CN108782061B - Treatment method for preventing pineapple fruit cracking and stem cracking - Google Patents

Treatment method for preventing pineapple fruit cracking and stem cracking Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108782061B
CN108782061B CN201810448047.2A CN201810448047A CN108782061B CN 108782061 B CN108782061 B CN 108782061B CN 201810448047 A CN201810448047 A CN 201810448047A CN 108782061 B CN108782061 B CN 108782061B
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cracking
treatment
spraying
solution
days
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CN108782061A (en
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黄丽君
徐健
赵静
王小媚
刘业强
韦优
周婧
秦昌鲜
卢美瑛
陈海生
韦巧云
蒋娟娟
李文砚
罗培四
孔方南
杨志强
卓福昌
卢艳春
唐景美
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Guangxi South Subtropical Agricultural Science Research Institute
Horticultural Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Guangxi South Subtropical Agricultural Science Research Institute
Horticultural Research Institute of Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/05Fruit crops, e.g. strawberries, tomatoes or cucumbers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0237Devices for protecting a specific part of a plant, e.g. roots, trunk or fruits
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/12Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids containing the group, wherein Cn means a carbon skeleton not containing a ring; Thio analogues thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/06Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/12Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with a carbocyclic ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/22Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom rings with more than six members

Abstract

The invention discloses a treatment method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruits and cracking stems, which comprises the following steps: soil improvement, watering and water control, flower forcing treatment, flower and fruit period management, timely harvest and the like. The invention carries out prevention treatment in advance from various aspects such as soil, water and fertilizer management, growth hormone regulation, bagging and the like, and particularly provides treatment methods such as targeted fertilization of soil nutrients, fine fertilization, foliar fertilization, growth hormone regulation, preparation of an anti-cracking protection liquid composition, bagging and the like.

Description

Treatment method for preventing pineapple fruit cracking and stem cracking
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of pineapple planting, and particularly relates to a treatment method for preventing pineapple fruit cracking.
Background
Pineapple, also known as pineapple, belongs to perennial herbaceous plants and is one of famous tropical fruits. The pineapple fruit has good quality and rich nutrition, and contains a large amount of fructose, glucose, vitamin B, C, phosphorus, citric acid, protease and other substances. The pineapple is fresh, golden in flesh color, strong in fragrance, palatable in sweetness and sourness, crisp and juicy. The fruit is a main canned product in the market except fresh food, and is popular with consumers.
China is the fifth country of production of pineapples, the area is about 5 million hectares, and the yield is about 110 million tons. 'Bali' and 'caine' are the current main cultivars, Tainong No. 17 is a good fresh pineapple cultivar bred in 1998 by a cross breeding method adopted by Jiayi agricultural test division in Taiwan province, and is the current cultivar with the largest cultivation area in Taiwan. In 2006, the horticulture research institute of the Guangxi agricultural academy of sciences and Taimeng agricultural development Co., Ltd, Tainong No. 17 pineapple seedlings were introduced from Taiwan, and the Guangxi Nanning city, the West village area, the good celebration area and the like were cultivated at present. However, in the planting process of Tainong No. 17, fruit cracking and stem cracking are common phenomena, and all the phenomena occur from young fruits to mature fruits, so that the commodity and the quality are seriously influenced, and the popularization and planting of the variety are limited.
Therefore, the planting method capable of preventing the phenomena of fruit cracking and stem cracking in the pineapple planting process can greatly improve the commodity and the quality of the pineapples, and has important significance.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruit and stalk in the planting process of Tainong No. 17, which effectively reduces the fruit cracking rate and stalk cracking rate of the pineapple, improves the commodity and quality of the pineapple, reduces the loss of growers and improves economic benefits.
A treatment method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruits and stalks comprises the following steps:
(1) soil improvement and management: 3-4 months before planting, performing air treatment on the soil, the depth of reclamation is 30-40cm, the preparation tillage is performed 2-3 months before planting, two plows and two harrows are used, the depth is 30-35cm, garden weeds are removed 10-15 days before planting, and 1800kg/hm of farmyard manure is applied2Spraying foliar fertilizer 25-30 days after the pineapple planting for 1-2 times per month, wherein the spraying amount is 1000kg/hm per time of 800-2Simultaneously carrying out watering and water control management;
(2) flower forcing treatment: stopping fertilizing one month before flower forcing, when the leaves of the pineapple reach more than 30 pieces and the length of the leaves reaches more than 28cm of mature green leaves, filling flower forcing liquid for forcing flower for 1-2 times, wherein each plant is 30-50ml, and then uniformly spraying 40% ethephon 800-fold liquid for 1-2 times;
(3) and (3) flowering management: respectively and uniformly spraying 10-15mg/L diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate solution and 100-110mg/L gibberellin solution once in the full-bloom stage and after the plants wither flowers, uniformly spraying 800 times of 600-fold ammonia calcium urea solution on the leaf surfaces every 12-15 days after the plants wither flowers, and continuously spraying for 3-4 times;
more preferably, 15mg/L diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate solution and 100mg/L gibberellin solution are uniformly sprayed once by a sprayer respectively in the full-bloom stage and after the plants shed flowers, 600 times of calcium benzoate is uniformly sprayed on the leaf surfaces every 12 days after the plants shed flowers, and the spraying is continuously carried out for 3 times;
(4) fruit period management: 30-35 days after the flowers are withered, uniformly spraying 800 times of the anti-cracking protective liquid 500-; the anti-cracking protective solution is mainly prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, monopotassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water according to the mass ratio of 0.5-1.0:0.25-0.35:2.0-2.5:5.0-10.0:10.0-15.0:10.0-20.0:15.0-20.0: 30.0-57.0; 1-2 days after the anti-cracking protection liquid is sprayed, 60% -70% of thiophanate methyl 800-fold liquid and 3% -4% of chlorpyrifos 800-fold liquid are uniformly sprayed, the fruits are bagged, and the calcium ammonia 600-fold liquid and the potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution with the concentration of 0.2% -0.25% are sprayed on the leaf surfaces of the fruits for 3-5 times after the fruits are bagged;
more preferably, after the fruit bags are sleeved, 800 times of ammonia calcium treasure and 0.25 percent potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution are sprayed on the leaf surfaces for 5 times;
(5) harvesting in time: picking when the fruits turn yellow from 1/3-2/3, and picking under the sunny weather to avoid picking in the morning or after rain.
Preferably, the watering water control management in step (1) includes: irrigating once in the condition of no effective rainfall within 10-12 days, and irrigating once when the pineapple leaves are observed to be red and yellow.
As the optimization of the technical scheme, the spraying is carried out by adopting an agricultural electric sprayer, the atomization particle size is 2-5um, and the range is 2-10 m.
Preferably, in the step (2), the flower forcing solution is calcium carbide solution with the concentration of 0.5-1% and borax solution with the concentration of 0.5-1%.
Preferably, in the step (2), the flower forcing liquid is injected into a syringe for forcing flower, wherein the syringe is a 30-50ml thick-mouth syringe with the caliber of 2-3 mm.
Preferably, the anti-cracking protection solution sprayed in the step (4) is prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water in a mass ratio of 0.5:0.25:2.25:6.0:10.0-15.0:10.0-15.0:20.0: 40.0-50.0.
Preferably, the environmental conditions of spraying the anti-cracking protective solution in the step (4) are that the temperature is 20-25 ℃, the relative humidity is 60-70%, and the environment is sunny without wind or breeze.
Preferably, the bagging in the step (4) is a pollen isolating film bag made of a PE film, the diameter of the bag is 35-40cm, and the bag depth is 40-50 cm.
The foliar fertilizer in the step (1) is a foliar fertilizer special for pineapples, can be directly purchased from the market (such as a foliar fertilizer special for pineapples, Baer Green Bo, produced by Israel International group Limited) and does not need to be specially prepared.
The ammonia calcium treasures in the step (3) and the step (4) can be directly purchased from the market (such as the ammonia calcium treasures special for fruit trees produced by Nicotai Lvyun biochemistry Co., Ltd.) without special preparation.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
1. the processing method is simple, convenient and scientific to operate, the used fertilizer is environment-friendly, the green planting concept is met, the pineapple fruit cracking and stem cracking are effectively prevented, and the fruit yield and quality of the pineapple are improved.
2. According to the invention, a scientific soil improvement scheme is adopted, and a foliar fertilizer is selected as a main fertilization mode, so that the absorption of exogenous potassium and calcium by pineapples is improved, the contents of assimilation products and cellulose in fruit stalks are increased, and the stem cracking rate is reduced to below 10% from the original 50-70%.
3. The invention adopts scientific flower forcing treatment and flowering period management, and the fruit bearing rate of the pineapples can be improved to more than 95%.
4. The foliar fertilizer and the anti-cracking protection liquid are sprayed one by one in the fruit stage, so that the thickness and toughness of the fruit peel are greatly enhanced, meanwhile, the elasticity of the fruit peel is increased, the fruit peel expansion capability is improved, and the fruit peel cracking is reduced. Not only the fruit cracking rate is greatly reduced, but also the long-term storage and long-distance transportation after picking are convenient for all aspects of the performance of the fruit peel.
5. The diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate in the anti-cracking protection solution can promote division and elongation of plant cells, adjust balance of nutrients in vivo and adjust plant growth. Brassinolide can promote the growth of crops, improve the quality, increase the yield, increase the sugar content, increase the yield and the like. Gibberellin can also promote plant growth, blossom and fruit bearing, improve seed setting rate, and increase yield. The three regulators are used in a composite mode, and are matched with N, P, K, Ca, Mg and other nutrient elements, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is added to serve as a film forming agent to keep the long-time action of the anti-cracking protection solution, so that the protection solution promotes fruit cell division, regulates various elements, enables pineapple leaves to be thicker and more solid, fruits to be more mellow, increases sugar content, and is larger in size and higher in yield.
Detailed Description
The treatment according to the invention is carried out under conventional planting methods and is further illustrated below with reference to the following examples, but the invention is not limited thereto.
Example 1
A treatment method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruits and stalks comprises the following steps:
(1) soil improvement and management: 3 months before planting, performing air treatment on the soil, performing tillage with a depth of 40cm 2 months before planting, performing two plows and two harrows with a depth of 35cm, removing weeds in a clean garden 10 days before planting, and applying 1600kg/hm of farmyard manure2Spraying foliar fertilizer 30 days after sowing with a sprayer, spraying 2 times per month, wherein the spraying amount is 900kg/hm each time2Simultaneously carrying out watering and water control management;
(2) flower forcing treatment: stopping fertilizing after the pineapple enters the flowering period, when the number of pineapple leaves reaches more than 30 and the length of the pineapple leaves reaches more than 28cm of mature green leaves, filling flower forcing liquid by using an injector for forcing flower for 2 times, wherein 35ml of flower forcing liquid is used for each plant, and then uniformly spraying the flower forcing liquid by using 40% ethephon 850 times for 2 times;
(3) and (3) flowering management: uniformly spraying 15mg/L diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate solution and 100mg/L gibberellin solution by using a sprayer once respectively in the full-bloom stage and after the plants shed flowers, uniformly spraying 600 times of calcium benzoate on leaf surfaces every 12 days after the plants shed flowers, and continuously spraying for 3 times;
(4) fruit period management: uniformly spraying 600 times of anti-cracking protective liquid to fruits 35 days after flower withering; the anti-cracking protective solution is mainly prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, monopotassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water according to the mass ratio of 0.5:0.25:2.25:6.0:10.0:15.0:20.0: 45.0; spraying an anti-cracking protection solution 2 days later, uniformly spraying a 60% thiophanate methyl 800-time solution and a 3% chlorpyrifos 900-time solution, bagging fruits by using a film bag, spraying a 800-time ammonia-calcium treasure solution and a 0.25% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution to the leaf surfaces after bagging the fruits for 5 times;
(5) harvesting in time: picking when the fruit turns yellow to 2/3, and selecting to collect under the sunny weather, so as to avoid collecting in the morning or after rain.
The fruit cracking rate 7 days before picking (fruit cracking rate is counted, namely fruit cracking is removed, the same is applied below) is 3.8%, the fruit cracking rate on the day of picking is 1.8%, and the stalk cracking rate on the day of picking is 3.0%.
Example 2
A treatment method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruits and stalks comprises the following steps:
(1) soil improvement and management: 3 months before planting, performing air treatment on the soil, performing tillage with a depth of 40cm 2 months before planting, performing two plows and two harrows with a depth of 35cm, removing weeds in a clean garden 10 days before planting, and applying 1000kg/hm of farmyard manure2Spraying foliar fertilizer with sprayer 30 days after sowing, spraying 2 times per month, the spraying amount is 800kg/hm each time2Simultaneously carrying out watering and water control management;
(2) flower forcing treatment: stopping fertilizing after the pineapple enters the flowering period, when the leaves of the pineapple reach more than 30 pieces and the length of the leaves reaches more than 28cm of mature green leaves, filling the flower forcing liquid with an injector for forcing flower for 2 times, wherein 35ml of the flower forcing liquid is used for each plant, and then uniformly spraying the flower forcing liquid for 2 times by 800 times of 40% ethephon;
(3) and (3) flowering management: uniformly spraying 15mg/L diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate solution and 100mg/L gibberellin solution by using a sprayer once respectively in the full-bloom stage and after the plants shed flowers, uniformly spraying 600 times of calcium benzoate on leaf surfaces every 12 days after the plants shed flowers, and continuously spraying for 3 times;
(4) fruit period management: 30 days after the flowers are withered, uniformly spraying 500 times of anti-cracking protective liquid on the fruits; the anti-cracking protective solution is mainly prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, monopotassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water according to the mass ratio of 0.5:0.25:2.0:5.0:10.0:10.0:15.0: 57.0; spraying an anti-cracking protection solution 2 days later, uniformly spraying a 60% thiophanate methyl 800-time solution and a 3% chlorpyrifos 800-time solution, bagging fruits by using a film bag, spraying a 600-time ammonia-calcium treasure solution and a 0.2% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution to the leaf surfaces of the fruits 3 times after bagging the fruits;
(5) harvesting in time: picking when the fruit turns yellow to 2/3, and selecting to collect under the sunny weather, so as to avoid collecting in the morning or after rain.
The fruit cracking rate 7 days before picking is 5.4%, the fruit cracking rate on the day of picking is 1.2%, and the stalk cracking rate on the day of picking is 4.5%.
Example 3
A treatment method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruits and stalks comprises the following steps:
(1) soil improvement and management: 3 months before planting, performing air treatment on the soil, performing tillage with a depth of 40cm 2 months before planting, performing two plows and two harrows with a depth of 35cm, removing weeds in a clean garden 15 days before planting, and applying 1800kg/hm of farmyard manure2Spraying foliar fertilizer 30 days after sowing with a sprayer for 2 times per month, wherein the spraying amount is 1000kg/hm2Simultaneously carrying out watering and water control management;
(2) flower forcing treatment: stopping fertilizing after the pineapple enters the flowering period, when the leaves of the pineapple reach more than 30 pieces and the length of the leaves reaches more than 28cm of mature green leaves, filling the flower forcing liquid with an injector for forcing flower for 2 times, wherein 50ml of the flower forcing liquid is used for each plant, and then uniformly spraying the flower forcing liquid for 2 times by 1000 times of 40% ethephon;
(3) and (3) flowering management: uniformly spraying 15mg/L diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate solution and 110mg/L gibberellin solution by using a sprayer once respectively in the full-bloom stage and after the plants shed flowers, uniformly spraying 800 times of calcium benzoate on leaf surfaces every 12 days after the plants shed flowers, and continuously spraying for 3 times;
(4) fruit period management: 30 days after the flowers are withered, uniformly spraying 800 times of anti-cracking protective liquid on the fruits; the anti-cracking protective solution is mainly prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, monopotassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water according to the mass ratio of 1.0:0.35:2.5:10.0:15.0:20.0:20.0: 30.0; spraying 70% thiophanate methyl 1000-fold liquid and 4% chlorpyrifos 1000-fold liquid 2 days after spraying the anti-cracking protection liquid, bagging the fruits by using a film bag, spraying 800 times ammonia calcium treasure and 0.25% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution on the leaf surfaces for 5 times after bagging the fruits;
(5) harvesting in time: picking when the fruit turns yellow to 2/3, and selecting to collect under the sunny weather, so as to avoid collecting in the morning or after rain.
The fruit cracking rate 7 days before picking is 5.4%, the fruit cracking rate on the day of picking is 1.4%, and the stalk cracking rate on the day of picking is 4.8%.
Example 4
A treatment method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruits and stalks comprises the following steps:
(1) soil improvement and management: 3 months before planting, performing air treatment on the soil, performing tillage with a depth of 40cm 2 months before planting, performing two plows and two harrows with a depth of 35cm, removing weeds in a clean garden 10 days before planting, and applying 1800kg/hm of farmyard manure2Spraying foliar fertilizer with sprayer 30 days after sowing, spraying 2 times per month, the spraying amount is 800kg/hm each time2Simultaneously carrying out watering and water control management;
(2) flower forcing treatment: stopping fertilizing after the pineapple enters the flowering period, when the leaves of the pineapple reach more than 30 pieces and the length of the leaves reaches more than 28cm of mature green leaves, filling the flower forcing liquid with an injector for forcing flower for 2 times, wherein 35ml of the flower forcing liquid is used for each plant, and then uniformly spraying the flower forcing liquid for 2 times by 800 times of 40% ethephon;
(3) and (3) flowering management: uniformly spraying 15mg/L diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate solution and 100mg/L gibberellin solution by using a sprayer once respectively in the full-bloom stage and after the plants shed flowers, uniformly spraying 600 times of calcium benzoate on leaf surfaces every 12 days after the plants shed flowers, and continuously spraying for 3 times;
(4) fruit period management: uniformly spraying 800 times of anti-cracking protective liquid on fruits 35 days after the flowers wither; the anti-cracking protective solution is mainly prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, monopotassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water according to the mass ratio of 0.5:0.25:2.25:6.0:15.0:15.0:20.0: 40.0; spraying 1000 times of 60% thiophanate methyl solution and 1000 times of 3% chlorpyrifos solution 2 days after spraying the anti-cracking protection solution, bagging the fruits with film bags, spraying 800 times of ammonia calcium treasures and 0.25% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution on the leaves of the bagged fruits for 5 times;
(5) harvesting in time: picking when the fruit turns yellow to 1/3, and selecting to collect under the sunny weather, so as to avoid collecting in the morning or after rain.
The fruit cracking rate 7 days before picking is 4.2%, the fruit cracking rate on the day of picking is 1.8%, and the stalk cracking rate on the day of picking is 4.5%.
The control experiment (counting fruit splitting rate and removing fruit splitting) was carried out by randomly extracting 50 adult NO. 17 pineapples in the experimental plots of examples 1, 2, 3 and 4 and comparing the extracted 50 adult NO. 17 pineapples with those extracted from the local two fruit growers in the self-seeded plots, and the results are as follows:
fruit cracking rate 7 days before picking Fruit cracking rate on the day of picking Pole splitting rate in the day of picking
Example 1 3.8% 1.8% 3.0%
Example 2 5.4% 1.2% 4.5%
Example 3 5.4% 1.4% 4.8%
Example 4 4.2% 1.8% 4.5%
Comparative example 1 (local fruit grower) 17.0% 15.0% 15.5%
Comparative example 2 (local fruit grower) 20.5% 12.5% 18.0%
The results show that the fruit cracking rate of the pineapples is reduced to below 6% from the original 17-20% and the stem cracking rate is reduced to below 5% from the original 15-18% by planting the pineapples by using the treatment method disclosed by the invention, and the phenomena of fruit cracking and stem cracking of the pineapples can be obviously reduced by using the treatment method disclosed by the invention.

Claims (7)

1. A treatment method for preventing pineapple from cracking fruits and stalks is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) soil improvement and management: 3-4 months before planting, performing air treatment on the soil, the depth of reclamation is 30-40cm, the preparation tillage is performed 2-3 months before planting, two plows and two harrows are used, the depth is 30-35cm, garden weeds are removed 10-15 days before planting, and 1800kg/hm of farmyard manure is applied2Spraying foliar fertilizer 25-30 days after the pineapple planting for 1-2 times per month, wherein the spraying amount is 1000kg/hm per time of 800-2Simultaneously carrying out watering and water control management;
(2) flower forcing treatment: stopping fertilizing one month before flower forcing, when the leaves of the pineapple reach more than 30 pieces and the length of the leaves reaches more than 28cm of mature green leaves, filling flower forcing liquid for forcing flower for 1-2 times, wherein each plant is 30-50ml, and then uniformly spraying 40% ethephon 800-fold liquid for 1-2 times; the flower forcing liquid is calcium carbide solution with the concentration of 0.5-1 percent and borax solution with the concentration of 0.5-1 percent;
(3) and (3) flowering management: respectively and uniformly spraying 10-15mg/L diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate solution and 100-110mg/L gibberellin solution once in the full-bloom stage and after the plants wither flowers, uniformly spraying 800 times of 600-fold ammonia calcium urea solution on the leaf surfaces every 12-15 days after the plants wither flowers, and continuously spraying for 3-4 times;
(4) fruit period management: 30-35 days after the flowers are withered, uniformly spraying 800 times of the anti-cracking protective liquid 500-; the anti-cracking protective solution is prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, monopotassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water according to the mass ratio of 0.5-1.0:0.25-0.35:2.0-2.5:5.0-10.0:10.0-15.0:10.0-20.0:15.0-20.0: 30.0-57.0; 1-2 days after the anti-cracking protection liquid is sprayed, 60% -70% of thiophanate methyl 800-fold liquid and 3% -4% of chlorpyrifos 800-fold liquid are uniformly sprayed, the fruits are bagged, and the calcium ammonia 600-fold liquid and the potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution with the concentration of 0.2% -0.25% are sprayed on the leaf surfaces of the fruits for 3-5 times after the fruits are bagged;
(5) harvesting in time: picking when the fruits turn yellow from 1/3-2/3, and picking under the sunny weather to avoid picking in the morning or after rain.
2. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the watering control management in step (1) comprises: irrigating once in the condition of no effective rainfall within 10-12 days, and irrigating once when the pineapple leaves are observed to be red and yellow.
3. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the spraying is carried out by an agricultural electric sprayer, the atomized particle size is 2-5um, and the range is 2-10 m.
4. The treatment method for preventing fruit cracking and stem cracking of pineapples according to claim 1, wherein in the step (2), the flower forcing liquid is injected into a syringe for forcing flower, wherein the syringe is a 30-50ml wide-mouth syringe with a caliber of 2-3 mm.
5. The treatment method for preventing pineapple fruit cracking and stalk cracking as claimed in claim 1, wherein the anti-cracking protection solution sprayed in the step (4) is prepared from diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate, brassinolide, gibberellin, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, magnesium sulfate, calcium nitrate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and distilled water in a mass ratio of 0.5:0.25:2.25:6.0:10.0-15.0:10.0-15.0:20.0: 40.0-50.0.
6. The treatment method for preventing pineapple fruit cracking and stem cracking as claimed in claim 1, wherein the environmental conditions of spraying the anti-cracking protection solution in the step (4) are that the temperature is 20-25 ℃, the relative humidity is 60-70%, and the treatment method is used in windless or breezy sunny days.
7. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the bag in step (4) is made of PE film, the diameter of the bag is 35-40cm, and the bag depth is 40-50 cm.
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