CN108788352B - Wire electrode workpiece different-speed composite motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining method - Google Patents

Wire electrode workpiece different-speed composite motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining method Download PDF

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CN108788352B
CN108788352B CN201810693209.9A CN201810693209A CN108788352B CN 108788352 B CN108788352 B CN 108788352B CN 201810693209 A CN201810693209 A CN 201810693209A CN 108788352 B CN108788352 B CN 108788352B
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machining
workpiece
wire electrode
speed
wire
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CN108788352A (en
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毕晓磊
曾永彬
曲宁松
杨涛
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Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
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Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H7/00Processes or apparatus applicable to both electrical discharge machining and electrochemical machining
    • B23H7/02Wire-cutting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H11/00Auxiliary apparatus or details, not otherwise provided for
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H7/00Processes or apparatus applicable to both electrical discharge machining and electrochemical machining
    • B23H7/26Apparatus for moving or positioning electrode relatively to workpiece; Mounting of electrode
    • B23H7/30Moving electrode in the feed direction
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B23MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B23HWORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL
    • B23H7/00Processes or apparatus applicable to both electrical discharge machining and electrochemical machining
    • B23H7/36Supply or regeneration of working media

Abstract

The invention relates to a wire electrode workpiece different-speed compound motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting processing method, belonging to the field of precise micro-electrochemical manufacturing. In the machining direction, the wire electrode and the workpiece perform different-speed relative cutting movement, and the static electrolyte reversely and rapidly flows to flush the products in the gap and is discharged; the wire electrode and the workpiece perform alternate reciprocating motion in a direction perpendicular to the machining direction to assist mass transfer in the gap; the position of a processing area is changed by utilizing compound motion in different directions, the electrolyte in a processing gap is driven to rapidly update and flow, and differential motion fine electrolytic wire cutting processing is carried out under the high-efficiency mass transfer state. The invention obviously improves the precision, efficiency and stability of the micro-electrolysis linear cutting processing, and has important significance.

Description

wire electrode workpiece different-speed composite motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining method
Technical Field
the invention relates to a wire electrode workpiece different-speed compound motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting processing method, belonging to the field of precise micro-electrochemical manufacturing.
Background
The precision and the miniaturization are the mainstream development trend of modern industrial products, in a micro-mechanical system, a metal micro device has the characteristics of high strength, low resistivity, high sensitivity, high density and the like, the demand is increasing day by day, the related materials and structural forms are different, a plane profile microstructure is an important structural form, and the metal micro device is widely applied to the fields of aerospace, biological medical treatment, precise instruments, micro robots, micro sensors and the like due to the excellent performance of the metal micro device.
The micro-electrolysis wire cutting processing technology takes a micro-scale metal wire as a tool electrode, realizes the processing of metal plane profile microstructures such as micro-slits, micro-grooves, large depth-width ratios and the like by digitally controlling a metal wire electrode or a workpiece motion track based on an electrochemical anode dissolution principle, has the advantages of good processing surface quality, no cracks and burrs, no heat influence area, no loss of the tool electrode, wide processing materials and the like, is particularly suitable for the precision processing and manufacturing of difficult-to-process materials, and gradually becomes a hotspot research subject concerned and gathered by the academic and industrial circles at home and abroad.
the micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining is actually a forming electrolysis process of a micro-scale circular wire electrode, the machining precision is in the micron and submicron level, and bubbles generated by a cathode, ions generated by an anode and insoluble machining products are gathered in a machining gap of a micro-slit structure in the machining process, so that the fresh electrolyte is not smoothly updated, the uniformity of conductivity is reduced, the machining speed, the precision and the quality are reduced, and even the machining such as short circuit cannot be continuously carried out.
by adopting a reasonable mass transfer scheme, the mass transfer efficiency in the processing gap is enhanced, the generation and the diffusion of the processed product can form dynamic balance, and the processing precision, the processing efficiency and the processing stability are improved on the premise of stable processing. Researchers provide methods such as axial micro-amplitude vibration of a line electrode, annular wire traveling of the line electrode, low-frequency vibration of piezoelectric ceramics and the like, because the line electrode is a micron-level cylindrical metal wire with smooth outer surface and limited dragging disturbance capacity, the discharge effect of products is weak when a high-aspect-ratio structure is machined, machining short circuit is caused, and machining cannot be stably carried out, the axial micro-amplitude vibration of the line electrode, the annular wire traveling of the line electrode and the capacity of mass transfer are poor, the low-frequency vibration of the piezoelectric ceramics improves a machining flow field to a certain extent, but the problems that machining products and bubbles are attached to the surfaces of the line electrode and a workpiece still exist. In addition, researchers have proposed a method for improving mass transfer by the radial reciprocating vibration of the wire electrode, but the method is only suitable for a simple linear structure, and the radial reciprocating vibration of the wire electrode is difficult to realize when a complex track is machined. Therefore, a more reasonable processing method is provided on the basis of the existing research, and the problem to be solved urgently is to realize the large-scale industrial application of the electrolytic wire cutting technology.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a wire electrode workpiece different-speed compound motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting processing method, which realizes micro-electrolysis wire cutting processing in a high-efficiency mass transfer state and improves the precision, efficiency and stability of the electrolysis wire cutting processing.
A different-speed composite motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting processing method of a wire electrode workpiece is characterized in that: under the combined action of the process 1 and the process 2, the position of a processing area is changed, the electrolyte in the processing gap is driven to rapidly update and flow, and differential motion fine electrolytic wire cutting processing is carried out under the high-efficiency mass transfer state.
Step 1, in the machining direction, the micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining is realized by utilizing the speed difference between a wire electrode and a workpiece; 1-1, when the wire electrode moves towards a workpiece in a relatively feeding way, setting the speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction to be V1, and the speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction to be V2, wherein V1 is greater than V2, the machining speed is V = V1-V2, electrolyte rapidly flows through a machining gap in the opposite direction of the machining direction, and a machined product in the flushing gap is discharged; 1-2, when the workpiece moves to the wire electrode in a relatively feeding mode, setting the speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction to be V3, and the speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction to be V4, wherein V3 is less than V4, the machining speed is V = V4-V3, the electrolyte rapidly flows through the machining gap in the reverse direction of the machining direction, and machined products in the flushing gap are discharged.
2, in the direction vertical to the machining direction, the wire electrode and the workpiece alternately reciprocate to assist mass transfer in the machining gap; the reciprocating speed of the wire electrode in the Z direction is set to be V5, the reciprocating speed of the workpiece in the Z direction is set to be V6, and V5 and V6 are equal or different in size, and are alternately performed, and when the workpiece moves the wire electrode downward, machining products are discharged from the upper portion of the machining area, and when the workpiece moves the wire electrode upward, machining products are discharged from the lower portion of the machining area.
In the process 1, the wire electrode and the workpiece are fed at different speeds in the machining direction, and the wire electrode and the workpiece can be alternately switched on and off with the pulse of the pulse power supply; when the pulse stops, the wire electrode or the workpiece moves in the opposite direction of the machining direction to increase the machining gap, and meanwhile, under the assistance of the Z-direction reciprocating motion in the process 2, the electrolyte is quickly updated, the machined product is discharged, and the original position is recovered; when the pulse is output, the wire electrode and the workpiece are fed and processed at different speeds in the process 1.
The method has the beneficial effects that:
1. the method utilizes the speed difference between the wire electrode and the workpiece to carry out the electrolytic wire cutting machining, and compared with the characteristics that one of the wire electrode and the workpiece is moved and the other one is static and the electrolyte does not flow in the machining direction in the existing electrolytic wire cutting machining, the static electrolyte forms rapid relative reverse flow relative to the moving wire electrode workpiece, the electrolyte forms relative scouring action on the machining products in the gap, and the discharge of the machining products is accelerated.
2. the wire electrode and the workpiece reciprocate at the same speed or different speeds in the Z direction independently and alternately, and compared with the other stationary mode of reciprocating one of the wire electrode and the workpiece in the existing electrolytic wire cutting machining, the method enhances the updating flow of electrolyte;
3. The workpiece and the wire electrode move compositely in different directions, so that the position of a machining area is changed continuously, the electrolyte in the machining gap is driven to update and flow rapidly, the discharge of a machined product is accelerated, the mass transfer efficiency in the machining gap is improved, and the micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining is realized in a high-efficiency mass transfer state
4. Because the products in the gap in the process of moving cutting and machining are quickly discharged and the electrolyte is quickly updated and flows, the fresh electrolyte in the machining gap is sufficient, the conductivity distribution is uniform, and the machining precision, efficiency and stability are obviously improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of a wire electrode workpiece different-speed combined-motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining method;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of X-Y feed cutting and product discharge of a wire electrode workpiece;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of the reciprocating Z-direction and product discharge of the wire electrode workpiece;
FIG. 4 is a schematic diagram of a wire electrode workpiece differential speed composite motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining device;
number designation in the figures: 1. the wire electrode 2, the metal workpiece 3, the pulse power supply 4, the electrolyte 5, the speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction when the wire electrode moves to the workpiece in a relative feeding mode is V1 and 6, and the speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction when the wire electrode moves to the workpiece in a relative feeding mode is V2; 7. the speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction is V3 and 8 when the workpiece relatively moves to the wire electrode, the speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction when the workpiece relatively moves to the wire electrode is V4 and 9, the flow renewal direction of the electrolyte when the wire electrode relatively moves to the workpiece, 10, the flow renewal direction of the electrolyte when the workpiece relatively moves to the wire electrode, 11, the wire electrode moves upwards, 12, the workpiece moves downwards, 13, the wire electrode moves downwards, 14, the workpiece moves upwards, 15, the flow renewal direction of the electrolyte when the wire electrode workpiece relatively moves, 16, the flow renewal direction of the electrolyte when the wire electrode workpiece oppositely moves, 17, a vibration isolation platform, 18, a workpiece movement support platform, 19, a first X-Y direction precision moving platform, 20, a first Z direction precision moving platform, 21, a first reversing connecting plate, 22, a first reversing connecting plate, a second reversing, The wire electrode cutting machine comprises a first reversing column fastening bolt, 23, a first reversing column, 24, a workpiece clamp positioning screw, 25, a workpiece clamp, 26, a workpiece clamp fastening screw, 27, a wire electrode cutting motion system supporting platform, 28, a second X-Y direction precision moving platform, 29, a second Z direction precision moving platform, 30, a second reversing connecting plate, 31, a wire electrode clamp positioning screw, 32, a wire electrode fastening screw, 33, an electrolyte tank, 34, a wire electrode clamp, 35, a second reversing column, 36, a second reversing column fastening bolt, 37, a wire electrode lead screw, 38, a motion control card, 39, an industrial personal computer, 40, machining bubbles and insoluble products.
detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of a wire electrode workpiece different-speed combined movement micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining method, in which (a) is the wire electrode different-speed combined movement relative to the workpiece, and (b) is the workpiece different-speed combined movement relative to the wire electrode.
In the schematic diagram of X-Y direction feed cutting and product discharge of the wire electrode workpiece shown in fig. 2, (a) is the wire electrode moving at a different speed relative to the workpiece, and (b) is the workpiece moving at a different speed relative to the wire electrode.
in the schematic diagram of the reciprocating Z-direction of the wire electrode workpiece and the discharge of the product shown in fig. 3, (a) is the relative movement between the wire electrode and the workpiece, and (b) is the reverse movement of the wire electrode workpiece.
fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of a wire electrode workpiece different-speed combined motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining device, which includes a pulse power supply 3, a workpiece motion system, a wire electrode cutting motion system, a motion control system, a vibration isolation platform 17, and an electrolyte tank 35. The workpiece motion system comprises a supporting platform 18, a first X-Y direction precision moving platform 19, a first Z direction precision moving platform 20, a first reversing connecting plate 21, a first reversing column fastening bolt 22, a first reversing column 23, a workpiece clamp 25, a workpiece clamp positioning screw 24 and a workpiece clamp fastening screw 36. The wire electrode cutting motion system comprises a supporting platform 27, a second X-Y direction precision moving platform 28, a second Z direction precision moving platform 29, a second reversing connecting plate 30, a second reversing column 35, a second reversing column fastening bolt 36, a wire electrode clamp 34, a wire electrode clamp positioning screw 31, a wire electrode fastening screw 32 and a wire electrode lead screw 37. The motion control system comprises an industrial personal computer 39 and a motion control card 38.
the following describes the implementation process of the present invention with reference to fig. 1, fig. 2, fig. 3, and fig. 4:
Step 1, a wire electrode 1 is installed in a wire electrode clamp 34 through a wire electrode fastening screw 32 and a wire electrode lead screw 37, the wire electrode clamp is installed on a second reversing column 35 of a wire electrode cutting motion system through a wire electrode clamp positioning screw 31, a metal workpiece 2 is installed on a workpiece clamp 25 through a second reversing column fastening screw 36, and the workpiece clamp is installed on a first reversing column 23 of the workpiece motion system through a workpiece clamp positioning screw 24;
Step 2, connecting the metal workpiece to the positive electrode of a pulse power supply through a workpiece clamp fastening screw 26, connecting the wire electrode to the negative electrode of the pulse power supply through a lead screw 37, turning on the pulse power supply, and controlling the wire electrode and the workpiece to be immersed in the electrolyte and move to the position of an initial machining gap by using control software in an industrial personal computer 39;
step 3, realizing micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining by utilizing the speed difference, setting the feeding speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction as V1, setting the feeding speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction as V2, when the wire electrode relatively feeds to the workpiece, setting V1 to be more than V2, setting the machining speed to be V = V1-V2, enabling the electrolyte to flow through the machining gap in the opposite direction of the machining direction, and discharging a machined product;
step 4, realizing micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining by utilizing the speed difference, setting the feeding speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction as V3, setting the feeding speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction as V4, when the workpiece moves to the wire electrode in a relative feeding mode, enabling V3 to be smaller than V4, enabling the machining speed to be V = V4-V3, enabling the electrolyte to flow through the machining gap in the opposite direction of the machining direction, and discharging a machined product;
Step 5, setting the reciprocating speed of the wire electrode in the Z direction as V5, setting the reciprocating speed of the workpiece in the Z direction as V6, and setting the sizes of V5 and V6 equal or different, wherein the directions are alternately performed, when the workpiece moves downwards and the wire electrode moves upwards, machining products are discharged from the upper part of the machining area, and when the workpiece moves upwards and the wire electrode moves downwards, the machining products are discharged from the lower part of the machining area;
And 6, the workpiece and the wire electrode move compositely in different directions, so that the position of a machining area in motion feeding is changed, the electrolyte in the machining gap is driven to flow quickly, the mass transfer efficiency in the machining gap is improved, and micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining is performed in a high-efficiency mass transfer state.

Claims (2)

1. A different-speed composite motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting processing method of a wire electrode workpiece is characterized in that:
Under the combined action of the process 1 and the process 2, the position transformation of a processing area is realized, the electrolyte in a processing gap is driven to rapidly update and flow, and differential motion fine electrolytic wire cutting processing is carried out under the high-efficiency mass transfer state;
Step 1, in the machining direction, the micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining is realized by utilizing the speed difference between a wire electrode and a workpiece;
1-1, when the wire electrode moves towards a workpiece in a relatively feeding way, setting the speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction to be V1 (5), and the speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction to be V2 (6), wherein V1 is more than V2, the machining speed is V = V1-V2, electrolyte rapidly flows through a machining gap along the opposite direction of the machining direction, and a machined product in the flushing gap is discharged;
1-2, when the workpiece moves to the wire electrode in a relatively feeding mode, setting the speed of the wire electrode in the X-Y direction to be V3 (7), and the speed of the workpiece in the X-Y direction to be V4 (8), wherein V3 is less than V4, the machining speed is V = V4-V3, the electrolyte rapidly flows through the machining gap in the opposite direction of the machining direction, and a machined product in the flushing gap is discharged;
2, in the direction vertical to the machining direction, the wire electrode and the workpiece alternately reciprocate to assist mass transfer in the machining gap;
the reciprocating speed of the wire electrode in the Z direction is set to be V5, the reciprocating speed of the workpiece in the Z direction is set to be V6, V5 and V6 are equal or different in size, and the directions are alternately performed, so that a machining product is discharged from the upper part of the machining area when the workpiece moves downwards with the wire electrode moving downwards, and the machining product is discharged from the lower part of the machining area when the workpiece moves downwards with the wire electrode moving upwards.
2. the differential speed compound motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining method for the wire electrode workpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that:
In the process 1, the wire electrode and the workpiece are fed at different speeds in the machining direction and are alternately switched on and off with the pulse of the pulse power supply;
When the pulse stops, the wire electrode or the workpiece moves in the opposite direction of the machining direction to increase the machining gap, and meanwhile, under the assistance of the Z-direction reciprocating motion in the process 2, the electrolyte is quickly updated, the machined product is discharged, and the original position is recovered; when the pulse is output, the wire electrode and the workpiece are fed and processed at different speeds in the process 1.
CN201810693209.9A 2018-06-29 2018-06-29 Wire electrode workpiece different-speed composite motion micro-electrolysis wire cutting machining method Active CN108788352B (en)

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