CN108860148B - Self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model - Google Patents

Self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model Download PDF

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CN108860148B
CN108860148B CN201810605550.4A CN201810605550A CN108860148B CN 108860148 B CN108860148 B CN 108860148B CN 201810605550 A CN201810605550 A CN 201810605550A CN 108860148 B CN108860148 B CN 108860148B
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car
follow
distance
driver
bus
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CN108860148A (en
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田彦涛
袁清
刘振泽
王德军
李寿涛
陈华
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Jilin University
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/14Adaptive cruise control
    • B60W30/16Control of distance between vehicles, e.g. keeping a distance to preceding vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W50/00Details of control systems for road vehicle drive control not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. process diagnostic or vehicle driver interfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W50/00Details of control systems for road vehicle drive control not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. process diagnostic or vehicle driver interfaces
    • B60W2050/0001Details of the control system
    • B60W2050/0019Control system elements or transfer functions
    • B60W2050/0028Mathematical models, e.g. for simulation
    • B60W2050/0031Mathematical model of the vehicle
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2520/00Input parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2520/10Longitudinal speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/80Spatial relation or speed relative to objects
    • B60W2554/801Lateral distance
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/80Spatial relation or speed relative to objects
    • B60W2554/804Relative longitudinal speed

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of self-adapting cruise control methods based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model, it mainly comprises the steps that step 1: on the basis of analyzing workshop motion state, designing the safe follow the bus spacing model for meeting driver's follow the bus characteristic;Step 2: the continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence is established;Step 3: the safe follow the bus spacing model that step 1 is established is followed into target as adaptive cruise upper layer decision making algorithm.Present invention expectation safe distance selected by traditional adaptive cruise top level control algorithm redesigns safety with following distance and applies in the decision making algorithm of upper layer aiming at the problem that not meeting practical driver characteristics, so that self-adaption cruise system to the handling characteristic of vehicle closer to the manipulation behavior of experienced driver, improve the acceptance and utilization rate of system.

Description

Self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of designs of advanced DAS (Driver Assistant System) of hommization (ADAS), are based on driving especially with regard to one kind The self-adapting cruise control method of the person's of sailing driving performance.
Background technique
As vehicle population is continuously increased, road is crowded, energy shortage, environmental pollution and the problems such as traffic accident increasingly It is prominent, so that the intelligent transportation system (ITS) based on electronics, communication, control and information technology is come into being.In people- In Che-road traffic system component part, driver due to psychology, physiology and in terms of there are certain fluctuations And limitation, inevitably there is tired erroneous judgement behavior and lead to traffic accident, therefore becomes weakest link in ITS.Advanced driving Auxiliary system (ADAS) is research core with driver, reduces people to the perception on " vehicle " " road " and decision-making capability by raising " people " For traffic accident.
The important component that self-adaption cruise system (ACC) is assisted as ADAS longitudinal drive, instead of driver according to Surrounding driving conditions make a policy and control, and more and more apply in vehicle.In view of the increasingly Sheng of ACC system Row, user just become more and more important evaluation index to the acceptance and satisfaction of ACC system this technology.Although ACC Use have potential benefit, but there is correlative study to show upon power-up of the system simultaneously, driver is it is possible that negative is System behaviour adaptation.
The characteristics of for current ACC system control algolithm research, while considering that vehicle is manipulated on road by driver The vehicles of traveling embody the operation behavior characteristic of corresponding driver, vapour from each car in terms of macro-traffic flow angle How the important component that vehicle ACC system is assisted as longitudinal drive in ADAS makes ACC system have hommization, so that Its operation behavior should be consistent with the operation behavior of experienced driver as far as possible, be critical issue urgently to be resolved at present.Clearly Hua Da Li Sheng wave etc. follows spacing control algolithm using MPC Theoretical Design, applies the cost function peace treaty of algorithm in the design Beam describes tracking performance, comfort property and driver's expected response (Chinese patent: CN 101417655, a kind of " more mesh of vehicle Mark coordinated self-adapting cruise control method "), but selected by the method with following distance to the follow the bus characteristic of driver consider compared with It is few.Wang Jianqiang, Qin Xiaohui et al. the safety of follow the bus and followability are designed in the design of ACC system (Chinese patent: CN103171545, " a kind of automotive throttle and braking integrated control system and control method "), have ignored relaxing in driving conditions The indexs such as adaptive and fuel economy.Therefore, in the research of ACC system control system and the specific implementation of corresponding control algolithm Need to analyze and study driver in journey to the following behavior of vehicle.On the one hand, it is provided with following distance for subsequent ACC control algolithm Reference input value is the first step for designing ACC control system.It designs the follow the bus behavior that meet practical driver, too small Spacing can make driver feel under the weather to even result in workshop risk of collision, and excessive spacing not only loses road traffic flow, It is also possible to cause frequent lane-change disorderly to jump the queue phenomenon, to influence the follow the bus efficiency of system, therefore selects suitable following distance plan Slightly can not only road improvement traffic utilization rate, and automobile trace performance and shop safety can be improved.On the other hand, In When studying specific control mode of the ACC system to car speed or spacing, it is also necessary to the feed speed control for studying driver is intended to, Research experienced driver is how according to extraneous road traffic environment information to be adjusted such that ACC to car speed or following distance System will not make driver generate discomfort when carrying out control action to vehicle, to improve the utilization rate of system.
Summary of the invention
In view of the above-mentioned problems, the object of the present invention is to provide one kind can comprehensively consider the adaptive of driver's follow the bus characteristic The upper layer decision-making technique of cruise system, it is including the design with following distance strategy and algorithm, i.e., a kind of to be based on driver's follow the bus characteristic The self-adapting cruise control method of Safety distance model.
To achieve the above object, the present invention takes following technical scheme:
A kind of self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: to workshop motion state analyze on the basis of, design meet driver's follow the bus characteristic safety with Following distance model;
Step 2: the continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence is established;
Step 3: safe follow the bus spacing model that step 1 is established as adaptive cruise upper layer decision making algorithm with With target.
A kind of self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model, in step 1 Design meets the safe follow the bus spacing model of driver's follow the bus characteristic including the following steps:
(1) minimum is kept into following distance d0It is taken as driver's classification k and track situationFunctional form, i.e.,
(2) operating condition one: current guide-car is in the state that drives at a constant speed and Following Car speed is more than or equal to preceding guide-car's speed, at this time Following Car slows down, when Following Car speed is decelerated to it is identical as preceding guide-car's speed when remain a constant speed traveling, two vehicles are in stable state at this time Following state can obtain the safe distance that stable state following state need to be kept by practical driving data are as follows:
Wherein, SconstIt is stable state with following distance, τ is linear coefficient, value 1.36, vfFor Following Car initial velocity;
To guarantee safety, by kinematic relation, we can derive following relational expression:
Sp-Sf+D≥Sconst (2)
Wherein, D is the initial spacing of two vehicles, SfFor the distance travelled in moderating process from vehicle, SpBefore in moderating process The distance of guide-car's traveling, and then obtain under the situation safely with the expression formula of following distance are as follows:
(3) when front truck slows down and Following Car speed is greater than front truck and front truck deceleration Following Car speed less than front truck, by Formula (2) can obtain safely with following distance expression formula are as follows:
(4) for other operating conditions of driving a vehicle, safety is with following distance expression formula are as follows:
A kind of self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model, in step 2 The continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence is established, is mainly comprised the steps that
(1) it takes ACC vehicle acceleration derivative jerk (t) as following state variable, obtains following formula:
Wherein, τ is the time constant of ACC system lower layer control, afIt (t) is ACC vehicle acceleration, ades(t) it is calculated for upper layer Expectation acceleration value out, τ1For constant value;
(2) the continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence is arranged to obtain based on traditional third-order model are as follows:
Wherein, D (t) is the practical spacing of two vehicles of radar surveying, vrel(t)=vp(t)-vf(t), vp(t) refer to front truck Travel speed, vfIt (t) is the travel speed of Following Car, u (t) is the expectation acceleration value of controller output, apIt (t) is front truck Acceleration,
A kind of self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model, in step 3 Target is followed to mainly comprise the steps that as upper layer decision making algorithm the safe follow the bus spacing model that step 1 is established
After the multiple traveling targets to be met during to ACC follow the bus analysis, asked under Model Predictive Control frame Solve optimal solution, the reference input value of controller are as follows:
R (k+i)=[Ddes(k) 0 0 0]T (8)
Wherein, Ddes(k) the safe follow the bus spacing model established for the step 1.
The present invention, compared to existing method, has the advantage that due to taking above technical scheme
1. considering to initially set up the safe distance mould for meeting driver's follow the bus characteristic the present invention is based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Type follows target as self-adaption cruise system, keeps system more humanized to the manipulation behavior of vehicle.
2. the present invention establishes the continuous car-following model of self-adaption cruise system quadravalence, more true and reliable describing is adaptive The Workshop Dynamic Evolution of cruise system.
3. the present invention completes the design of upper layer algorithm on Model Predictive Control frame, make what is established with following distance For the reference input of algorithm, for the control system that Model Predictive Control Algorithm is used compared to other, the people of system is improved The acceptance of property degree and driver to system.
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is front truck and Following Car motion process schematic diagram.
Fig. 2 is Safety distance model logic diagram established by the present invention.
Fig. 3 is that front truck at the uniform velocity Following Car speed is compared greater than front truck condition model numerical value.
Fig. 4 is that front truck deceleration Following Car speed is compared greater than front truck condition model numerical value.
Fig. 5 is that front truck deceleration Following Car speed is compared less than front truck condition model numerical value.
Fig. 6 is the response of stable state Car following ACC car speed.
Fig. 7 is the response of stable state Car following ACC vehicle acceleration.
Fig. 8 is stable state Car following ACC vehicle jerk response.
Specific embodiment
The following is further explained with reference to the attached drawings particular content and embodiments thereof of the invention.
A kind of self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model proposed by the present invention, The following steps are included:
Step 1: to workshop motion state analyze on the basis of, design meet driver's follow the bus characteristic safety away from From model;
Step 2: the continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence is established;
Step 3: the Safety distance model that step 1 is established is followed into mesh as adaptive cruise upper layer decision making algorithm Mark.
The present invention is based on the design of the upper layer decision of the self-adaption cruise system of one step 2 of above-mentioned steps and step 3 is main Including following three parts content: 1, meeting the design of the safe follow the bus spacing model of driver's follow the bus characteristic;2, establish includes vehicle Rate of acceleration change is the quadravalence continuous adaptive cruise system workshop twisting movement model of state variable;It 3, will be interior Hold 1 model established as control algolithm desired reference value, devised under model prediction frame a compromise between security, with Che Xing, comfort and the multiple target of fuel-economizing self-adaption cruise system top level control algorithm.
1. meeting the design of the safe follow the bus spacing model of driver's follow the bus characteristic
Assuming that two vehicle initial phases are away from for D, and it is opposing stationary through time t and front truck from vehicle, it is at this time S from the distance that vehicle is passed byf, The distance that front truck is passed by is Sp, D1Following distance is kept for minimum, as shown in Figure 1.
1. front truck is at the uniform velocity, Following Car speed is greater than front truck.Driver is during follow the bus, with the preceding car state received And two vehicle velocity contrast come adjust in real time with following distance.Such as Fig. 1, under the operating condition, Following Car is decelerated to and preceding vehicle speed When equal, Following Car is travelled at this time distance sfExpression formula are as follows:
The distance s that front truck is travelledpExpression formula are as follows:
Wherein, TrFor time of driver's reaction, TiFor braking system delay time, amFor maximum braking deceleration, vfFor with With vehicle initial velocity, vpFor front truck initial velocity.D1Safe following distance when for two vehicle speeds when equal, that is, stable state follow the bus, by The safe distance that practical driving data need to be kept when can obtain stable state follow the bus are as follows:
Wherein, SconstIt is stable state with following distance, τ is linear coefficient, value 1.36, vfFor Following Car initial velocity;
D can be obtained by kinematic relation1It should be greater than being equal to Sconst, it may be assumed that
sp-sf+D≥Sconst (4)
Minimum keeps following distance d0It is taken as driver's classification k and track situationFunctional form, i.e., In addition, for different types of driver, d0Selection it is also different, for conservative driver, d0Value with regard to relatively large, And the driver of radical type then tends to smaller d0.Equally, in face of the different selected d of pavement conditions driver0Value also can It is different.Based on above-mentioned consideration, minimum keeps following distance to be represented by following form:
K value is set by driver according to the intention of itself, and c and d are constant value,For the attachment coefficient of road, As shown in table 1.
Coefficient of road adhesion under the different road surface varying environments of table 1
Due to d0Value range be 2-5m, therefore we can obtain d according to above table data0Expression-form be
And then it obtains under the situation safely with the expression-form of following distance are as follows:
2. front truck is in on-position, when Following Car speed is more than or equal to front truck.
If Following Car does not take timely deceleration-operation, vehicle rear-end collision accident will occur.Since front truck is actively subtracted at this time Speed operation is not necessarily to reaction time, therefore the braking distance s of front truckpExpression formula are as follows:
Following Car passes through reaction time TrAfter start to brake, then its braking distance sfExpression formula are as follows:
To sum up, the expression-form of the required safe distance D under the driving situation can be obtained are as follows:
3. front truck is in on-position, when Following Car speed is less than or equal to front truck.
Two vehicles are in a safe condition at this time, when front truck decelerates to speed less than Following Car speed, if Following Car is not taken Brake operating, it would be possible to rear-end collision occur.Assuming that its deceleration has reached most when front truck decelerates to identical as Following Car speed Big value, then decelerate to required time when Following Car speed is equal from front truck initial velocity are as follows:
During this period, the distance s of Following Car travelingf1Expression formula is
When two vehicle speeds are equal, Following Car needs to take brake operating, then the braking distance of Following Car is
Therefore the total operating range of Following Car can be obtained is
Since front truck is constantly in uniformly retarded motion, so front truck braking distance is
Therefore required safe distance expression formula under the driving condition can be obtained is
4. other driving cycles
In conclusion the Safety distance model established herein is as follows:
2, quadravalence continuous adaptive cruise system workshop twisting movement model
Take the practical following distance of two vehicles and two vehicle speed differences as state variable, expression formula is as follows:
And then obtain the change rate of its spacing and speed difference are as follows:
Wherein, Sp(t) and SfIt (t) is the distance of front truck during follow the bus and ACC vehicle traveling, vp(t) and apIt (t) is front truck Velocity and acceleration, vf(t) and afIt (t) is the velocity and acceleration of ACC vehicle, D (t) is the practical spacing of two vehicles of radar surveying, D0For the initial spacing of two vehicles.
When designing the top level control of ACC system, due to the basis for thering is lower layer to control, thus it is considered that vehicle is actually defeated The acceleration command of acceleration value and upper layer out meets following relational expression:
In order to guarantee system comfort level, we are chosenIt is limited as state variable and to it, root According to pertinent literature, we, which are arranged, obtains the approximate expression of jerk (t), and by front truck acceleration ap(t) it is considered as disturbing for ACC system It is dynamic, and then the kinematics model of system can be obtained are as follows:
I.e.
3. using the Safety distance model of foundation as adaptive cruise upper layer decision making algorithm under Model Predictive Control frame Follow target.
(1) constrained optimization case study:
The most important control purpose of ACC system is to ensure that safety, therefore we need the reality to two vehicles here It is as follows that border following distance carries out a stringent constraint:
D(k)≥dS0 (24)
Wherein, dS0It is 5m for minimum our values of following distance.
When being in stable state following state, tracking error will converge to zero, i.e. the practical spacing of two vehicles levels off to safe distance The distance that model calculates, ACC vehicle speed tend to preceding vehicle speed, this is also just meeting the follow the bus psychology of driver, it may be assumed that
For convenience of the design of subsequent algorithm, we quantify target two as follows here:
L1=Γy1Δd2y2vrel 2 (26)
As the ACC system top level control for playing the part of driver role, riding comfort and fuel economy are also ACC important Evaluation index.It is obtained about comfort pertinent literature by the investigation and analysis to a large amount of drivers: riding comfort available rows Acceleration and rate of acceleration change jerk are sailed to characterize, value is smaller, and riding comfort is higher;During follow the bus, fuel oil Consumption is increased as vehicle acceleration absolute value increases;Therefore, we are to the acceleration and acceleration change in driving process Rate optimizes:
Equally, we are as follows to the quantization of target three here:
L2=Γy3af 2y2jerkf 2 (28)
Meanwhile to guarantee the comfort in entire driving conditions, vehicle acceleration and jerk value are answered constrained as follows:
According to above-mentioned analysis, the reference input of controller is taken as into form:
R (k+i)=[Ddes(k) 0 0 0]T (30)
And then on the basis of Model Predictive Control frame, we switch to the above-mentioned follow the bus problem for most adapting to cruise as follows Line solver quadratic programming Optimal solution problem:
Subjectto,CuΔU(k)≥b(k+1|k)
Since the complexity that model prediction algorithm calculates is higher, solve using general quadratic programming program may be led The delay on calculating is caused, therefore is carried out herein using Hildreth ' s Quadratic Programming Procedure algorithm Solve and then obtain optimal control sequence Δ U* (k).It can thus be concluded that:
ades(k)=ades(k-1)+[1 0 … 0]ΔU*(k) (32)
Then the operation is repeated in next sampling instant.
In experiment, the control parameter of ACC system top level control strategy distinguishes value are as follows:
Ts1=0.1s, τ=0.45, p=3, m=3, Γy1=15, Γy2=15, Γy3=10, Γy4=2, amin=- 4m/s2, amax=2m/s2, jerkmax=2m/s3,jerkmin=-2m/s3, ds0=5m.
Fig. 3~Fig. 5 is the Safety distance model established with the comparison of traditional Safety distance model, it can be seen that compared to biography System model model established by the present invention increases the magnitude of traffic flow on the basis of guaranteeing safety, and the follow the bus for meeting driver is special Property.System response diagram of Fig. 6~Fig. 8 for the adaptive cruise upper layer decision established of this paper under stable state Car following, ACC vehicle Initial velocity with front truck is 15m/s, and initial spacing is 20m.The practical following distance of two vehicles is calculated equal to Safety distance model at this time Safe distance out, therefore it is in stable state at the uniform velocity following state, in t=2s, front truck is with -1m/s2Deceleration decelerate to 9m/s, and in t=7s with 0.8m/s2Acceleration accelerate to after 15m/s and continue to keep to drive at a constant speed, can from Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 Out, during stable state follow the bus, face the frequent speed change behavior of front vehicles, based under MPC algorithm its speed of ACC vehicle and Acceleration responsive will be slightly faster than based on the ACC vehicle under LQ algorithm, from Fig. 8 we see that being based on during entire follow the bus Jerk average value under MPC algorithm is less than based on the ACC vehicle under LQ algorithm, improves system comfort level.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of self-adapting cruise control method based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model, which is characterized in that including Following steps:
Step 1: on the basis of analyzing workshop motion state, the safety for meeting driver's follow the bus characteristic is designed with workshop Away from model;
Design meets the safe follow the bus spacing model of driver's follow the bus characteristic including the following steps:
(1) minimum is kept into following distance d0It is taken as driver's classification k and track situationFunctional form, i.e.,
(2) operating condition one: current guide-car is in the state that drives at a constant speed and Following Car speed is more than or equal to preceding guide-car's speed, follows at this time Vehicle slows down, when Following Car speed is decelerated to it is identical as preceding guide-car's speed when remain a constant speed traveling, two vehicles are in stable state follow the bus at this time State can obtain the safe distance that stable state following state need to be kept by practical driving data are as follows:
Wherein, SconstIt is stable state with following distance, τ is linear coefficient, value 1.36, vfFor Following Car initial velocity;
It is safe to guarantee, following relational expression can be derived by kinematic relation:
Sp-Sf+D≥Sconst
Wherein, D is the initial spacing of two vehicles, SfFor the distance that Following Car travels in moderating process, SpIt is leading in moderating process The distance of vehicle traveling, and then obtain under the situation safely with the expression formula of following distance are as follows:
(3) current guide-car is slowed down and Following Car speed is greater than preceding guide-car or when preceding guide-car's deceleration Following Car speed is less than preceding guide-car, Safety is with following distance expression formula are as follows:
(4) for other operating conditions of driving a vehicle, safety is with following distance expression formula are as follows:
Step 2: the continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence is established;
Step 3: the safe follow the bus spacing model that step 1 is established is followed into mesh as adaptive cruise upper layer decision making algorithm Mark.
2. a kind of adaptive learning algorithms side based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model as described in claim 1 Method, which is characterized in that establish the continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence in the step 2, mainly comprise the steps that
(1) it takes ACC vehicle acceleration derivative jerk (t) as following state variable, obtains following formula:
Wherein, τ is the time constant of ACC system lower layer control, afIt (t) is ACC vehicle acceleration, ades(t) calculated for upper layer It is expected that acceleration value, τ1For constant value;
(2) the continuous car-following model of ACC system quadravalence is arranged to obtain based on traditional third-order model are as follows:
Wherein, D (t) is the practical spacing of two vehicles of radar surveying, vrel(t)=vp(t)-vf(t), vp(t) row of guide-car before referring to Sail speed, vfIt (t) is the travel speed of Following Car, u (t) is the expectation acceleration value of controller output, ap(t) for preceding guide-car's Acceleration,
3. a kind of adaptive learning algorithms side based on driver's follow the bus characteristic Safety distance model as described in claim 1 Method, which is characterized in that the safe follow the bus spacing model for being established step 1 in the step 3 is as upper layer decision making algorithm Target is followed to mainly comprise the steps that
After the multiple traveling targets to be met during to ACC follow the bus analysis, solved most under Model Predictive Control frame Excellent solution, the reference input value of controller are as follows:
R (k+i)=[Ddes(k) 0 0 0]T
Wherein, Ddes(k) the safe follow the bus spacing model established for the step 1.
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