CN108770580A - The breeding method of endangered ancient tree in thousand - Google Patents

The breeding method of endangered ancient tree in thousand Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108770580A
CN108770580A CN201810566521.1A CN201810566521A CN108770580A CN 108770580 A CN108770580 A CN 108770580A CN 201810566521 A CN201810566521 A CN 201810566521A CN 108770580 A CN108770580 A CN 108770580A
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tree
ancient
ancient tree
seed
soil
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王文梅
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王文梅
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • A01C1/06Coating or dressing seed
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • A01C1/08Immunising seed
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/10Vegetative propagation by means of cuttings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H4/00Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques ; Tissue culture techniques therefor
    • A01H4/001Culture apparatus for tissue culture
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01HNEW PLANTS OR NON-TRANSGENIC PROCESSES FOR OBTAINING THEM; PLANT REPRODUCTION BY TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES
    • A01H4/00Plant reproduction by tissue culture techniques ; Tissue culture techniques therefor
    • A01H4/008Methods for regeneration to complete plants

Abstract

The present invention discloses a kind of endangered rejuvenescent breeding methods of ancient tree in thousand, is:In face of a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand; it will wilt; face death; endangered early period; the pine forest resource grown using environment, weather, the cultivation of humanity and protection wild plant, environment restore field animals and plants habitat, growing location; forbid artificially haggling indiscriminate valve, disorderly adopt and step on excessively, establish people and protect tree and realize, educate tree behavior;Using shield soil, build weir banket, it is whole set, prune, help tree, support tree, shield tree, fertilising, watering, breeding, seed collecting, Tibetan kind, presprouting of seeds grows saplings, transplants plantation, grafting regenerating reactivating technology, carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, endangered ancient trees in thousand are made to recover one's youthful vigour, the leafiness numerous epitaxial growth of branch;The protection to endangered ancient tree in thousand is carried out, is convenient for the progress of China's scientific research, the places of cultural interest to continue, the enjoyment of people's good life is achieved, the endangered ancient trees in thousand of valuable scientific utilization.

Description

The breeding method of endangered ancient tree in thousand
Technical field
The present invention is to belong to a kind of technical field of planting, specifically a kind of to face endangered thousand The rejuvenescent breeding method of ancient tree.
Background technology
In China ten, big endangered plant has:1, Carpinus putoensis:1 is only deposited in the whole nation;2, erythropsis kwangsiensis:Complete State only deposits 2;3, villus Chinese honey locust:4 are only deposited in the whole nation;4, Ostrya rehderiana:5 are only deposited in the whole nation;6, cystoathyrium chinense:The whole nation only Deposit 6;7, Craigia yunnanensis:6 are only deposited in the whole nation;7, canopy wood:7 are only deposited in the whole nation;8, bhesa sinensis:10 are only deposited in the whole nation;9, Abies beshanzuensis:11 are only deposited in the whole nation;10, acer yangjuechi:20 are only deposited in the whole nation.These endangered plants are countries one Grade Top-rated protected wild plants.Due to the destruction of poor forest resources and field animal habitat ground, and artificially haggle indiscriminate valve, unrest Adopt it is indiscriminate step on equal illegal activities remain incessant after repeated prohibition and the destruction of environment, weather changes, much precious thin planting object is in imminent danger in China State.Even ginkgo in thousand, Kashiwa tree, cinnamomum camphora, podocarpus, husky hackberry also deposit generation rareness.Protect endangered ancient trees in thousand Up to the present, good not yet, practicality, effective, science the guard method of people is protected.
Reinforce very urgent to the protection of endangered ancient tree in thousand, creativity and innovation goes out a kind of thousand to being on the point of extinction frequently The rejuvenescent breeding method of ancient tree, it is particularly important!
Invention content:
Present disclosure:A kind of endangered rejuvenescent breeding methods of ancient tree in thousand are provided.
The content of present invention technical problems to be solved are:A kind of endangered rejuvenescent cultivations of ancient tree in thousand are provided Method;Specifically:In face of a certain endangered ancient trees in thousand, it will wilt, death faced, before endangered Phase allows thousand using environment, weather, the cultivation of humanity and whole tree, shield tree, breeding, the application of the regenerated science and technology method of grafting Year, ancient tree was recovered one's youthful vigour, and the leafiness continuity of branch is grown;The invention content technology path scheme to be solved, through following technology path It is achieved:It protects the pine forest resource of wild plant growth, environment to restore field animals and plants habitat, growing location, forbids artificial Haggle indiscriminate valve, disorderly adopt and step on excessively, focus on environment, climate protection, establish people and protect tree and realize, educate tree behavior;It is filled out using protecting soil, building weir It is native, it is whole tree, disease control, prune, help tree, support tree, shield tree, fertilising, watering, breeding, seed collecting, Tibetan kind, presprouting of seeds, grow saplings, Transplanting, plantation, grafting regenerating reactivating technology, carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, endangered ancient trees in thousand are made to recover one's youthful vigour, branches and leaves cyclopentadienyl The growth of Sheng, continues life, expands plantation, population at breeding, carries out the protection to endangered ancient tree in thousand, is convenient for China The progress of scientific research, the places of cultural interest continue, and the enjoyment of people's good life is achieved, and valuable scientific utilization is on the verge of Ancient trees in thousand of extinction.
A kind of endangered rejuvenescent breeding methods of ancient tree in thousand:
The first, the breeding method of a kind of endangered rejuvenescent environment of ancient trees in thousand, weather, humanity:
(1), the forest reserves of the wild plant growth of endangered ancient trees in thousand are protected, it is ensured that endangered thousand The growing environment of year ancient tree, carries out the expansion to the existing forest reserves, the Optimization Work of environment:
1, reinforce propaganda strength, allow the importance to conserve forests as everybody knows;
2, the fireproofing of forest is carried out, people's forest fire protection consciousness is improved, issues forest fire protection Meteorological Grade, carry out gloomy Woods fire using in fields management is equipped with professional forest and prevents, rescues, controlling fire professional contingent;
3, it closes hillsides to facilitate afforestation and is combined with artificial cultivation, expand the forest reserves;
4, for the endangered ancient trees in thousand of the focused protection of dispersion, registration, supervision and focused protection, maintenance are carried out Work;
5, the forest reserves that the reasonable development forest reserves, appropriateness exploitation and limitation exploitation are laid special stress on protecting, ensure endangered Ancient trees in thousand protection work needed for the talent, fund, goods and materials;
6, relevant law, regulation, rules and regulations, the status clearly to conserve forests are formulated, publicity, raising, protection are on the verge of to go out The importance of exhausted ancient tree in thousand creates a kind of endangered rejuvenescent cultivation sides of ancient tree in thousand with science and technology Method;
(2), restore field animals and plants habitat, growing location, expand and protect wild plant growing location, it is ensured that be on the verge of to go out The continuity of exhausted ancient trees in thousand is grown;
1, the cleaning work of aggrieved animal in nature reserve area is carried out in stringent control;It is aggrieved in stringent control nature reserve area The cleaning of forest;Aggrieved forest is in principle without cleaning in wildwood therein and core space, buffering area;Different kinds of roads are prevented Aggrieved forest on the No Fire Areas such as fiery isolation strip and village village edge, can suitably clear up;To in test block artificial forest and It is aggrieved and without the desired aggrieved forest of survival can to clear up severe for bamboo grove;Forest land after cleaning will be based on clear-cutting forestland;
2, it is the dead wild animal corpse of properly disposition, accommodates succour the sick and wounded or wild animal individual of going around that peels off in time; Organizational strength patrols to wild animal cluster activity region, important habitat, waters or the regions such as water head site and its periphery, Lethal wild animal individual is collected into sealing container, suitably point is concentrated buried or destroyed by fire for selection, carries out harmless treatment; Receiving in time gives first aid to the sick and wounded or individual of going around that peels off, isolation specific regions to be given treatment to and raised;Return to having to put after treatment The individual of natural conditions, put as early as possible be grouped into the species inhabit region naturally;Condition of returning is put to not having, is sent to without exception The special wild animal rescue captive wildlifes unit such as Breeding base or Safari Park, zoo is raised; To the wild animal individual of dead wild animal corpse or receiving rescue, it must not be used for management and use activity without exception, it is not handy Make sample, must not also pick up, eat;
3, it is to take effective measures, promotes the recovery of wild animals and plants population and its habitat;It is tight to habitat damage The wild animal population for leading to inanition again continues that food is arranged to launch;Increase enlarging and newly-built a collection of wild animal rescue is numerous Base is educated, the expansion breeding and rejuvenation of existing wild animal Artificial Population are reinforced;It is wild for minimum population and special-protection-by-the-State Plant must not be cleared up without exception, to having the plant of rescue condition, taken artificial restoration measure as early as possible, promoted it Restore, update and grows;
4, it is to reinforce meet an urgent need infrastructure construction and material stock;Establish necessary wild animal sanctuary, emergent feeding Point and urgent rescue feed lot;Establish wild fauna and flora protection and nature reserve area emergency materials reserve system;
5, to reinforce resource investigation monitoring, analysis and assessment disaster influences;Reinforce the source Disease monitor prevention and control of wild animal epidemic disease;Entirely Face forbids catching wild animal behavior, and severe strike destroys the criminal offence of Wild animal and plant resources and its habitat;
6, forbid artificially haggling step on excessively, unauthorized and excessive mining, expand and protection wild plant growing location;Ensure endangered thousand The year continuity of ancient tree is grown;
(3), focus on environment, climate protection, create ecosystem living environment, weather;Response environment, climate change side Method;
1, reinforce response environment, climate change relevant law, regulation and the formulation of governmental measure and improve implementation capacity;
2, it adjusts economic structure, Push Technology progress improves efficiency of energy utilization;
3, develop low-carbon energy and regenerative resource, improve energy resource structure, reduce pollutant emission;
4, it is Efforts To Develop afforestation, prevents erosion, reinforces ecological construction and protection;
5, implementation plan is given birth to, and is effectively brought the growth of population under control, is made population development and economic development, social development, environment gas Development is waited to be adapted;
6, related mechanism, system and organizational construction are further improved, mechanism, system and organizational construction is made to adapt to environment, gas The variation of time;
7, pay much attention to environment, climate change research and capacity building;
8, environment, climate change education and propaganda strength are increased, environment, climate protection are focused on, creates ecosystem existence ring Border, weather.
(4), people are established to protect tree consciousness, educate tree behavior;
1, trees and the existent relationship of the mankind, love tree are introduced in the important sex education for carrying out Ai Shu, Hu Shu, tree of planting trees, educate The relationship of wood and environmental protection;It plants trees, protect trees, work is in the contemporary generation, profit is in the future thousands of years, church people Ai Shu, Hu Shu, plant The method for setting, educating tree, excitation people establish shield tree consciousness, educate tree behavior;
2, it is exactly to like our Green Homelands to carry out love trees, plants trees, shield tree, educates tree, the civilized conduct theme of love tree is lived Dynamic education, implementation tree body, seeds are listed, express and like set, plant trees, educate tree, shield tree method, and guiding people establish shield and set, educate tree, plant The environmental consciousness of tree, love tree, impression shield tree educate tree, love tree, plant trees, and preserve the ecological environment, ability someone and natural harmony U.S., man and nature's gets along amiably and peacefully;Implementation adopt educate tree, guest buries and educates tree, improve people protect tree realizes, educate tree behavior;
3, the importance for protecting endangered ancient tree in thousand is clarified, the importance of scientific research value and human development is cultivated People lay special stress on protecting the shield tree consciousness of endangered ancient trees in thousand, educate tree behavior;
The second, a kind of method of the cultivation of the endangered rejuvenescent technology of ancient tree in thousand:
(5), using shield soil, ridging, fertilising, watering, breeding, the method for preventing pest and disease damage, it is ensured that endangered thousand Ancient tree, which is first able into, to be survived;
Under normal circumstances, a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand survive thousand, and it is all fewer to deposit generation amount, survives Amount only deposits units or tens, and some faces dead and extinction;It traces it to its cause:There is it to face the growing environment of more than one thousand years, gas The variation of time, the variation of geographical conditions, animal and artificial destruction, the heredity of population, the infringement of pest and disease damage and seeds itself life The influence etc. of long-life;Carry out to a kind of method of the endangered rejuvenescent cultivation of ancient tree in thousand, first should from soil, Fertilizer, water, kind, prevention pest and disease damage protection are started with, it is ensured that ancient tree surviving and breeding;Secondly, modern science could be used to invent Method makes a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, will wilt, fall ill, face death, take whole endangered early period Whole tree, disease are controlled, repair dry, beta pruning, dredge leaf, and fertilising, breeding, seed collecting, hides kind at watering, and presprouting of seeds grows saplings, grafts, moving Plant, plant, carrying out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control etc., so that ancient tree is promoted longevity, breed offspring, finally, tree, support tree, shield is helped using science The method for setting, educating tree takes trees regenerating reactivating technology, the regeneration graft technology of innovation, makes a kind of endangered Gus in thousand Tree returns returns child, the leafiness numerous epitaxial growth of branch always;The protection to endangered ancient tree in thousand is carried out, China's scientific research is convenient for Progress, the places of cultural interest continue, and the enjoyment of people's good life is achieved, valuable scientific utilization it is endangered thousand Year ancient tree;
It is root, the water of nutrition of trees be life, the kind of growth of trees is the numerous of trees that soil, which is the source of the growth of trees, fertilizer, It is that trees receive sunlight to grow sheet, rational close planting, carries out photosynthetic growth conditions, the quality of environment, and quality is to influence tree The hope of wood existence, whole tree, disease are controlled, repair dry, beta pruning, dredge leaf, fertilising, watering, breeding, seed collecting, Tibetan kind, presprouting of seeds, cultivation Sapling, grafting transplanting, plant, carry out the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control etc., are that ancient tree is promoted longevity, breeds the important method of offspring, using section That learns helps tree, support tree, shield tree method, takes trees regenerating reactivating technology, the regeneration graft technology of innovation, is endangered thousand Year ancient tree, which returns, old returns virgin technical measures!
1, the method for protecting native ridging is carried out using the decomposed ancient soil near a kind of endangered existence of ancient trees in thousand:
A kind of growth of endangered ancient tree in thousand, institute different by existence region, environment, geographical conditions It is also different in the soil of growing location, soil property;Some is grown in laterite, some is grown in black earth, some is grown in loess, has Be grown in sand, some is grown in clay, some is grown in pine forest soil etc., and soil differs, and soil property index is different, It is different;Difference, the difference of soil property index determine the growing location feature of various endangered ancient trees in thousand;Using one kind Decomposed ancient soil near the endangered existence of ancient trees in thousand is fetched earth, protects soil on the spot, ridging is effective good method. Laterite:Lack alkali and alkaline earth metal ions, by carbonate or the rock containing other rich iron-aluminium oxides is in warm condition Lower weathering is formed, and generally in acidity, is taken on a red color or maroon;Red soil:In middle subtropical zone warm evergreen broad-leaved forest vegetation item Under part, desiliconization richness aluminium process and bioconcentration occurs, develops into red, the aggregation of iron aluminium, acid, alkali height is undersaturated Ferrallite;With high-moisture percentage, low-density and intensity is higher, soil of the relatively low characteristic of compressibility;Laterite, red soil usually adapt to The growing plants under middle subtropical zone warm evergreen broadleaf forest Vegetation condition;Black earth:It is optimal quality is good in soil one Kind, be under cold climate conditions, surface vegetation for a long time corrosion formed humus develop and formed;This soil is with it The content of organic matter is high, and fertile soil, the soil is porous, most suitable agro-farming;It is the clayey soil that there is strong breathing and disturb characteristic;Its Including:The soil for the person that has Vertic features in all great soil groups of Shajiang black soil, moisture soil, rendzinas, red earth, rice soil;Black earth its usually Adapt to the evergreen broad-leaved under cold climate conditions, wide leaf of falling leaves, growing plants under evergreen coniferous forest Vegetation condition;Loess: During referring to the Quaternary Period in geologic age, with the yellow silt deposit of eolian transportation;It is the shape under dry climatic condition At porosity there is the yellow silty soil of prismatical joint, collapsible loess will produce larger depression, loess after by water-soaked Middle SiO2 contents are very big, are secondly AL2O3, and CaO content is also higher, and water conservation is preferable, and fertilizer is poor;Loess usually adapts to The growing plants under dry climatic condition;Sand:Refer to the soil particle composition higher soil of sand grains content;World system Regulation, sand contains sand grains up to 85-100%, and fine soil grain only accounts for 0-15%.China's regulation, sand grains:1-0.05 millimeters of grain size, It is sand that content, which is more than 50%,;Sand retain water and nutrients ability is poor, and nutrient content is few, and soil temperature variation is very fast, but ventilating permeable Preferably, and it is easy to cultivate;On using management, it should be noted that selection drought-enduring variety ensures water source, to irrigate in time, pays attention to soil moisture conservation, apply When fertile, Bao Shiqin is answered to apply;Sand usually adapts to growing plants under the conditions of sandy soil;Clay:It is seldom containing the grains of sand, has The soil of viscosity, moisture are not easy to pass therethrough, and have preferable plasticity;General clay is all by silicate mineral on ground It is formed after ball surface weathering;The ingredient of clay is mainly silica and aluminium oxide, can only be suitble to have and conform to clay feature Plant growth;Sylvogenic soil:Refer to thering are many dry branches and fallen leaves to rot through generation for many years, the crumb structure rich in humus of formation is strong, Soft soil, brown, have high-moisture percentage, low-density and intensity is relatively low, soil of the relatively low characteristic of compressibility, the content of organic matter Height, the abundant high-quality soil of all kinds of battalion part needed for plant;Sylvogenic soil usually adapts to the growth of various plants, has extensive Purposes and applicability;
Using a kind of decomposed ancient soil that the endangered existence of ancient trees in thousand is neighbouring, is fetched earth on the spot, protects soil, ridging Gu Tree is conducive to the endangered growth of ancient trees in thousand.The quality of various ancient trees, requirement and required nutritional character for soil property is wanted It asks, each takes what he needs, each different.A kind of decomposed ancient soil near specifically being survived using endangered ancient trees in thousand, into When row fetches earth, protects soil, ridging on the spot, the Gu soil by ancient tree and the decomposed ancient soil near it are coped with, carries out physico-chemical analysis survey respectively After fixed, when both soil property indexs are similar or adaptable, the soil just may be used;If by ancient tree Gu soil and its near Decomposed ancient soil when both soil property indexs are not similar or incompatible, employment after carrying out physico-chemical analysis measurement respectively The method of work is added suitable element, keeps both soil property indexs similar or mutually fit in taking neighbouring decomposed ancient soil The soil may be used in seasonable side.
2, using at a kind of surrounding's extension of the trunk of endangered ancient tree in thousand, mud wall or brick wall or stone walling are built Enclosure wall, the method that the soil that a kind of growing location of endangered ancient tree in thousand is adapted is backfilled in enclosure wall;
To prevent erosion, maintains, meets, ensuring a kind of base required to soil of the endangered growth of ancient trees in thousand This requirement;According to a kind of protected size of the trunk diameter of the tree of endangered ancient tree in thousand, the thickness of trunk perimeter, Demand needed for the size of tree crown, growth to the nutrient in soil and the requirement to soil, soil property, it is a kind of endangered by protecting Ancient tree in thousand be deep root growth or shallow root growth or crab rooting growth or root with branch with long different characteristic of being born Factor determines the 1-5 rice at the trunk periphery extension by nurse tree at, standardized circle, build outside round mud wall or brick wall or The thickness of the enclosure wall of stone walling, enclosure wall is:20-30 centimetres, a height of 50-100 centimetres of enclosure wall, make the upper surface of enclosure wall, the i.e. table of enclosure wall Face keeps horizontal;It is deep root growth or shallow root growth or crab rooting further according to a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand are protected Growth or root are required with branch with the different characteristic for being born long, backfill 60-80 centimetres high of soil, or 40-60 lis of backfill respectively The high soil of rice, or 20-40 centimetres high of soil is backfilled, or backfill 70-90 centimetres high of soil.With a kind of endangered Gus in thousand The adaptable soil in the growing location of tree carries out shield soil, ridging;Or suitable organic fertilizer rich in decomposed organic matter is filled out simultaneously, or it is same When fill out the high organoclay of suitable content of organic matter;For root with branch with long a kind of endangered Gus in thousand of being born When tree carries out shield soil, ridging, its root can be embedded to the root to banket and have to that it is allowed to be embedded to as possible with branch with long root of being born In soil, to make the new root of its new embedment absorb native moisture content, fertilizer, the nutrient etc. newly inserted, contribute to a kind of endangered Ancient trees in thousand will wilt, face death, break away from endangered growth predicament, it is made to be transferred to normal growth, It flourishes so that stepping into, realizes and recover one's youthful vigour;It is deep root growth or shallow root life according to a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand The soil of the different characteristic requirement of long or crab rooting growth, the soil of 60-80 centimetres high of backfill, or 40-60 centimetres high of backfill, or return The soil for filling out 20-40 centimetres high, the soil being adapted with a kind of growing location of endangered ancient tree in thousand carry out shield soil, ridging;Increase It is the new root of the ancient tree of deep root growth or shallow root growth or crab rooting growth to have added a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand Grow, expand new root to recent fill draw nutrient function, effectively, continuously, continuously for needed for ancient tree support Part, be conducive to a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, will wilt, faces death, broken away from endangered growth predicament Out, so that it is transferred to normal growth, flourish so that stepping into;It realizes a kind of rejuvenescent to endangered ancient trees in thousand Target.
3, the distinct methods of ancient tree are controlled using whole tree, disease;A kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, since it is faced 1,100 Natural environment growth, experience all kinds of wind, frost, rain, snow, insult jelly, arid, floods, blast, the attack of heavy rain, thunder and lightning, typhoon, add Pest and disease damage infringement, the injury of various wild animals and the broken ring of the mankind can survive, survive so far, digit is few, has Everywhere a scene of devastation meets the eye, spot is innumerable, and residual branch loses leaf to some, lack branch it is dried-up;Some it is rotten it is dry deposit skin, thousand sore hundred is empty; Worm fills body to some, utterloy decadent;Some will wilt, on the point of dying, face death;A kind of endangered thousand Year, ancient tree faced the predicament of existence, and to make it play raw retrogradation, it is easier said than done to recover one's youthful vigour!It is a kind of endangered in order to save The life of ancient tree in thousand, can existence and reservation, realized raw retrogradation, recovered one's youthful vigour, only relied on that the mankind's is clever Wisdom, using the means curing the disease to patient as doctor, " taking medicine to the ill " is given first aid to using effective method;It is first The method for first using the whole tree of science, disease to control:
3.1, there is the ancient tree of " everywhere a scene of devastation meets the eye, and spot is innumerable " natural stereotype for a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, Desolation is cleared up, spot is repaired, except impurity elimination is attached, tendril is whole tree-like, sparse branching leaf, and clear shade object goes environmental contaminants, cooperation to use Anti- wild animal and artificial destruction, carry out ridging, fertilising, watering, so that ancient tree is had sufficient living space, environment, can absorb Sunlight, fertilizer, moisture content, the nutrient of abundance, reform life, flourish, and are recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
3.2, there is the Gu that " residual branch loses leaf, and it is dried-up to lack branch " has incomplete strain for a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand Tree, will amputate residual branch, and removing loses leaf;It repairs and lacks branch, graft shoot, polishing lacks branch, wipes out deadwood;Cleaning, or cleaning are dried-up, or Repair, protection, or remove, amputate it is dried-up;Accomplish because depending on tree, using different technology and methods;Cooperation is using except impurity elimination Attached, tendril is whole tree-like, sparse branching leaf, and the clear shady object of shading removes environmental contaminants, using anti-wild animal and artificial destruction, carries out Ridging, fertilising, watering make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand there is the Gu that " residual branch loses leaf, and it is dried-up to lack branch " has incomplete strain Tree, there is sufficient living space, suitable environment, can absorb sufficient sunlight, fertilizer, moisture content, nutrient, reforms life, luxuriant Growth is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
3.3, there is " corruption is dry to deposit skin, and thousand sore hundred is empty " in difficult Gu of surviving for a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand Tree will use to remove and rot wooden in rotten dry, using the xylem of wax seal trunk, or to there is cell proliferation growth, there is life Wooden existence part;And it is coated with cement mortar or limewash;Again in the cavity of trunk, or the space with existence bark, it builds with brick Concrete column or cement item, the block or cement wall of block are protected;Meanwhile to hinder according to different sores, " use ' Y ' type little tree Branch, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ", to increase the wooden function of the ancient tree trunk, provides nutrient, it is promoted to restore strong Kang Shengchang;Disease is given to " thousand sore hundred is empty " to control:It wants clear sore to fill a vacancy, carries out disinfection to sore wound, seals " sore " maintenance;Using wax seal, Or plastic film envelope or polyurethane film seal, and fill out " sky " with cement mortar or cement mortar, properly protect, careful rainwater-proof moves Object, insect pest etc. invade " sore ", " sky ";For different tree species, using different means, sterilized with different pharmaceutical, control " sore ", It fills out " sky " diseases prevention, cure the disease;Meanwhile the actual conditions that ancient tree is in difficult existence are directed to, cooperation is used except impurity elimination is attached, tendril, Whole tree-like, sparse branching leaf, the clear shady object of shading removes environmental contaminants, using anti-wild animal and artificial destruction, carries out ridging, applies Fertilizer, watering make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand there is " corruption is dry to deposit skin, and thousand sore hundred is empty ", in the difficult ancient tree that survives, have Sufficient living space, good environment, can absorb sufficient sunlight, fertilizer, moisture content, nutrient, reform life, flourish, with It realizes and recovers one's youthful vigour;
3.3.1, described " using ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ":In ancient tree " corruption is dry " quilt The place before rotting wooden space is removed, the little tree of the 1-3 rice of 1 similar seeds in ancient tree, the size of little tree are planted in selection Height will regard the height of the grafting positioning of the scion symptom of a trend needed for ancient tree, determine the size height of little tree;In second year spring or autumn It, by the branch of little tree in the certain altitude, the position that are suitble to ancient tree grafting, select and remain left and right bifurcated each 1, totally 2, determining it is Y-shaped;Other little tree branches will cut light, to the clip of twig, carry out wax seal or plastic packaging or urethane film envelope;Using 2 small treetops of the Y-shaped left, respectively by each branch small treetop top portion, a part is respectively pruned on two sides, is whittled into tip point and is 25 degree of -30 degree angle, it is 2-3 centimetres long that both sides, which are whittled into inclined-plane, and width is the scion symptom of a trend of small treetop diameter;Again in the phase of ancient tree grafting The epidermis and xylem for answering the need of height to access dig into a suitable scion respectively with the tip broadside chisel at 23 degree of -28 degree angle Then the little tree scion symptom of a trend is inserted into each seedlings picking hole of ancient tree grafting by the seedlings picking hole that the symptom of a trend can be inserted into having elastic force pressure respectively In, and the scion symptom of a trend is made to be adjacent to, be pasted in seedlings picking hole, make the xylem of the scion symptom of a trend, bark portion with it is wooden in seedlings picking hole To xylem, bark portion is docked in bark portion, is easily taken over a job in this way in portion, then is coated outside the interface in seedlings picking hole and to be connect glue or tighten waterproof The bark portion of little tree xylem and the xylem of ancient tree, the bark portion of little tree and ancient tree is taken over a job, is replaced to form little tree by film For the trunk of ancient tree, the function of nutrient is respectively conveyed for ancient tree xylem, bark portion, is promoted ancient tree to reform life, is flourished, Recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;" using ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ", contributes to little tree to substitute ancient tree Trunk, bark function, provide nutrient for ancient tree bifurcated, be conducive to ancient tree growth, restore life, reform life, flourish, Recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
3.4, there is the Gu that " damaging by worms all over the body, utterloy decadent " is in existence danger and disaster for a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand Tree will use removing, eliminating pest, the rotten part for amputating branch of damaging by worms, pruning trunk of damaging by worms to retain the portion of trunk as far as possible Point dynamic xylem and dynamic bark portion and the branches and leaves for having life to grow will be removed and be removed and utterloy decadent not give birth to Stump desired by machine, rotten branch, sick leaf, and to through removing, amputate, prune, remove and the wound of cleaning part, to carry out disinfection, Maintenance, protection and safeguard measure;Simultaneously:" using bis- ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ", to increase Function is supported in wooden, bark the infusion of the ancient tree trunk, provides moisture, the nutrient needed for ancient tree, is conducive to the photosynthetic of ancient tree leaf Effect, division, the growth of cell, the ability for promoting it to increase the infringement for resisting pest and disease damage restore its healthy growth;Meanwhile needle To ancient tree by the different degrees of of pest and disease damage, Harm and control is sterilized using different pharmaceutical, prevents pest and disease damage, and carries out ring around The diseases prevention in border controls worm, harmful work of going out;The actual conditions that ancient tree is in existence danger and disaster are directed to, cooperation is used except impurity elimination is attached, rattan Climing, whole tree-like, sparse branching leaf, the clear shady object of shading removes environmental contaminants, using anti-wild animal and artificial destruction, carry out ridging, Fertilising, watering make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand there is the ancient tree that " damaging by worms all over the body, utterloy decadent " is in existence danger and disaster, There are sufficient living space, environment, weather, sufficient sunlight, fertilizer, moisture content, nutrient can be absorbed, breaks away from pest and disease damage torment, weight Whole life, flourishes, and is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
3.4.1, it is described:" using bis- ' Y ' type twig, the method that grafting ancient tree promotees ancient tree living ", is in the ancient tree Each 1 of the similar little tree of ancient tree is planted in the front and back or left and right sides according to the needs for wanting grafting part, amounts to 2, with 2 Y-shapeds Twig, the method that the 4 scion grafting fringe symptom of a trends graft 4 seedlings picking holes of ancient tree;The beta pruning of the specific scion symptom of a trend cuts branch, connects The requirement in fringe, seedlings picking hole etc. and elastic the grafting requirement being inserted into each seedlings picking hole of ancient tree grafting, specific grafting side Method refers to described above:" using ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ";
3.5, there is " on the point of dying i.e. by wilting, to face death " in life for a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand Deposit the ancient tree of crisis:
3.5.1, in spring, to use anti-cold spell in spring, ridging, soil moisture conservation, fertilising, watering, select branch, prune, stay bud, promote rudiment, Come into leaves, bloom, delete flower, carry out artificial pollination, help as a result, or produce seeds, sowing, hide kind, carry out eliminate weeds, prevention disease pest Evil, anti-Chen Yu, thunder and lightning, draining, prevention waterlogging, the production such as grow saplings, protection work;
3.5.2, in summer, sun-proof, reducing temperature of heatstroke prevention of shading is used, thunder-lightning, anti-blast, heavy rain dredge Chen Yu, drought resisting, Water drainage, combats typhoon, controls flood, and preserves soil moisture, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, dispenser, deinsectization, and the work such as the production such as fertilising, watering, protection, management are carried out Existence protection to ancient tree, reduces the moisture evaporation of ancient tree, the different wilting performance characteristics of ancient tree growth is directed to, using choosing Branch stays branch, and beta pruning, appropriate priming leaf are stored up point, somatotrophic method;The processing that root rot occurs for ancient tree, will reduce plant The moisture for growing soil plough deeply soil, solarization and the disinfection to soil, removes rotten, repair, wipe out old complaint, protection has The disease-free existence root of life carries out root guard, supports root, the new earth culture soil of extraneous root, dispenser, fertilising, watering work;Meanwhile it should Thunder-lightning is carried out, lodging-prevention carries out the support to ancient tree, carries out the summer-flowering to existing ancient tree again, the existence of result is protected Nurse makees, and carries out to the blooming of ancient tree, deletes flower, pollination, as a result, or producing seeds, sowing, the plant protection hidden kind etc., management work;Want needle To the different degrees of of summer ancient tree " wilt, on the point of dying, face death ", using build the spring of ancient tree growth, cool autumn weather temperature is survived Atmosphere carries out ancient tree in summer " to use three ' Y ' type twig, the dry side for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree using any special measures Method " makes ancient tree obtain newly-increased fertilizer, water, nutrient supply in the crisis of survival in " wilt, on the point of dying, face death ", The fertilizer, water, nutrient supply needs for fully meeting ancient tree growth, make ancient tree pull through, and realize and bring back to life growth, are given birth to towards reforming Machine flourishes, and is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
3.5.2.1, it is described:" using three ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree " is in the ancient tree Surrounding all around selects three suitable points to plant each 1 of the similar little tree of ancient tree in three points, amounts to 3, with 3 A Y-shaped twig, the method that the 6 scion grafting fringe symptom of a trends graft 6 seedlings picking holes of ancient tree;The beta pruning of the specific scion symptom of a trend, Cut that branch, scion, seedlings picking hole requires and elastic the grafting requirement being inserted into each seedlings picking hole of ancient tree grafting, it is specific to graft Method refers to described above:" using ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ";
3.5.3, in autumn, it to be directed to temperature height early period in autumn, the lower different situations of later stage temperature, summer, autumn often have The present situation of Landed Typhoon, will carry out the lodging-prevention to ancient tree, and frame supports work, to ancient tree early period in the fall, to use carry out it is anti- Heat cooling, later stage will carry out heat preservation, cold-resistant, preserve soil moisture, hoe up weeds, applying fertilizer, watering, the method for the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, so that a kind of frequency is faced and go out There is " on the point of dying i.e. by wilting, to face death " and be in the ancient tree of crisis of survival in exhausted ancient trees in thousand, reformed in the fall Life, vigorous growth, for ancient tree receive winter arriving, it is overwintering, pass the winter and be ready, put aside nutrient;Ancient tree is wanted in the fall Carry out " using four ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ", make ancient tree in " wilt, it is on the point of dying, Face death " crisis of survival in obtain newly-increased fertilizer, water, nutrient supply, change ancient tree growth conditions, meet ancient tree growth Fertilizer, water, nutrient supply demand, make ancient tree pull through, and realize and bring back to life growth, towards life is reformed, flourish, are returned with realizing Old also child;
3.5.3.1, it is described:" using four ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ":It is in the Gu The surrounding of front, rear, left and right is set, four suitable points are selected, each 1 of the similar little tree of ancient tree is planted in four points, amounts to 4, The method that 8 seedlings picking holes of ancient tree are grafted with 4 Y-shaped twig, the 8 scion grafting fringe symptom of a trends;The specific scion symptom of a trend is cut Branch, cut branch, scion, seedlings picking hole requires and elastic the grafting requirement being inserted into each seedlings picking hole of ancient tree grafting, grafting side Method refers to above-mentioned " described:" using ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ";
3.5.4, in winter, it to be directed to the feature that ancient tree is overwintering, chance is cold, carries out wind, frost, rain, snow, the icepro jelly in winter etc. To the infringement protected working of ancient tree;In ancient butt, 1.2 meters of eminences, downward lime wash from the ground is carried out and is prevented ancient tree Cold, freeze proof, warming, insect-pest work will carry out necessary cold-proof wrapping to the exposed branches and leaves endured cold;It destroys plant diseases and insect pests, does Good prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control work;, the training in winter overwintering to ancient tree, beta pruning and pruning are carried out, deadwood is clipped, sick branch, rots to become Matter branch cuts branch of damaging by worms, overstocked branch, undergrowth branch, retains and strengthens bud branch, repaiies disabled branch, flexibly uses:" two or two system ", " three Three systems ", the method for " one two three four system " are pruned, are pruned;In conjunction with hoeing up weeds, apply fertilizer, water, the method for the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, (it is primarily referred to as the license for having grafting condition in south China) under special circumstances and conditional situation, " uses one to four ' Y ' Type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ", carries out the grafting to the old and new ancient tree;Lodging-prevention, frame support is wanted to do Work is protected in the good existence to the autumn of existing ancient tree, Winter blooming, result, carry out to the blooming of ancient tree, delete flower, pollination, as a result, Or it produces seeds, the plant protection of sowing, Tibetan kind etc., management work;Want the difference of needle winter ancient tree " wilt, on the point of dying, face death " Degree, using any special measures, carries out ancient tree " to use one in winter using spring, the cool autumn weather temperature existence atmosphere for building ancient tree growth To four ' Y ' type twig, the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of grafting ancient tree ", make ancient tree in " wilt, it is on the point of dying, face dead Die " in obtain newly-increased fertilizer, water, nutrient, change the growth conditions of ancient tree, have sufficient fertilizer, water, nutrient supply, meet ancient tree Growth demand, so that ancient tree is pulled through, realize bring back to life growth, towards reform life, flourish, with realize recover one's youthful vigour;
3.5.4.1, it is described:Using the method " two or two system " training, repair skill;" two or two system " training, pruning method refer to When a kind of endangered existence of ancient trees in thousand is in relatively close quarters or plot or field or mountainous region, applicable whole tree is pruned A kind of method;It uses pruning, educates the method for branch and is:Generally above the main trunk of ancient tree, it is divided into two forks, it is female is bred as two forks Limb, then two sub- limbs are respectively stayed on the female limb of two forks, four sub- limbs are bred as, then two grandsons are respectively stayed on four sub- limbs Limb is bred as eight Sun Zhigan ...;Using the method " two or two system " training, repair skill;So that tree crown is claimed, is neat, is beautiful, upwards It is grown with to four sides, accomplishes to dredge and divulge information, being conducive to ancient tree rationally makes full use of sunlight, leaf photosynthesis good, and moisture steams Hair is few, robust growth, with the advantage for making full use of space, sunlight, promotes a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, realizes and bring back to life Growth is flourished towards life is reformed, and is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
3.5.4.2, using the method " three thirds " training, repair skill;" three thirds " training, pruning method refer to when one kind The endangered existence of ancient trees in thousand dilute, close alternate region or dilute, close alternate plot or dilute, close alternate field, Or dilute, close alternate mountainous region, it is applicable in a kind of method that whole tree is pruned;It uses pruning, educates the method for branch and is:Generally in ancient tree Above main trunk, it is divided into trident, is bred as trident mother's limb, then respectively stay three sub- limbs on trident mother's limb, is bred as nine sons Limb, then three Sun Zhigan are respectively stayed on nine sub- limbs, it is bred as 27 Sun Zhigan ...;Using " three thirds " training, repair The method of skill makes ancient tree growth open wide, tree crown and claims, is neat, is beautiful, is upward, growing around, branch is made to be stretched to different spaces Exhibition growth, density are reasonable, divulge information, are conducive to ancient tree and make full use of sunlight, and photosynthesis is good, and moisture evaporation is moderate, growth Stalwartness, tend to make full use of land resource, space, sunlight advantage;Promote a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, realizes and bring back to life Growth is flourished towards life is reformed, and is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
3.5.4 it, 3, pruned, pruned using " one two three four system ";" one two three four system " training, pruning method refer to When a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand survive in special region or special plot or special field or special mountain Ground is applicable in a kind of method that the whole tree of special growth type ancient tree is pruned;It uses pruning, educates the method for branch and is:In the master of ancient tree Above trunk, it is divided into different size of one or y-bend or different size of two, trident, or different three, four forks in size, educates At different size of one or female limb of y-bend or different size of two, trident or different size of three, four fork;Again in difference On one or y-bend limb of size or different size of two, trident limb or the female limbs of three, four forks, a fork or y-bend are respectively stayed, Or trident or four fork sub- limbs, four to 16 sub- limbs are bred as, and without certain rule, it can only be because of the special life of ancient tree Elongate member, shape, the different and different diseases of type, the different situations of healthy growth, proceed from the reality, and determine the number for staying female limb Amount;On the basis of being bred as staying the quantity of female limb, a number of of sub- limb is stayed in determination, is being bred as a number of of sub- limb Afterwards, the quantity of grandson's branch is determined;Its female limb, sub- limb, grandson's branch growth, incubation, determination ancient tree, to regard because of ancient tree The actual requirement of the different situations of special growth, determine select, stay, with, rescue, transfer, saw, cut, cut out, cut, repair, pluck, remove, go, give up Distinct methods, according to different situations, make ancient tree grow using flexible means, mode, method using different measure, method ... Freely, open wide, tree crown is irregular, it is messy, simple and unsophisticated, to forward and backward, upper and lower, left and right three-dimensional growth, make branch to different spaces from Differed by stretching, extension growth, density, ventilation is appropriate, is conducive to ancient tree and freely utilizes sunlight, meets photosynthesis, absorbs fertilizer, water Point, nutrient, promote cell division, growth, carry out normal, rationally, appropriate, moisture evaporation, robust growth, make full use of soil, Environment, weather, space, sunlight, temperature advantage;So that a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand is pulled through, realizes and bring back to life growth, to Reformation life, is flourished, is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
4, using the method for helping tree and support tree;A kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, since it faces the growth of more than one thousand years Environment, the changing of weather, the variation of nature, geographical conditions, experience all kinds of wind, frost, rain, snow, insult jelly, arid, floods, blast, heavy rain, The attack of thunder and lightning, typhoon, the in addition infringement of pest and disease damage, the injury of various wild animals and the broken ring of the mankind, some are seven askew Eight fall, and side trunk and tiltedly plows some, some accumbency on ground, some half crab rooting in space ..., prestige at any time The existence and death for coercing ancient tree are carried out and help tree and support tree work particularly important a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, it Ancient tree is will be helpful to, stance bankets, absorbs soil fertilizer, moisture, nutrient, carries out photosynthesis using sunlight, promotes Gu The new life of tree, regeneration, make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand pull through, and realize and bring back to life growth, luxuriant towards reformation life Growth is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
4.1, using the method for righting ancient tree;With rope or steel wire rope, first want tether in the trunk or branch of ancient tree, Or be to fill at steel wire rope after protection fills out object, the trunk or branch of ancient tree are hitched, shoulder thick stick or the method using equipment are drawn in employment, After ancient tree righting, reselection accomplishes fluently fixed timber in the appropriate location of ancient tree surrounding, and timber is hitched with rope or steel wire rope Ancient tree is fixed, then, with the similar soil of ancient tree surrounding, bankets, earth up in ancient tree usage tree root, steady and sure soil further fixes Ancient tree, and it is watered with water, fertilizer;So that ancient tree, stance are banketed, are absorbed soil fertilizer, moisture, nutrient, is carried out using sunlight photosynthetic Effect promotes new life, the regeneration of ancient tree, so that a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand is pulled through, realize and bring back to life growth, to emphatically Whole life, flourishes, and is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
4.2, the method that fixed ancient tree is set using support;First want tether in the trunk or branch of ancient tree with rope or steel wire, Or be to fill at steel wire rope after protection fills out object, the trunk or branch of ancient tree are hitched, shoulder thick stick or the method using equipment are drawn in employment, After ancient tree righting, reselection accomplishes fluently fixed timber in the appropriate location of ancient tree surrounding, and timber is hitched with rope or steel wire rope, Ancient tree is fixed, then, the different parts at the sturdy place of the trunk or branch of ancient tree, with moso bamboo or round log, using difference Angle supportted jail, fixed;Make ancient tree very dial to stand, prevents from lodging;Meanwhile to through fixed ancient tree, being wanted in root Training is to be suitble to the soil of ancient tree growth, steady and sure soil to further fix ancient tree and be watered with water, fertilizer;Ancient tree, stance is set to fill out Soil absorbs soil fertilizer, moisture, nutrient, and photosynthesis is carried out using sunlight, promotes new life, the regeneration of ancient tree, one kind is made to be on the verge of It is peace that ancient trees in thousand of extinction, which turn crisis, realizes and brings back to life growth, towards life is reformed, flourishes, is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
5, to a kind of shield tree of endangered ancient trees in thousand, breeding method;
5.1, using the method for the shield tree to ancient tree;To be directed to a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, some desolation It meets the eye on every side, spot is innumerable, and residual branch loses leaf to some, and it is dried-up to lack branch;Some it is rotten it is dry deposit skin, thousand sore hundred is empty;Some worms Moth is all over the body, utterloy decadent;Some will wilt, on the point of dying, face dead actual conditions and carry out shield tree work;It transports Above-mentioned a variety of different methods that ancient tree is controlled with disease meet the soil quality requirement needed for ancient tree growth, apply fertilizers scientifically, rationally pour Water, plant protection management, using different Work tools, for the variation of environment, weather, temperature, sunlight, science nursery is cultivated, is transferred Connect, growth-promoting, dispenser, prevention pest and disease damage, prevent wild animal injury and the mankind fell trees unlawfully, destroy, using help tree and support tree etc. it is many Aspect is started with, and the protection to ancient tree is reinforced;Ensure that ancient tree has better growing conditions, environment, weather, restores life, brings back to life life It is long, it towards life is reformed, flourishes, is recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing;
5.2, to the breeding method of ancient tree, the objective reality situation to be grown according to ancient tree carries out tree whole to ancient tree, helps Just, support tree is fixed, it is dried-up to cut, except rotten dry, beta pruning, prunings, priming leaf, prevention and eliminates pest and disease damage, ridging, fertilising, watering, rush Flower protects flower, deletes flower, artificial pollination, breeding, seedsetting, seed collecting, sowing, Tibetan kind, germination, vernalization, the nursery of seed, rational close planting, Transplanting, plantation ancient tree nursery stock, reinforce to the protection of ancient tree and the breeding to ancient tree seedling, plantation, plant protection management, use different works Utensil, for the variation of environment, weather, temperature, sunlight, science breeding, nursery, cultivation, grafting, growth-promoting, dispenser, prevention disease pest The breeding method of evil etc. makes ancient tree very group standing, prevents from lodging, restore life, bring back to life growth, towards reformation life, luxuriant life It is long, recovered one's youthful vigour with realizing, cultivates offspring, continues growth;
6, to the method for the watering of ancient tree, irrigation, fertilising:Use satisfactory neutral water, or the rainwater of collection;According to Type, the objective reality in season and land occupation condition of ancient tree carry out in due course, suitable watering, irrigate and apply fertilizer;Arid season is suitable More waterings are poured water more, apply fertilizer more;Rainy season will water, or not water less, do not pour water, do not apply fertilizer;It germination period, growth period, can It to pour a little water, or fills a little water more more, to apply fertilizer more;Ancient tree wants suitable control water before rest period, or does not water, fertilizer;Ying Gen It waters in due course according to the biological characteristics of ancient tree trees kind;Watering should sprinkle profoundly water, and before watering, apply fertilizer, cope with ancient tree root surrounding Cofferdam or enclosure wall are carried out, or digs cave or digging, to be loosened the soil, weeding, spray eliminates pest and disease damage;Build cofferdam or fencing, digging Cave or digging are answered regular, and the soil is porous, closely knit alternate, can be sprinkled profoundly water, fertilizer, water-tight;Cofferdam or fencing or borehole, digging The diameter in cave, regard plant ancient tree the diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground, the size of tree crown, the density of leaf, moisture evaporation number, size and It is fixed;After digging cave, borehole watering, fertilising to ancient tree, cave, sealing of hole should be sealed in due course;Seal cave, sealing of hole method:It may be used and cover Lid film or straw or weeds, or through decomposed organic compost;To do not seal cave or not sealing of hole table soil, drying after, answer and When loosen the soil, weeding, watering, fertilising;Watering should use the physical and chemical indexes such as pH value and salinity to meet the water source that ancient tree grows demand, Ensure the pH value at water source between 5.5~8.0, salinity is in 0.25g/L or less;Ancient tree sapling through transplanting or ancient tree, it is necessary to Pour turn green water and take precautions against drought, be antifreeze, drought resisting water;Simultaneously, it is necessary to tree crown, leaf water are sprayed, to meet the sapling or ancient tree of ancient tree, The photosynthetic sapling or ancient tree needed with water and meet ancient tree of plant, the water demand of plant survived;It to be watered with After water, fertilizer, cave, sealing of hole should be sealed in time;Ancient tree cofferdam should be excluded in time, enclosure wall, dug in cave or digging cave, it is more due to what is rained Remaining ponding should drain the water away to not water-fast, moisture-proof ancient tree seedling or ancient tree in 6-12 hours;It carries out to wide leaf Gu Tree is planted trees or the protection work of needle ancient tree, tree planting, watering when fertilising, should be avoided or reduced to wide leaf ancient tree seedling or Gu The harm that tree or needle ancient tree seedling or ancient tree are planted trees;It will be by wide leaf ancient tree seedling or the plant of ancient tree, needle ancient tree seedling, ancient tree The difference fertilizer of plant, water demand, are watered, are irrigated respectively, are applied fertilizer;It pours facility and answers intact, should not run, emit, dripping, Leakage, waste fertilizer, water.
7, a kind of breeding of endangered ancient tree in thousand, seed collecting, sowing, the processing of seed, Tibetan kind, breeding, transplanting, kind The method of plant:To make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand be detached from danger of extinction;Will according to the different growth characteristics of various ancient trees, Using different methods, breeding, seed collecting, sowing, the processing of seed, Tibetan kind, germination, vernalization, breeding, the shifting to ancient tree are carried out It plants, plantation.
7.1, breeding method:Using artificial pollination, the pollination of natural wind regime utilizes animal honeybee, butterfly, dragonfly, ant, grey The method of Ying Deng Kun worms pollination cultivates seed:There is Carpinus putoensis monoecism, male inflorescence to be shorter than female inflorescence;Male, female flower is in 4 Month the first tenday period of a month open, and nature growth result is seldom throughout the year, have as a result, its fruit, seed, fall on ground naturally even if even, by bird, Beast invade food and natural wind, frost, rain, snow, sea wind, blast, heavy rain, frost invasion, it is difficult to see nature germination existence Carpinus putoensis;So that a kind of frequency is faced ancient trees in thousand of extinction -- top carpinus turczaninowii is temporarily disengaged from danger of extinction, unique row it Effectively method is exactly:Breeding is carried out to Carpinus putoensis, for Carpinus putoensis there is monoecism, male inflorescence to be shorter than female flower Sequence;The objective characteristic that male, female flower is opened in early April;Will early April using artificial pollination, the pollination of natural wind regime, using dynamic The method of object honeybee, butterfly, dragonfly, ant, fly Deng Kun worms pollination promotes the breeding success of Carpinus putoensis;
7.1.1 climatic factor, is got clear to a kind of influence of endangered ancient trees in thousand blossomed and beared fruit;Carry out due to Rainfall, low temperature hinder solid countermeasuress, carry out rainfall to ancient tree, the protection of low temperature, ancient tree is promoted to blossom and bear fruit;
7.1.2 a kind of research of the physiology of reproduction of ancient tree in endangered thousand, sexual segregation, sterility, knot, to be directed to Grow directly from seeds the researchs such as reason, proposes this effective method of row, using gibberellin Accelerate bloom, carry out artificial pollination technology;
7.1.3, there is the artificial pollination that uses of monoecism flower, natural wind regime pollination to utilize animal for Putuo manger The method that honeybee, butterfly, fine dragonfly, ant, fly Deng Kun worms pollinate cultivates seed;For abies beshanzuensis, to use in female plant Upper graft has the branch of male flower, it is allowed to increase pollination machine meeting, in favor of successfully pollinating, breeding;For different endangered The form of ancient tree in thousand, pollination is different, and using different methods, flexibly utilization is held in support;
7.2, Seed Collecting Methods:Seed is acquired using the artificial method for plucking fruit with equipment of collecting seed;
7.3, sowing method:Want timely sowing, Carpinus putoensis, fruit is ripe at the beginning of 10 months at the end of September;To be directed to ancient tree kind The maturity period of son, Mature property, time, requirement win fruit and carry out sowing in time;It is noted that the seed of general ancient tree, Autumn sowing;The seed of special ancient tree carries out sowing, such as in specific season:In summer or winter;
7.4, it to the seed collected, to be pre-processed:
7.4.1, there is the seed of exosper, to remove exosper;
7.4.2 useful seed, is selected, useless seed is abandoned and eliminate;
7.4.3 the method for, selecting useful seed:
7.4.3.1, using clear water concentration:Into the water by seed, useless seed of bubbling through the water column is fished for, leaves and takes and sinks to Water-bed useful seed;
7.4.3.2, using pneumatic jig concentration:Seed is put into bellows, the method through bellows blowing screening is chosen useful Seed;
7.4.3.3, using artificial Bo dustpans method:Seed is put into Bo dustpans, Bo dustpan methods are manually fluctuated, poplar abandons useless kind Son leaves and takes useful seed.
7.4.4, useful seed is cleaned, dried, sterilized, is disinfected;
7.4.4.1 processing, is dried to useful seed:The moon may be used to dry in the air wind method or naturally dry method or day Shine facture or baking oven, drying chamber oven drying method.
7.4.4.2 the method, useful seed is cleaned, sterilize, disinfected:
7.4.4.2.1, using tertiary sodium phosphate sterilization:After seed is soaked 4 hours with clear water, then it is dipped in 10% tertiary sodium phosphate It is pulled out after 18~32 minutes in solution, clear water cleans vernalization sowing;Prevent virosis;
7.4.4.2.2, using carbendazim sterilization:With 500-600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, soak seed it is 1-2 hours sub- after drag for Go out, clear water cleans vernalization sowing;Prevent Leucoplakia, black spot, anthracnose and powdery mildew;
7.4.4.2.3, using formalin (formaldehyde) sterilization:With 100~350 times of 15-35 points of formalin seed soaking Clock is pulled out, and clear water cleans vernalization sowing;Prevent droop, anthracnose, scab, leaf verticillium wilt, pythium rot and anthracnose;
7.4.4.2.4, using ambam sterilization:With 50% ambam, 150~350 times of sub- 25-35 minutes of liquid seed soaking, fishing Go out after clear water is cleaned and sows;Prevent downy mildew, anthracnose, Leucoplakia, black spot, anthracnose;
7.4.4.2.5, using sodium chloride (salt) sterilization:It is soaked seed 25-35 minutes with 4% sodium chloride, 10~35 times of liquid, Vernalization sowing after clear water is cleaned;Prevent bacterial disease;
7.4.4.2.6, using agricultural streptomycin sterilization:With the 300-500 times of liquid seed soaking of 10,000,000 unit agricultural streptomycin It is 1.5-3.5 hours sub-, pull clean vernalization sowing out;Prevent bacterial disease and anthracnose;
7.4.4.2.7, using sodium hydroxide sterilization:With sub- 8-32 minutes of 2% sodium hydroxide solution seed soaking, clear water is cleaned Vernalization is sowed afterwards;Prevent various fungal diseases and virosis;
7.4.4.2.8, using thiophanate methyl sterilization:It is soaked seed 0.8-1.2 hours, is taken out with 0.1% thiophanate methyl Seed soaking is used again 1.5-3.5 hours, after fully drying, sowed through vernalization;It can prevent the fungoid diseases such as damping-off, downy mildew Evil;
7.4.4.2.9, using potassium permanganate liquid sterilization:With 10-30 points of the liquor potassic permanganate seed soaking of 0.2-0.5% Clock after fully drying, is sowed through vernalization;
7.5, the problem of should be noted that using Medicament soaked seed:Mitigate and control virosis;Medicament soaked seed is seed disinfection processing In most common technology, method is easy, saves pesticide, with obvious effects;It is asked in view of this, to pay special attention to following 13 in production Topic:
7.5.1, the dosage form of attentional selection medicament, Medicament soaked seed be medicament dilution, medicament used is had to molten Yu Shui;The medicament processing dosage form for being dissolved in water at present has wettable powder, aqua, emulsion and suspensoid agent;It cannot be soaked seed with pulvis, because Not soluble in water for pulvis, medicinal powder bubbles through the water column or sinks, and the viscous medicine of seed is irregular, and seed soaking sterilization effect is not achieved;
7.5.2, accurate preparating liquid is soaked seed what drug concentration used calculated not according to seed weight, is usually pressed It is calculated according to the active constituent content of medicament;Such as medicament used is 50% carbendazol wettable powder, then is needed in every 500 kg of water Add 2 kilograms of medicinal powder;
7.5.3 the drug concentration, soaked seed is related with seed soaking time, and concentration is low, and seed soaking time can be more slightly longer;Concentration Height, seed soaking time will shorten;If inaccuracy grasps concentration, it is easy for that poisoning occurs or reduces effect of soaking seed;It holds Seed soaking time, Medicament soaked seed have a regular hour requirement, long to will produce poisoning, too short that sterilisation purpose is not achieved;Specific seed soaking Time will be operated according to drug operation instruction;
7.5.4, dipped seed will be rinsed and be dried, and the seed for enduring force difference to medicament should be used as required after dipped Clear water rinses, and to avoid poisoning;If washed after not illustrating leaching, it is not necessary to wash;No matter needing or not needing Washing, should all spread out after seed soaking and dry seed;
7.5.5 the seed, having is sowed after can soaking seed, cleaning after vernalization, or is directly sowed, this will according to pesticide variety and Depending on situations such as soil moisture content, environment, weather, temperature;
7.5.6, the liquid face soaked seed, will be higher by 16 centimetres of immersed seed or more, in order to avoid expose after seed water swelling Outside liquid, effect of soaking seed is reduced;
7.5.7, seed is put into the liquid, to be sufficiently stirred seed, is excluded the bubble in liquid, is kept seed abundant with liquid Contact improves effect of soaking seed;
7.5.8, drug concentration and seed soaking time can be coordinated;The low liquid of concentration, when seed soaking can be appropriately extended Between;Position where germ is deeper, or kind skin is hard, cortex is thicker, and seed soaking time can be appropriately extended;
7.5.9 when, seed soaking temperature is high, seed soaking time can suitably be shortened;When temperature of soaking seed is low, seed soaking can be appropriately extended Time;
When 7.5.10, dressing seed, it is desirable that seed and medicinal powder all must be it is dry, it is no uneven it will cause dressing seed, generate Poisoning influences the germination percentage of seed;
7.5.11, medicinal powder dosage typically constitutes from the 0.2%-0.5% of seed weight,
When 7.5.12, dressing seed, medicament and seed will be divided into 3-4 batches and be added, and then, appropriate rotation seed dressing container is allowed to Uniform mixing;
7.5.13, to systemic fungicide, with a kind of new seed dressing method -- wet-mixing method;The a small amount of water of medicinal powder is done It is wet, it then dresses seed, or dry medicinal powder is mixed on wet seed, medicinal powder is made to be sticked to the surface of the seed, wait after sowing, medicament is slowly It dissolves and is absorbed into plant to upper conduction;
7.6, the method that ancient tree seed hides kind:The method for hiding kind has:It is dried Tibetan kind method and wet seed buries Tu Zang kinds Method;
7.6.1, kind of a method is hidden in the drying process of the seed of ancient tree:Seed is generally harvested in the fall, is also had and is adopted in summer, winter Sowing, the seed of harvesting will be dried, store the sowing of second year early spring;To there is the seed of exocuticle, to remove exocuticle, By the seed of the ancient tree of harvest after seed soaking, peeling, cleaning, sterilizing, disinfecting, after drying, seed is wrapped, is placed on 20 DEG C -25 DEG C of cool place, ventilation, dry place hide and plant, and to the spring in next year or the temperature in autumn at 10 DEG C -25 DEG C, can take Gu The seed of tree is germinateed, is sowed after vernalization, or live streaming;
7.6.2, the wet seed of ancient tree buries Tu Zang kind methods:The seed of fresh ancient tree, after harvesting, to there is exocuticle Seed, to remove exocuticle, after being soaked seed, cleaned, sterilized, disinfecting, the wet seed of ancient tree is embedded in former ancient tree and is given birth to In long ancient soil side, it can also be embedded in the wet soil mixed according to the requirement to soil property needed for ancient tree growth, homemade soil sand, bury It buries and is maintained at 10-15 centimetres deeply, soil temperature is maintained at 1-10 DEG C, waits until second year spring, can after ambient air temperature is higher than 10 DEG C To take out seed, germinateed, vernalization sowing, or live streaming;
7.7, to the breeding of ancient tree, cultural method:Before the breeding of ancient tree, it is necessary to be germinateed, be urged to the seed of ancient tree Bud works, and to reduce the waste to the seed of ancient tree, improves the reproductive efficiency of ancient tree;
7.7.1, the germination of seed, germination accelerating method:
7.7.1.1, using the method for artificial thermophilic germination vernalization:,
Spring or autumn, China round the clock temperature all at 10 DEG C or more, 30 DEG C hereinafter, suitable for ancient tree germination, urge Bud and sowing;Since certain seeds cortex are thicker, bad hydraulic permeability, water suction is slow, seed dormancy it is deep mixed, germinate under low temperature Slowly, the seeding stage is long, and to accelerate its vernalization, germination, emergence, following method may be used:
7.7.1.1.1 it, basks seeds:The seed for selecting a term ancient tree selects fine day before germination, vernalization, shines seed two It, it is ensured that the seed water suction of ancient tree is consistent, and budding is neat;
7.7.1.1.2 it, soaks seed:Before broadcasting, seed soaking should be carried out to the seed of ancient tree, the seed of ancient tree can be put into 40 In DEG C -45 DEG C of hot water, it is stirred, fishes for useless seed of bubbling through the water column, leave and take the useful seed that sinks under water;Water will be sunk to The useful seed in bottom is cleaned, is sterilized, is disinfected, after draining;It is put into 28 DEG C -30 DEG C of warm water, then, stands seed soaking 22-24 hours or 45-48 hours;Some ancient tree seed hulls are thick or skin depth, according to the seed cortex of ancient tree thickness it is different, And the speed of absorbent time, the different time of seed soaking is flexibly grasped, the seed soaking time of Carpinus putoensis can rest in 5-10 days;
7.7.1.1.3, vernalization:The method of artificial thermophilic germination, vernalization:Through the 22- that soaks seed under 28 DEG C -30 DEG C of warm water After 24 hours or after 45-48 hours, the seed hulls of some ancient trees are thick or skin depth, according to the seed cortex of ancient tree thickness not Same and absorbent time speed, flexibly grasps the different time of seed soaking, and the seed soaking time of Carpinus putoensis can rest in 5-10 It;The seed of ancient tree is pulled out, seed is rinsed repeatedly with clear water until flowing water is clear, then drains moisture, spreads out and dries in the air 10-15 points Clock is put into the seed of the ancient tree for having suctioned moisture in moist, sterilized cloth bag or sterilized gauze bag, is shakeout, thick Degree is reloaded between 1-2 centimetres in the film bag of spiracle, lies in environment temperature at 26 DEG C -28 DEG C of place, can be taking human as Suitable temperature is created, vernalization is carried out;Every 8 hours to 12 hours, film bag is unlocked, seed is taken out, with 28 DEG C -30 DEG C of warm water It washes away 10-15 minutes, after draining, then seed is incorporated in the film bag of spiracle and continues vernalization;In 26 DEG C -28 DEG C of temperature Under degree, generally after 6-10 days, you can to sprout successively;It shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally or when 0.5-1 centimeter lengths when bud is grown to, ancient tree seed should can To begin sowing in good time;
7.7.2, using insulating box germination germination accelerating method:
It in the laboratory that conditional ancient tree seedling is cultivated or factory, may be used in insulating box, control at 25 DEG C -26 DEG C temperature condition under, carry out the germination to the seed of ancient tree, vernalization;
7.7.2.1 it, basks seeds:The seed for selecting a term ancient tree selects fine day before germination, vernalization, shines seed two days, Ensure the seed water suction of ancient tree unanimously and, budding is neat;
7.7.2.2 it, soaks seed:Before the seed sowing of ancient tree, seed soaking is carried out to the seed of ancient tree, it can be by ancient tree Seed is put into 40 DEG C of thermostatted water, is stirred, and useless seed of bubbling through the water column is fished for, and leaves and takes the useful kind that sinks under water Son;The useful seed that will sink under water carries out disinfection processing, after cleaning, draining;Taking-up is placed in 30 DEG C of thermostatted water, is soaked seed 22-24 hours or 45-48 hours, the seed hulls of some ancient trees were thick or skin depth, according to the seed cortex of ancient tree thickness not Same and absorbent time speed, flexibly grasps the different time of seed soaking, what is had can soak seed 5-10 days;
7.7.2.3), vernalization:Using insulating box germination germination accelerating method:The seed of ancient tree after seed soaking is pulled out, is used The clear water of 30 DEG C of degree rinse seed until water is clear repeatedly, then, drain moisture, spread out and dry in the air 10-15 minutes, having suctioned moisture The sterilized wet cloth bag of seed or it is sterilized bind up with gauze, make thinner, thickness can stack 3-5 layers, put at 1-1.5 centimetres It is covered in vernalization pallet, then with wet towel, vernalization of germinateing in 25 DEG C -26 DEG C of insulating box poured leaching every 8-12 hours 27 DEG C -28 DEG C of warm water is primary, pour leaching the time be 3-5 minute, after waiting water to drain, continuation constant temperature vernalization, through germination in 6-10 days, After vernalization, you can to sprout successively;It shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally or when 0.5-1 centimeter lengths, the seed of ancient tree can begin sowing in good time when bud is grown to;
7.8, the breeding of ancient tree, cultural method:
7.8.1 the breeding of ancient tree is divided to two kinds of grafting branch breeding method and seminal propagation method, and grafting branch breeding method can be divided into grafting branch skewer Two kinds of direct sowing culture and culturing and transplanting seedlings can be divided into, educate again by inserting breeding method and grafting branch culture medium breeding method, the seminal propagation method of ancient tree Transplantation of seedlings can be divided into two kinds of seedling and tree transplanted;The method of nursery can be divided into open field live broadcast, protecting field sowing and Nutrient medium Nursery, nutrition case nursery.
7.8.2, using the grafting branch propagation method of ancient tree:
7.8.2.1, grafting branch cutting propagation method:Grafting branch cuttage is a technical very strong job, cutting experiment and use Root-inducing powder concentration, kind, the age of tree, cuttage season, branch age, stiff wood or spray, environment temperature, humidity, management and to skewer branch give birth to The factors such as length, the method for root powder processing time are related;Only scientifical use can be only achieved good result;The grafting branch of ancient tree is numerous Grow, cutting propagation can be carried out by using the leaf, branch, root of ancient tree and be realized, but and not applicable a certain cottage method, it is real The grafting branch breeding of existing a certain kind ancient tree, cannot using the grafting branch cutting propagation of ancient tree can by the seminal propagation of its acquisition come It realizes;Grafting branch cutting propagation method:It fits and temperature is enabled to rest between 15 DEG C -25 DEG C in spring or autumn using the grafting branch of ancient tree, With 6-8 months sprays of the stiff branches of 1-2 of scissors clip ancient tree, or current year life;With stiff wood or spray, to regard ancient tree and adapt to Depending on the needs of cutting survival, branch clip is tiltedly sheared to 25-30 centimetres of growth, the branch with 2 buds (leaf), by cuttage item It is inserted into the nursery got ready in advance, carries out grafting branch cuttage and seedling culture, the spacing in the rows of cuttage and seedling culture, the length and width of line-spacing are respectively 20-25 lis Rice or 35-40 centimetres is suitable, and what is cultivated according to ancient tree seeds, grafting branch cutting propagation is seedling or seedlings, specifically Situation determines the spacing in the rows and line-spacing of cuttage and seedling culture;The depth that grafting branch cuttage skewer enters nursery soil rests between 8-10 centimetres, when Cuttage branch will be covered with the straw of 1-2 cm thicks at the space between cuttage row, spacing in the rows, be irrigated after nursery cuttage is good After watering, straw face is sealed with film, to prevent weed growth and moisture loss, accomplishes to keep the temperature for water, and soil moisture conservation promotes cuttage Grafting branch is early taken root, early survives, is early grown;
7.8.2.1.1, using quickly dipped method:Before grafting branch cuttage, the cutting that will be sheared, after putting half an hour, it is quickly dipped enter Containing in ABT rooting powder solutions, quickly dipped liquid levels are:500--2000mg/kg, the quickly dipped position of cutting are side of taking root Lower part, quickly dipped liquid depth is 6-8 centimetres, and cutting is quickly dipped in containing ABT rooting powder solutions, and the quickly dipped time is 28-30 seconds Afterwards, slightly stop in a moment;Row cuttage again;In cutting cuttage, tool is used, first in nursery, by row, spacing in the rows requirement, inserts one More than the aperture of cutting, then, cutting is inserted into aperture, then be with the hands compacted the aperture of cutting surrounding soil, is protected slotting Then surface attachments of the item at the quickly dipped position of liquid cover straw between cutting row, spacing in the rows, sprinkle profoundly water, or seal film, So that cutting is absorbed liquid, is completely used for the formation of adventitious root;Under conditions of heat preservation, soil moisture conservation, promoting its morning takes root, and early survives, early Growth;
7.8.2.1.2, using infusion method:Infusion method is that ABT root-inducing powders are made into the solution of low content:50-200mg/kg, Or 100-500 mg/kg;Then, it by 6-8 centimetres of cutting lower part of branch bar, impregnates 2-12 hours in the solution;This processing Method, especially good to dormant wood, it is conducive to the elution of inhibiting substances inside dormant wood, is not influenced by external environmental condition, And can guarantee the liquid that cutting absorbs, it is completely used for the formation of adventitious root;When processing, according to specification, the maturity of branch and Fixed, the full branch of solution of big branch 50mg/kg or 100mg/kg impregnates 4-6 hours, or only bubble has latent adventitious root primordia 6-8 centimetres of branch bar portion position;1 year raw dormant wood is impregnated 2 hours with 50mg/kg or the full branch of 100 mg/kg solution;Spray root It according to used branch lignifying program and size, the depth of cutting, can impregnate 1-2 hours, it is 6-8 centimetres to impregnate branch pole length;
7.8.2.1.3, pulvis facture:ABT root-inducing powders are applied to cutting base portion before cuttage, then, carry out cuttage;Processing When, first cutting base portion is dipped in wet, insertion is taken root in powder, so that cutting base portion notch is fully glued even powder, or powder is used Water is tuned into emulsus and is applied to notch;In cuttage, it is careful powder can not be made to fall;Such processing advantage is method simplicity, makes to insert The powder of lower cut adherency is easily absorbed by plant as spraying or overboard disappear are dissolved in cutting medium;
7.8.3, grafting branch culture medium breeding method:The grafting branch culture medium breeding method of ancient tree is the branch segment for taking ancient tree, is obtained After explant, in the medium breed ancient tree sapling method;Grafting branch culture medium breeding method:First produce culture medium, then with Gu The grafting branch of tree cuts the explant section of ancient tree grafting branch, and explant segment length is 0.5-6.5 centimetres, after obtaining explant section, to obtaining Explant section is first cleaned, is sterilized, is disinfected;Explant is inoculated in comprising 0.5-3mg/L6- benzyl aminoadenines afterwards (concentration of 6- benzyl aminoadenines can use 1-2.5mg/L), (concentration of methyl α-naphthyl acetate can take 0.2- to 0.1-0.5mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates Differentiation culture is carried out on culture medium 0.4mg/L), illumination condition is:60±10u mol.m-2S-l, 16 ± 2h/d, culture temperature Degree is:23 DEG C -25 DEG C, obtain the callus (wherein, including at least once relaying step, subculture was primary in 2-4 weeks) comprising bud; By callus switching packet 0.5-3mg/L6- benzyls aminoadenine, 0.1-0.5mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0-0.01/ thiophenes two comprising bud Elongation culture is carried out on the culture medium of azoles phenylurea, illumination condition is:60±10u mol.m-2S-l, 16 ± 2h/d, cultivation temperature For:23 DEG C -25 DEG C, obtain form clearly bud, by form clearly bud switching in comprising 0.3mg/L6- benzyls aminoadenine, The culture medium of 0.02mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0.2mg/L gibberellin, or the culture comprising 0.03mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0.4mg/L gibberellin Elongation culture is carried out on base, illumination condition is:60±10u mol.m-2S-l, 16 ± 2h/d, cultivation temperature are:23 DEG C -25 DEG C, Obtain elongation bud;The tooth seedling of bud will be extended comprising 1.5mg/L6- benzyls aminoadenine, 0.2mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0.005mg/L The culture medium of thidiazuron, or including 2mg/L6- benzyls aminoadenine, 0.3mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0mg/L thiadiazoles benzene Light culture 2-9 days on the culture medium of base urea, it is 24 DEG C -26 DEG C to cultivate temperature, obtains the sprout after light culture;By light culture it Sprout afterwards is separated into single plant:The sprout indolebutyric acid of 40-60mg/L is handled 5-48 hours, morphology is cut off Lower end 0.5-3mm stem sections, transfer again later), switching in comprising 0.1-0.5mg/L indolebutyric acids, 0.5-5%w/v sucrose and Culture of rootage is carried out in the culture medium of 0.1-0.5w/v Gelrite, illumination condition is:80±10u mol.m-2.s-l、16± 2h/d, it is 24 DEG C -26 DEG C to cultivate temperature, obtains rooted seedling, rooted seedling is carried out tolerance culture and hardening, hardening is nature Illumination, it is 28 DEG C -31 DEG C to cultivate temperature, and greenhouse culture is transferred to after hardening, and greenhouse is natural lighting, and it is 28 DEG C -31 to cultivate temperature DEG C, obtain the regeneration plant of ancient tree;The regeneration plant of ancient tree can be transplanted and be planted in planting site, be realized a kind of endangered The neozoic cultivation of ancient tree in thousand -- recover one's youthful vigour, promote longevity, life and growth in nature, being handed down from age to age;
7.9, the seminal propagation of ancient tree has the nursery of the live streaming process for breeding and culturing of the seed of ancient tree and the seed of ancient tree numerous Grow point of transplantation method;
7.9.1, the direct sowing culture propagation method of the seed of ancient tree refers to:With ancient tree seed after germination, vernalization, directly It is bred in outdoor sowing, direct sowing culture has plant strain growth advantage, and plant strain growth, development are fast, and seedling is early, grows into forest fast excellent Point is to make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, is detached from danger of extinction, the method for continuing to cultivate Cenozoic growth;But with use Grain weight is big, field management heavy workload, the disadvantage of land wastage etc.;Since the collection capacity of the seed of ancient tree is small, often in life It is less used in production.
7.9.2, method for transplanting is bred in the nursery of the seed of ancient tree, refers to:Using the seed of ancient tree, to ancient tree seed through hair After bud, vernalization, it is multiplied into the seedling of ancient tree in nursery, is transplanted seedlings to planting site, kind grows a kind of method for the offspring's growth for cultivating ancient tree, Make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, is detached from danger of extinction, continues to cultivate neozoic growth;It is managed meticulously convenient for seedling stage Reason has emergence rate height, few with ancient tree grain weight, saves management workload, shortens cultivation period, improves land utilization ratio;? It is more using this method in production.
7.9.2.1, method for transplanting is bred in the nursery of the seed of ancient tree, and ancient tree seedling presses nursery age length, can be divided into seedling With two kinds of seedlings;
7.9.2.1.1, seedling:Seedling age is -100 days 90 days, 60-80 centimetres of height of seedling, 1, trunk, branch 2-3 roots;Generally exist It is sowed in the protecting field of cold season, transplant planting is in field planting ground after latest frost, in favor of extending the season of growth in year;It is this small Seedling is colonized convenience, saving of labor, time saving, and will not hinder root, not easy infection soil disease;It is grown soon after transplanting, plant can be greatly shortened The mature stage of strain, is generally sowed in Yangtze River Delta and North China 4-5 months, 8-9 months are colonized, after seedling survives after field planting Overwintering, survival rate is high, but in field planting current year, since its plant is short and small, branches and leaves coverage is low, easily by crop smothering, and transplants shallow, plant Therefore strain easily lodging wants diligent weeding, more rightings, ridging, watering in due course, fertilising in management;
7.9.2.1.2, seedlings:Also known as 1 year seedling;For general seedling age up to 7-8 months, in High-cold regions, frost-free period was short, then needs 1 year seedling;Its advantage is that it is larger convenient for seedling management, the sapling of ancient tree, it can plant deeply, be not easy to lodge, plant first years of a historical period branches and leaves covering Greatly, weeds are few;But lifting and field planting all very arduously, take a lot of work, and hinder root weight, and easy infection soil disease will be carried out and be planted to seedlings Preceding seedling root pruning and disinfection;Seedlings plantation after, its root growth and development it is slow, plant strain growth is unhappy;But, it is given birth in year Phase short cold district, can shorten plant mature stage, and in arid area, survival rate is high;Therefore, in cold district and year precipitation Few area is measured, is suitable for using seedlings nursery;
7.10, the method for the nursery of ancient tree can be divided into open field live broadcast, protecting field seeding and seedling raising and Nutrient medium nursery, battalion Support case nursery;
7.10.1, the open field live broadcast nursery of ancient tree refers to the seed with ancient tree, directly in outdoor sowing after germination, vernalization Nursery;
7.10.2 the protecting field seeding and seedling raising of ancient tree refers to having the growth of seedling required temperature for ensuring ancient tree in protecting field Under the conditions of sow, after lamina of emerging, be transplanted to open country nursery, during insemination and emergence, bed temperature should be maintained to 20 DEG C -25 DEG C Between protect nursery;Protecting field seeding and seedling raising is applicable in the final cultivation of ancient tree seedling seedlings;
7.10.3, Nutrient medium nursery refers to the preparation through nursery Nutrient medium, is the branch segment for taking ancient tree, obtains explant Afterwards, the method for breeding the sapling of ancient tree in the medium;It adapts to cultivate ancient tree rooted seedling in Nutrient medium, and rooted seedling is carried out Tolerance is cultivated and hardening, and the nursery culture of greenhouse is transferred to after hardening, obtains the regeneration plant seedling of ancient tree;The regeneration plant of ancient tree Seedling is cultivated into seedling or seedlings, then is transplanted, planting site plantation, and the neozoic growth of ancient tree is continued;Nutrient medium nursery one As be suitable for carrying out cultivation seedling in the lab, less use in production.
7.10.4, the nutrition case nursery of ancient tree refers to the seedling for cultivating ancient tree with nutrition case, first prepares Nutrition Soil, is utilized The seed of ancient tree is first bred as the seedling of ancient tree, then by the seedling replanting of ancient tree in nursery after germination, vernalization in nutrition case In, it cultivates into seedling or seedlings, the method that seedling or tree transplanted are planted in planting site;Realize that a kind of frequency faces thousand of extinction The one rejuvenescent engineering technology of neozoic cultivation of ancient tree, makes a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand, the breeding generation after generation of descendants, Life and growth in nature is handed down from age to age, promotes longevity, recovering one's youthful vigour;Nutrition case nursery applies in general to carry out under production practices state, Ancient tree carries out cultivation seedling, in production extensive use, it is simple, conveniently, it is effective, it is deep to be received and joyous by friend peasant It meets.
7.10.5, the selection of open field live broadcast nursery place;Open field live broadcast nursery place often is suitable for cultivating the seedlings of ancient tree Cultivation, and seedlings seedling stage is long, plant height, and root is more and the seedling growing, therefore needed, can just cultivate the seedlings of stalwartness;Selection Seedling it need to consider the following:A should be suitble to seedling the development of ancient tree seedling root system, be conducive to seedling strain and grow, while being easy lifting, dividing Seedling;It is required that geology is loose, is rich in organic matter, level of ground water is low;It drains, moisture holding capacity is stronger, and generally in subacidity, (there have to be special Situation needs the seedling of the ancient tree seedling required with alkaline seedlings and soil, then can be from its it), the sand clay of pH5.8-6.7 is Preferably;The nursery of stickiness soil is not selected, (there are special circumstances to need with the seedling of the ancient tree seedling of stickiness seedlings and soil requirement, then it can be with From its it), otherwise fleshy root mutually binds between strain, and lifting, seedling separation take a lot of work, are time-consuming, and can cause seriously to hinder root;B will select nothing The soil of germ, in case seedling stage carrying disease causes to spread;The seedling strain of C, ancient tree are slow-growing, and strain, line-spacing are larger, easily grow Weeds, therefore, the soil that select weeds few cannot especially have perennial weeds;
7.10.6, the site preparation of open field live broadcast nursery:To make seedling grow vigorously, root system development is good, applies decomposed dung per acre It 1000-1500 kilograms, turns over and buries;The big place of soil aciditiy, should also lime 70-75 kilograms, to correct soil aciditiy; (soil aciditiy being needed, from its requirement);It digs requirement deep ploughing, grows deep root in order to seedlings and need, when lifting, to hinder seedling less Root is conducive to fast-growing after transplanting;To prevent subterranean pest-insect from endangering, spreads 1 kilogram of phoxim per acre in site preparation, be mixed in soil, then It is 1.5 meters wide to build up furrow face, 1.7 meters of furrow bottom, high 0.3 meter of the high ridge of furrow, and irrigation and drainage ditch has been dug, so as to irrigation and drainage;General seedlings seedling Garden is 1: 8-20 with ground ratio is planted.
7.10.7, protecting field seeding and seedling raising refers to having the growth of seedling required temperature condition for ensuring ancient tree in protecting field Lower sowing is transplanted to open country nursery after lamina of emerging, and during insemination and emergence, should maintain bed temperature between 20 DEG C -25 DEG C Protect nursery;Protecting field seeding and seedling raising is applicable in the final cultivation of ancient tree seedling seedlings;
7.10.8, the method for cultivating seedling with Nutrient medium, refers to first preparing Nutrient medium, and seedling is cultivated by Nutrient medium, By the seedling of acquirement, culture transferring cultivates the method at seedling behind nursery:
7.10.9 the method for, preparing Nutrient medium:New fresh bananas can be used, be crushed and mashed using extracter, according to 1g The ratio that 3-7mL pure water is added adds boiling to boil, and cooled and filtered, the method for collecting filtrate prepares banana extract;
Can select by:
The root media of component, wherein including the component of above-mentioned 1/2-3/4 times of content;Said components contain in the medium Amount is:8%-10%;
Following culture mediums taken root, wherein including the component of 1/2-1 times of content, content is positive and negative 5% in culture medium, and 0.1-0.5mg/L indolebutyric acids:
7.10.10, grafting branch culture medium breeding method:The grafting branch culture medium breeding method of ancient tree, is the branch segment for taking ancient tree, obtains After taking explant, in the medium breed ancient tree sapling method;Grafting branch culture medium breeding method:Culture medium is first produced, then is used The grafting branch of ancient tree cuts the explant section of ancient tree grafting branch, and explant segment length is 0.5-6.5 centimetres, after obtaining explant section, to obtaining Explant section is taken, is first cleaned, sterilized, disinfected;Explant is inoculated in afterwards fast comprising 0.5-3mg/L6- benzyl amino glands Purine (concentration of 6- benzyl aminoadenines can use 1-2.5mg/L), (concentration of methyl α-naphthyl acetate can take 0.1-0.5mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates Differentiation culture is carried out on culture medium 0.2-0.4mg/L), illumination condition is:60±10u mol.m-2S-l, 16 ± 2h/d, training Foster temperature is:23 DEG C -25 DEG C, obtain callus (wherein, including at least once relaying step, 2-4 weeks subculture one comprising bud It is secondary);By callus switching packet 0.5-3mg/L6- benzyls aminoadenine, 0.1-0.5mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0-0.01/ comprising bud Elongation culture is carried out on the culture medium of thidiazuron, illumination condition is:60±10u mol.m-2S-l, 16 ± 2h/d, culture Temperature is:23 DEG C -25 DEG C, form clearly bud is obtained, clearly bud is transferred in fast comprising 0.3mg/L6- benzyl amino glands by form The culture medium of purine, 0.02mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0.2mg/L gibberellin, or include 0.03mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0.4mg/L gibberellin Elongation culture is carried out on culture medium, illumination condition is:60±10u mol.m-2S-l, 16 ± 2h/d, cultivation temperature are:23℃-25 DEG C, obtain elongation bud;To extend the tooth seedling of bud comprising 1.5mg/L6- benzyls aminoadenine, 0.2mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, The culture medium of 0.005mg/L thidiazurons, or including 2mg/L6- benzyls aminoadenine, 0.3mg/L methyl α-naphthyl acetates, 0mg/ Light culture 2-9 days on the culture medium of L thidiazurons, it is 24 DEG C -26 DEG C to cultivate temperature, obtains the sprout after light culture; Sprout after light culture, which is separated into single plant, (further includes:The sprout indolebutyric acid of 40-60mg/L is handled 5-48 hours, Morphology lower end 0.5-3mm stem sections are cut off, are transferred again later), switching is in including 0.1-0.5mg/L indolebutyric acids, 0.5-5%w/ Culture of rootage is carried out in the culture medium of v sucrose and 0.1-0.5w/v Gelrite, illumination condition is:80±10u mol.m- 2.s-l, 16 ± 2h/d, it is 24 DEG C -26 DEG C to cultivate temperature, obtains rooted seedling, and rooted seedling is carried out tolerance culture and hardening, Hardening is natural lighting, and it is 28 DEG C -31 DEG C to cultivate temperature, and greenhouse culture is transferred to after hardening, and (greenhouse is natural lighting, cultivates temperature It is 28 DEG C -31 DEG C), obtain the regeneration plant of ancient tree;The regeneration plant of ancient tree can be transplanted and be planted in planting site, be realized a kind of The neozoic cultivation of endangered ancient trees in thousand --- recover one's youthful vigour, promote longevity, life and growth in nature, being handed down from age to age;
7.11. the nutrition case nursery of ancient tree:Refer to cultivating seedling with nutrition case, first prepares Nutrition Soil;Nutrition Soil requires fertilizer It is fertile, loose, it had not only been retained but also ventilative, soil temperature is easy to increase, no germ, pest and weed seed;Generally with clean near ancient tree Ancient 5-6 parts of soil, 2-3 parts decomposed of heap barnyard manure, 1 part of river silt, 1-3 parts of sand, 1 part of plant ash, calcium superphosphate 3%-5%, fully It is uniformly mixed, with 40% 100 times of formaldehyde sprinkling, then accumulates in heaps, sealed with plastic film, allow its abundant smoked kill, decomposed Disease pest, germ and weed seed are killed in fermentation;If soil aciditiy is excessive, also need plus lime powder correction;Composting should be in summer height It is carried out when warm, germ, weed seed is killed at a high temperature of so that the Nutrition Soil of composting is piled up 70 DEG C -80 DEG C;Next year, when spring, cool autumn weather Temperature can be sowed between 10 DEG C -25 DEG C, before sowing, this Nutrition Soil is contained in it is 45-50 centimetres long, it is 40-45 DEG C centimetre wide, In a height of 35-45 centimetres of bubble chamber, the thickness of Nutrition Soil in the case is made to reach 18-20 centimetres;The seed for sowing ancient tree, through urging It is sowed after bud, germination, when sowing, seed is sowed with the spacing of row, each 4-5 centimetres of spacing in the rows in case soil, seed has been broadcast Afterwards, the Nutrition Soil for covering 1-2 cm thicks is then covered with the straw of 1-2 cm thicks, is watered with water, and four in the bottom of Box of foamed plastics Arm of angle finger or screw knife bore four diameters in 1-1.2 centimetres of hole, when having outflow from case hole bottom depending on water until;So Afterwards, nylon film or plastic film are sealed up in Box of foamed plastics mouth, nutrition case is placed in the place of sufficient sunlight, cultivate tree Seedling, when growing saplings, encounter temperature it is higher when, when the temperature inside the box is more than 32-35 DEG C, to open the film on case, make it logical Wind cools down, and when temperature drops to 15-18 DEG C, to cover film and carry out to being kept the temperature in case, after 25-30 days, seedling is grown After leaf, seedling is carried out practicing seedling and Shi Danfei, seedling after cultivation in 35-40 days, can first transplant in open country nursery into Row is cultivated, and cultivation includes:Watering, fertilising, dispenser, anti-smelting pest and disease damage, weed eradication etc., when seedling grows to 80-90 days, can transplant In planting site, the seedling bred with such method, growth is fast, no disease and pests harm, at low cost, yield is high, management is convenient, profitable.
When carrying out nutrition seedlings and soil for Craigia yunnanensis, nursery soil should select well-drained limestone soil, or blending lime Sand loam;Various endangered ancient trees in thousand educate since the soil characteristic that growth adapts to is different carrying out Nutrition Soil Miao Shi will select the Nutrition Soil being adapted needed for growth.
8, the cultural method of the sapling of ancient tree:The seedlings transplanting of sapling including ancient tree and the seedling of ancient tree seedling are transplanted;It is ancient The management of the sapling transplanting of tree:Include seedling management, weeding, fertilizer and water management and the pest management of sapling transplanting;
8.1, the seedling management of sapling transplanting:
8.1.1, simple seedling:The sapling lamina of ancient tree is after 1 week, to select rainy weather or before 8 points daily of morning, or under After when noon 16, water will first be watered in seedling cave, then, dug wherein with small spade when such as finding to have 2 young plant per cave by carrying out simple seedling One, by its culture transferring in suitable place, and water survivor of a murder attempt's water, meanwhile, another seedling for digging pine through digging seedling, with double Hand is gently compacted the soil beside it, and waters survivor of a murder attempt's water, is survived with protecting it.
8.1.2 it, is divided into seedlings:Using transplanting row seedling separation nursery, all sowed under the conditions of protecting field, seed is through germination, vernalization After broadcasting, notice that heat preservation, moisturizing, temperature are maintained at 20 DEG C -25 DEG C;After the small sapling emergence of ancient tree, ventilation, day temperature are answered No more than 30 DEG C, and often water, in order to avoid antecedent soil moisture;In lamina when being divided into seedlings transplanting, moisture is controlled, cool down hardening, In favor of nursery transplant root of hair and survive;It keeps 15 DEG C -25 DEG C daytime, keeps 10 DEG C -15 DEG C at night;Seedling separation transplanting Ying Tian Between carry out in the case of proper temperature, water immediately after seedling separation;Before transplanting survival, hidden using reed curtain or black when meeting strong sunlight Screened postive is shaded 1-2 weeks.
8.1.3 the weeding after, ancient tree is transplanted seedlings:After ancient tree seedling replanting, growth is slow, and line-spacing is big, easily grows weeds, Frequent tillage and weeding is needed, (or sprinkling herbicide is prevented;100-150 grams of the herbicide linuron in seedling ground per acre, adds water 1,500,000 Gram, 10-15 days sprinkling furrow faces and furrow ditch before plantation), artificial weeding need to be carried out by often having later;
8.1.4, ancient tree transplant seedlings, transplant after fertilizer, water management:The seedling of ancient tree will pour 1 after thinning, or when seedling separation transplanting Secondary thin night soil liquid fertilizer, after 20 days, then imposes dilute human excrement fertilizer 1 time by 800 kilograms -1200 kilograms per acre, and per acre 900,000 Grams -1500 kilograms;Hereafter, in 8-9 months, then autumn fertilizer is applied, applies 15-20 kilograms of composite fertilizer per acre;At this point, seedling strain growth is vigorous, Shaoshi does not apply fertilizer.
8.1.5, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control after the sapling transplanting of ancient tree:Ancient tree emerges initial stage easily by cutworm, wireworm, Qi The harm of Scarabaeiform, mole cricket these subterranean pest-insects;4-5 months can often be endangered by silver-colored fireworm, and the 7-9 months can often do harm to by prodenia litura The crushing harm of worm;Seedling stage most common pest is stem wilt, brown spot;It should be prevented in time.
Description of the drawings:
Attached drawing 1:Utilize a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- the small sapling that Carpinus putoensis cultivating seeds go out;Fig. 1:
Attached drawing 2:Using a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- seed of Carpinus putoensis, by the way that " artificial thermophilic germinates The bud kind of the vernalization of germinateing of germination hastening method " and the ancient tree obtained using " insulating box germination germination accelerating method ", by seedling cultivation to be sowed at Case or nursery;Fig. 2:
Attached drawing 3:By a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- the children that the seed of Carpinus putoensis is cultivated through vernalization, germination Seedling;Fig. 3:
Attached drawing 4:A kind of cutting of the grafting branch cutting propagation method of the endangered rejuvenescent breeding methods of ancient tree in thousand, After dipping in root-growing agent, nursery grafting branch cutting propagation nursery will be used for;Fig. 4:
Attached drawing 5:A kind of endangered rejuvenescent breeding methods of ancient tree in thousand, " ' Y ' type twig is used, is transferred Connect the dry method for promoting ancient tree living of ancient tree ", " shoot, which grafts ancient tree and does, promotees the rejuvenescent engrafting method of ancient tree living ";Fig. 5:
Specific implementation mode:
Example 1:
By with to the science breeding of Carpinus putoensis, seed collecting, sowing, the processing to seed, Tibetan kind, the hair of seed Bud, vernalization, sowing, breeding, Cultivating techniques cultivate the sapling of Carpinus putoensis ancient tree, are cultivated, are planted, disengaged it from Danger of extinction realizes that rejuvenation continues offspring;
Carpinus putoensis (scientific name:Carpinus putoensis Cheng) it is a kind of deciduous tree, for the peculiar treasure of China Thin planting object, it is all significant in terms of preserving species and natural landscape, it is wild to be listed within 1999 country-level focused protection Plant, World Conservation Union (IUCN) are classified as pole danger grade (CR);
Carpinus putoensis China is peculiar, and one plant is only deposited under natural growing state, is located at Zhejiang Province Zhoushan Putuo Fo Ding The mountain west sides Hui Jisi;13 meters high, 66.9 centimetres of the trunk diameter of a cross-section of a tree trunk 1.3 meters above the ground is set, side is 35.4 centimetres dry, and tree canopy accumulates about 70-75 squares Rice;
1, a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- breeding method of Carpinus putoensis:Using artificial pollination, natural wind regime Pollination, the method pollinated using the honeybee of animal, butterfly, dragonfly, ant, fly Deng Kun worms:Carpinus putoensis has male and female same Strain, male inflorescence are shorter than female inflorescence;Male, female flower is opened in early April, and nature growth result is seldom throughout the year, though it is even have as a result, Its fruit, seed, fall on ground naturally, and food and naturally wind, frost, rain, snow, sea wind, blast, heavy rain, frost are invaded by bird, beast Invasion, it is difficult to see the Carpinus putoensis of nature germination existence;Make a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- top carpinus turczaninowii It is temporarily disengaged from danger of extinction, unique effective method is exactly:Breeding is carried out to Carpinus putoensis, for Putuo goose ear There is manger monoecism, male inflorescence to be shorter than female inflorescence;The objective characteristic that male, female flower is opened in early April;It to be adopted in early April The method that manually pollination, natural wind regime are pollinated, pollinated using the Kun worms such as animal honeybee, butterfly, dragonfly, ant, fly, promotes The breeding success of Carpinus putoensis;
1.1, climatic factor is got clear to a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- influence that Carpinus putoensis blossoms and bears fruit; It carries out since rainfall, low temperature hinder solid countermeasuress;Rainfall, the prevention work of low temperature are carried out, Carpinus putoensis is made to open It spends solid.
1.2, a kind of ancient tree in endangered thousand -- research of the physiology of reproduction of top carpinus turczaninowii is directed to, sexual segregation, The researchs such as sterility, setting physiology propose this effective method of row, using gibberellin Accelerate bloom, carry out artificial pollination technology.
2, the method that a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- Carpinus putoensis is collected seed:
2.1, it collects seed and plucks the method acquisition seed of fruit using artificial seed collecting and equipment;
2.2, sowing method:Want timely sowing, Carpinus putoensis, fruit is ripe at the beginning of 10 months at the end of September;To be directed to ancient tree kind The maturity period of son, Mature property, time, requirement win fruit and carry out sowing in time;
2.2, it to the seed collected, to be pre-processed:
2.2.1, there is the seed of exosper, to remove exosper;
2.2.2 useful seed, is selected, useless seed is abandoned and eliminate;
2.2.3 the method for, selecting useful seed:
2.2.3.1, using clear water concentration:Into the water by seed, useless seed of bubbling through the water column is fished for, leaves and takes and sinks to Water-bed useful seed;
2.2.3.2, using pneumatic jig concentration:Seed is put into bellows, the method through bellows blowing screening is chosen useful Seed;
2.2.3.3, using artificial Bo dustpans method:During seed is put into, Bo dustpan methods are manually fluctuated, poplar abandons useless seed, Leave and take useful seed.
2.2.3.4, useful seed is cleaned, dried, sterilized, is disinfected;
2.2.3.4.1, processing is dried to useful seed:The moon may be used to dry in the air wind method or naturally dry method, or Solarization facture or baking oven, drying chamber oven drying method.
3, to a kind of endangered ancient trees in thousand -- the vernalization of the seed of Carpinus putoensis and germinating method;
3.1, using the method for artificial thermophilic germination vernalization:
3.1.1, spring or autumn, China round the clock temperature all between 10 DEG C to 25 DEG C, suitable for ancient tree germination, Vernalization and sowing;Since certain seeds cortex are thicker, bad hydraulic permeability, water suction is slow, seed dormancy it is deep mixed, germinate under low temperature Slowly, the seeding stage is long, and to accelerate its germination, vernalization, emergence, following method may be used:
3.1.2 it, basks seeds:A term ancient tree seed is selected, before germination, vernalization, fine day is selected, shines seed two days, it is ensured that The seed water suction of ancient tree is consistent, and budding is neat;
3.1.3 it, soaks seed:Before broadcasting, should to the seed of ancient tree carry out seed soaking, the seed of ancient tree can be put into 40 DEG C- It in 45 DEG C of hot water, is stirred, fishes for useless seed of bubbling through the water column, leave and take the useful seed that sinks under water;It will sink under water Useful seed is cleaned, is sterilized, is disinfected, after draining;It is put into 28 DEG C -30 DEG C of warm water, then, (general Gu The seed of tree will stand seed soaking 22-24 hours or 45-48 hours);It will be according to the thickness difference of the seed cortex of ancient tree and suction The speed of water time flexibly grasps the different time of seed soaking, can soak seed 5-10 days for the seed of Carpinus putoensis;
3.1.4, the method for artificial thermophilic germination, vernalization:The seed of the ancient tree through soaking seed under 28 DEG C -30 DEG C of warm water It pulls out, rinses seed repeatedly with clear water until flowing water is clear, then drain moisture, spread out and dry in the air 10-15 minutes, having suctioned moisture The seed of ancient tree put into moist, sterilized cloth bag or sterilized gauze bag, shakeout, thickness 1-2 centimetres it Between, it is reloaded into the film bag of spiracle, lies in environment temperature in 26 DEG C -28 DEG C of place, the temperature that can be suitble to taking human as creation Degree carries out vernalization;Every 8 hours to 12 hours, film bag is unlocked, takes out seed, washes away 10-15 points with 28 DEG C -30 DEG C of warm water Then seed is incorporated in the film bag of spiracle after draining and continues vernalization by clock;At a temperature of 26 DEG C -28 DEG C, generally After 6-10 days, you can to sprout successively;It shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally or when 0.5-1 centimeter lengths, ancient tree seed can should in due course be broadcast when bud is grown to Kind;
3.2, using insulating box germination germination accelerating method:
3.2.1 it, in the laboratory that conditional ancient tree seedling is cultivated or factory, may be used in insulating box, control exists Under 25 DEG C -26 DEG C of temperature condition, the germination to the seed of ancient tree, vernalization are carried out;
3.2.2 it, basks seeds:A term ancient tree seed is selected, before germination, vernalization, fine day is selected, shines seed two days, it is ensured that The seed water suction of ancient tree unanimously and, budding is neat;
3.2.4 it, soaks seed:Before the seed sowing of ancient tree, seed soaking is carried out to the seed of ancient tree, it can be by the kind of ancient tree Son is put into 40 DEG C of thermostatted water, is stirred, and useless seed of bubbling through the water column is fished for, and leaves and takes the useful seed that sinks under water; The useful seed that will sink under water carries out disinfection processing, after cleaning, draining;Taking-up is placed in 30 DEG C of thermostatted water, (general ancient tree Seed soaking 22-24 hours or 45-48 hours), according to the seed cortex of ancient tree thickness is different and absorbent time it is fast Slowly, the different time of seed soaking is flexibly grasped, the seed of Carpinus putoensis will soak seed 5-10 days;
3.2.5, vernalization:Using insulating box germination germination accelerating method:The seed of ancient tree after seed soaking is pulled out, with 30 DEG C The clear water of degree rinses seed until water is clear repeatedly, then, drains moisture, spreads out and dries in the air 10-15 minutes, the kind for having suctioned moisture Sub sterilized wet cloth bag or it is sterilized bind up with gauze, make thinner, for thickness at 1-1.5 centimetres, can be superimposed by planting attached bag by 3-5 layers, It is placed in vernalization pallet, then covered with wet towel, vernalization of germinateing in 25 DEG C -26 DEG C of insulating box poured leaching every 8-12 hours 27 DEG C -28 DEG C of warm water is primary, pour leaching the time be 3-5 minute, after waiting water to drain, continuation constant temperature vernalization, through germination in 6-10 days, After vernalization, you can to sprout successively;It shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally or when 0.5-1 centimeter lengths, the seed of ancient tree can begin sowing in good time when bud is grown to;
4, due to it is a kind of it is endangered ancient trees in thousand -- what the seed of Carpinus putoensis took is not easy, seed is precious, quantity It is again few, it is generally safer, effective using nutrition case nursery, it cultivates, look after convenient for carefulness, success rate is high.
4.1, the nutrition case nursery of ancient tree:Refer to cultivating seedling with nutrition case, first prepares Nutrition Soil;Nutrition Soil requires fertilizer It is fertile, loose, it had not only been retained but also ventilative, soil temperature is easy to increase, no germ, pest and weed seed;Generally with clean near ancient tree Ancient 5-6 parts of soil, 2-3 parts decomposed of heap barnyard manure, 1-3 parts of sand, 1 part of river silt, 1-3 parts of sand, 1 part of plant ash, calcium superphosphate contain The 3%-5% of compost total amount is sufficiently mixed uniformly, with 40% 100 times of formaldehyde sprinkling, then accumulate it is in heaps, it is thin with plastics Film seals, and allows its abundant smoked kill, decomposed fermentation, kills disease pest, germ and weed seed;If soil aciditiy is excessive, also needs plus spread Pulverized limestone is corrected;Composting should be carried out in summer high temperature, and disease is killed at a high temperature of so that the Nutrition Soil of composting is piled up 70 DEG C -80 DEG C Bacterium, weed seed;Next year before sowing, this Nutrition Soil is contained in when spring, cool autumn weather temperature can be sowed between 10 DEG C -25 DEG C It is 45-50 centimetres long, it is 40-45 DEG C centimetre wide, in a height of 35-45 centimetres of bubble chamber, the thickness of Nutrition Soil in the case is made to reach 18- 20 centimetres;The seed for sowing ancient tree, is sowed after vernalization, germination, when sowing, by seed with row, the spacing of each 4-5 centimetres of spacing in the rows It is sowed in case soil, after having broadcast seed, covers the Nutrition Soil of 1-2 cm thicks, be then covered with the straw of 1-2 cm thicks, be watered with Water, four arm of angle fingers or screw knife in the bottom of Box of foamed plastics bore four diameters in 1-1.2 centimetres of hole, depending on water from Until when outflow arranged at case hole bottom;Then, nylon film or plastic film are sealed up in Box of foamed plastics mouth, nutrition case has been placed in The place of sufficient sunlight, grows saplings, when growing saplings, encounter temperature it is higher when the temperature inside the box when being more than 32-35 DEG C, to take off Film on unpacking, makes its aeration-cooling, when temperature drops to 15-18 DEG C, to cover film and to being kept the temperature in case, pass through After 25-30 days, after seedling grows leaf, seedling is carried out practicing seedling and Shi Danfei, seedling, can be with after cultivation in 35-40 days It first transplants and is cultivated in open country nursery, cultivation includes:Watering, fertilising, dispenser, anti-smelting pest and disease damage, weed eradication etc., when seedling is grown to At 80-90 days, it can transplant in planting site, the seedling bred with such method, growth is fast, no disease and pests harm, at low cost, yield High, management is conveniently, profitable.
5, the breeding of ancient tree, cultural method:
5.1, the breeding of ancient tree is divided to two kinds of grafting branch breeding method and seminal propagation method, and grafting branch breeding method can be divided into grafting branch cuttage The seminal propagation method of breeding method and grafting branch culture medium breeding method, ancient tree can be divided into two kinds of direct sowing culture and culturing and transplanting seedlings, nursery again Transplanting can be divided into two kinds of seedling and tree transplanted;The method of nursery can be divided into open field live broadcast, protecting field sowing and Nutrient medium and educate Seedling, nutrition case nursery.
5.1.1, using the grafting branch propagation method of ancient tree:
5.1.1.1, grafting branch cutting propagation method:Grafting branch cuttage is a technical very strong job, cutting experiment and use Root-inducing powder concentration, kind, the age of tree, cuttage season, branch age, stiff wood or spray, environment temperature, humidity, management and to skewer branch give birth to The factors such as length, the method for root powder processing time are related;Only scientifical use can be only achieved good result;The grafting branch of ancient tr