly desirable.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to overcome the deficiencies in the prior art, propose a kind of without carrying out residual error to observation one by one
The Detection of Gross Errors method of hypothesis testing.This method passes through error estimator in weight unit first and judges whether there is rough error, then sharp
Gross postionning, referred to as twostep method Detection of Gross Errors are carried out with trial and error method thought.This method is avoiding conventional residual to a certain degree
Lead to the problem of rejecting part GNSS observation excessive or very fewly because threshold value setting is unreasonable in inspection, is under complex environment
GNSS Detection of Gross Errors provides a kind of effective processing method.
Technical scheme is as follows:
A kind of GNSS positioning Detection of Gross Errors method based on trial and error method, includes the following steps
(1) GNSS observational equation is constructed, parameter Estimation is carried out using least square, to obtain observation residual vector V；
(2) error estimator in calculating observation value weight unit
(3) it is adaptively calculated using excess observation number fTransfinite threshold value, and according toWhether transfinite, judges
GNSS observation whether there is rough error, if it does not exist rough error, then directly exports positioning result；
(4) if there are rough errors for observation, accurate Gross postionning, specific steps are carried out based on trial and error method are as follows:
(4.1) rough error judges: under the conditions of only rejecting an observation every time, obtaining the n unit rejected after observation
Standard deviation is weighed, then there are rough errors for the corresponding observation of minimum therein；
(4.2) threshold decision: carrying out the threshold decision that transfinites to the minimum, if being more than the threshold value of default, rejecting should
The corresponding observation of minimum, obtains n1 observation；
(4.3) traversal is rejected: repetitive cycling carries out step (4.1)~(4.2), until the minimum of acquisition is set less than system
Fixed threshold value, and reject observation corresponding to the minimum finally obtained.
(5) leastsquares parameter estimation is restarted to remaining observation, obtains the GNSS highprecision influenced without rough error
Positioning result.
Further, GNSS observation L described in step (1) is mainly made of pseudorange and carrier observations, corresponding residual
Difference vector V is solved according to the following formula:
V=BxL
Wherein x is to include carrier threedimensional coordinate, the parameter estimation of ambiguity of carrier phase；B is the corresponding design square of x
Battle array, L number of observation are n；
Further, error estimator in weight unit described in step (2)Are as follows:
Wherein f is excess observation number, and P is the corresponding weight matrix of observation.
Further, the decision criteria that rough error whether there is in step (3) are as follows: if meetingThen determine
Rough error is not present in GNSS observation, and otherwise there are rough errors for some or multiple observations；Wherein σ_{0}Indicate GNSS observation noise,
Fact is editor's factor,
F is excess observation number.
Further, in step (4.1) rough error the judgment method is as follows: if observation there are rough errors, successively only reject the ith (i
=1,2 ..., n) the corresponding observation L of satellite_{i}, and unit of account weighs standard deviation againAccording to formula
It determines and corresponds to observation by kth satellite there are rough errors.
Further, the method for threshold decision is in step (4.2): determining the corresponding observation L of kth satellite_{k}It deposits
After rough error, if corresponding weight unit standard deviation is still unsatisfactory forIllustrate that there are still thick in remaining observation
Difference；
Further, the threshold value set in the rejecting of step (4.3) traversal is Fact × σ_{0}。
Compared with the prior art, the present invention has the following advantages:
The present invention first tests to GNSS Observation value error, determines whether that there are rough errors, then utilizes trial if it exists
Method realizes Gross postionning, without carrying out residual error hypothesis testing to observation one by one, therefore can avoid to a certain degree conventional residual
Lead to the problem of rejecting part GNSS observation excessive or very fewly because threshold value setting is unreasonable in inspection.This method is simple, easily
In realization, application effect is relatively good, especially in the case where observing environment is poor, is guaranteeing the holding of data effective rate of utilization
Under the premise of higher, this method more can significantly improve GNSS and be averaged positioning accuracy.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is flow chart of the present invention；
Fig. 2 is static test positioning accuracy (Xdirection) statistical chart of the present invention；
Fig. 3 is vehiclemounted dynamic test positioning accuracy (Xdirection) statistical chart of the present invention；
Fig. 4 is the vehiclemounted dynamic test GPS/BDS plane positioning trajectory diagram of the present invention；
Specific embodiment
The present invention will be further described with reference to the accompanying drawing.
Referring to Fig.1, specific implementation step of the invention is as follows:
Step 1. constructs GNSS observational equation, parameter Estimation is carried out using least square (LS), so that it is residual to obtain observation
Difference vector V.
GNSS observation mainly includes pseudorange and carrier wave, location observation equation are as follows:
Above formula,Indicate receiversatellite sr geometric distance,WithIt respectively indicates tropospheric delay and ionosphere is prolonged
Chi Liang,WithPseudorange and the corresponding receiversatellite clock correction of carrier wave are respectively indicated, c indicates the light velocity,WithIt respectively indicates
Pseudorange and carrier observations noise,Indicate that carrier phase observation data integer ambiguity, λ indicate corresponding wavelength.
Above formula includes more error term, generallys use two receivers and two satellites constitute classical double difference observation side
Journey can slacken troposphere and ionospheric error in various degree and eliminate satellitereceiver clockoffsets.Double difference observation equation is such as
Under:
In above formula,Other are similar.Under normal circumstances when baseline is shorter, double difference in above formula
Ionosphere and tropospheric error can be ignored.
Observation residual vector V is solved according to the following formula:
V=BxL
Wherein x is parameter estimation, to include carrier threedimensional coordinate, ambiguity of carrier phase etc.；B is the corresponding design of x
Matrix is determined according to different stationkeeping modes, and L number of observation is denoted as n；
Error estimator in step 2. calculating observation value weight unit
Error in weight unitAre as follows:
Wherein f is excess observation number, and P is the corresponding weight matrix of observation.
Step 3. is adaptively calculated using excess observation number fTransfinite threshold value, according toWhether transfinite judgement
GNSS observation whether there is rough error.
Rough error is with the presence or absence of decision criteria, if meeting following formula, determining GNSS observation, there is no rough errors, otherwise a certain
There are rough errors for a or multiple observations.
Above formula, σ_{0}It indicates GNSS observation noise, generally rule of thumb gives, for carrier observations, (whole world is fixed by GPS
Position system) it can be set to 0.003, BDS (Beidou satellite system) and can be set 0.004, Pseudorange Observations σ_{0}It can be set to
1；Fact is editor's factor, is set as 3 under normal circumstances relatively rationally, but when observation satellite is less, even if there be no thick
Difference,It may also be able to be more than 3 σ_{0}, cause the satellite observation that reject to be removed, seriously affect positioning accuracy, or even make
At can not position.Therefore the present invention gives a kind of relatively reasonable calculating Fact value empirical equation by many experiments, as follows:
When satellites in view number is less, editor's factor values can suitably be increased by above formula, i.e., accordingly relaxed in weight unit
Error transfinites threshold value, and when observation is more, Fact takes 3.
Step 4. rough error if it exists then utilizes the thought based on trial and error method to realize accurate Gross postionning.
Trial and error method basic thought of the present invention is to carry out traversal one by one to all observations and delete, if a certain observation exists
Rough error, after which deletes, error must have larger reduction in the weight unit that recalculates；
Thought based on trial and error method realizes that accurate Gross postionning method is as follows:
If there are rough errors for GPS/BDS observation, the corresponding observation of ith (i=1,2..., n) satellite is successively only rejected
L_{i}, and unit of account power standard deviation (is denoted as again), after all satellites have traversed, it can determine that kth is defended according to the following formula
Star corresponds to observation, and there are rough errors.
Above formula meaning is, so that the most corresponding observation of that satellite of error reduction can consider presence in weight unit
Rough error.
Determining the corresponding observation L of kth satellite_{k}There are after rough error, if corresponding weight unit standard deviation is still unsatisfactory forIllustrate there are still rough error in remaining observation, after the observation for rejecting kth satellite, to remaining n1
A observation continues to realize accurate Gross postionning using trial and error method thought, and circulating repetition carries out, until corresponding weight unit standard
Difference is less than Fact × σ_{0}。
Step 5. rejecting is detected containing rough error observation, restarts LS parameter Estimation.
The corresponding observation of rough error is not involved in LS parameter Estimation, and the observation without rough error then restarts LS parameter and estimates
Meter can obtain the GNSS high accuracy positioning result that no rough error influences.
Effect of the invention can be illustrated by following experiments:
1. experimental situation
Verification test of the present invention is all made of GPS/BDS measured data, respectively static observation experiment 1 and dynamic track test
2.Test 1 entirely survey section observing environment it is preferable, GPS be averaged satellites in view number be 7, GPS+BDS satellites in view number be 15, count
According to sampling interval 0.5s, satellite elevation mask is set as 10 degree, and when observation is about 15 minutes；2 observation data of test are collected in
There is situations such as blocking compared with multiobstacle avoidance, signal frequently interrupts in certain urban district, base station and rover station sampling interval are 1s, are defended
Star elevation mask is 10 degree, and when observation is about 15 minutes, and rover station and base station distance are within 4km.
2. experimental result
Here convenient for comparison, the method for the present invention is abbreviated as twostep method Detection of Gross Errors.
Experiment 1: since observing environment is preferable, single epoch positioning mode is carried out to this static data and is handled.Rough error
Detection aspect have chosen three kinds of different schemes to handle, be respectively: no Detection of Gross Errors, it is traditional based on t distribution residual error assume inspection
Test (confidence level α is set as 0.01), twostep method Detection of Gross Errors.
In order to compare influence of three kinds of different Detection of Gross Errors schemes to positioning accuracy, count that three kinds of schemes are corresponding singly to be gone through
First positioning accuracy only provides Xdirection position error sequence chart, as shown in Figure 2 as space is limited.Although caning be found that static observation
The quality of data is integrally preferable, but there are still several rough errors for GPS and BDS observation, are distributed residual test and twostep method rough error using t
Detection can be good at eliminating influence of these rough errors to positioning.In addition it can find out GPS+BDS dual system relative to GPS
Single system is also promoted due to increasing observation, positioning accuracy.
Table 1 has counted the corresponding positioning result of three kinds of rough error processing schemes, including average positioning accuracy, ambiguity resolution feelings
Condition and total timeconsuming.Due to rough error negligible amounts, t is distributed residual test and twostep method Detection of Gross Errors effect as can be seen from Table 1
Just the same, relative to no Detection of Gross Errors, positioning accuracy and fuzziness fixed rate are promoted, but promote amplitude very little, and
And overall calculation efficiency is also without the reduction big because of processing rough error.
Table 1 tests 1 static observation positioning result statistical form
Experiment 2: since GNSS observing environment is complex, recursive least square is taken to this dynamic Vehicular test data
Filtering is handled, and ambiguity resolution takes floatsolution mode.No Detection of Gross Errors is still taken in terms of Detection of Gross Errors, is distributed based on t
Residual error hypothesis testing (confidence level α is set as 0.01), twostep method Detection of Gross Errors three kinds of schemes are handled.
Fig. 3 gives the corresponding GPS and GPS+BDS system Xdirection position error sequence of three kinds of difference rough error processing schemes.
As can be seen that position error is integrally larger, especially in (100,200) epoch and (600,700) epoch without rough error processing
There is very big deviation in the corresponding period.After being distributed residual error hypothesis testing and twostep method Detection of Gross Errors using t, due to rejecting
After some more apparent rough errors, positioning accuracy increases.Compare t distribution residual test and twostep method Detection of Gross Errors pair
The position error answered, it is found that many epoch twostep method Detection of Gross Errors positioning accuracies are better than t distribution residual test, with GPS
For the 45th epoch of single system, observation satellite is 5, eliminates 2 satellite carrier observations using t distribution residual test,
Pseudorange OnePoint Location can only be finally carried out, and a satellite carrier observation is only eliminated using twostep method Detection of Gross Errors, finally
Positioning result is floatsolution；The 387th epoch of GPS+BDS dual system, is not visited using t distribution residual test by several 12, satellite
Rough error is measured, and twostep method Detection of Gross Errors then accurately eliminates a satellite observation, positioning accuracy is opposite to increase.
Fig. 4 gives no Detection of Gross Errors and the corresponding GPS+BDS rover station plane fortune of twostep method Detection of Gross Errors two schemes
Dynamic trajectory diagram.As can be seen that the corresponding rover station motion profile of twostep method Detection of Gross Errors is relative to no Detection of Gross Errors motion profile
It is smooth, the corresponding period in dotted ellipse region especially in figure, this at two corresponding location exist it is apparent high
The signal blocks of layer building and trees.
This vehiclemounted vehiclemounted trial position of dynamic of 2 quantitative statistics of table is as a result, including three direction average localization errors, having
Imitate epoch number and total timeconsuming situation.In terms of positioning accuracy, in three kinds of different rough error processing schemes, twostep method rough error is visited
Corresponding average positioning accuracy highest is surveyed, followed by t is distributed residual error hypothesis testing.GPS+BDS dual system is relative to GPS monosystem
System, the corresponding positioning accuracy of three kinds of schemes have a distinct increment；From the point of view of effective epoch number, the corresponding number of twostep method Detection of Gross Errors
According to effective rate of utilization relative to no Detection of Gross Errors without being decreased obviously, and t is distributed residual error hypothesis testing due to excessively eliminating
Observation causes part epoch that can not position, and reduces data effective rate of utilization；In terms of total timeconsuming, twostep method rough error is visited
Survey timeconsuming at most, but relatively entire experimental stage (about 900 epoch), there is no by very for twostep method Detection of Gross Errors computational efficiency
Big influence is fully able to meet the realtime dynamic positioning that sample rate is 1s.
2 dynamic test positioning result statistical form of table
Claims (3)
1. a kind of GNSS based on trial and error method positions Detection of Gross Errors method, which comprises the steps of:
(1) GNSS observational equation is constructed, parameter Estimation is carried out using least square, to obtain observation residual vector V；
(2) error estimator in calculating observation value weight unit
(3) it is adaptively calculated using excess observation number fTransfinite threshold value, and according toWhether transfinite, judges that GNSS is seen
Measured value whether there is rough error, if it does not exist rough error, then directly exports positioning result；
The wherein decision criteria that rough error whether there is are as follows: if meetingThen determining GNSS observation, there is no thick
Difference, otherwise there are rough errors for some or multiple observations；Wherein σ_{0}Indicate that GNSS observation noise, Fact are editor's factor,
F is excess observation number；
(4) if there are rough errors for observation, accurate Gross postionning, specific steps are carried out based on trial and error method are as follows:
(4.1) Gross postionning: under the conditions of only rejecting an observation every time, the n unit token rejected after observation is obtained
Quasi poor, then there are rough errors for the corresponding observation of minimum therein；
Wherein Gross postionning comprises the concrete steps that: if there are rough errors for observation, successively only rejecting ith, (i=1 2 ..., n) is defended
The corresponding observation L of star_{i}, and unit of account weighs standard deviation againAccording to formula
Kth satellite can be positioned to correspond to observation there are rough errors；
(4.2) threshold decision: to (4.1) minimumThe threshold decision that transfinites is carried out, it, can be true if being more than the threshold value of default
There are still rough errors in remaining fixed observation；
The method of threshold decision is: determining the corresponding observation L of kth satellite_{k}There are after rough error, if corresponding unit token
Quasi difference is still unsatisfactory forIllustrate that there are still rough errors in remaining observation；
(4.3) traversal is rejected: repetitive cycling carries out step (4.1)~(4.2), until error minimum is small in the weight unit of acquisition
In threshold value Fact × σ of default_{0}, and reject observation corresponding to the minimum finally obtained；
(5) leastsquares parameter estimation is restarted to remaining observation, obtains the GNSS high accuracy positioning influenced without rough error
As a result.
2. the GNSS according to claim 1 based on trial and error method positions Detection of Gross Errors method, wherein described in step (1)
GNSS observation L is mainly made of pseudorange and carrier observations, and corresponding residual vector V is solved according to the following formula:
V=BxL
Wherein x is to include carrier threedimensional coordinate, the parameter estimation of ambiguity of carrier phase；B is that x corresponds to design matrix, is seen
L number of measured value is n.
3. the GNSS according to claim 1 based on trial and error method positions Detection of Gross Errors method, wherein list described in step (2)
Error estimator in the power of positionAre as follows:
Wherein f is excess observation number, and P is the corresponding weight matrix of observation.
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