CN108760318B - Fault detection method for variable-pitch bearing of wind turbine - Google Patents

Fault detection method for variable-pitch bearing of wind turbine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108760318B
CN108760318B CN201811007469.2A CN201811007469A CN108760318B CN 108760318 B CN108760318 B CN 108760318B CN 201811007469 A CN201811007469 A CN 201811007469A CN 108760318 B CN108760318 B CN 108760318B
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bearing
variable
pitch
impact
impeller
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CN108760318A (en
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马振国
赵勇
韩斌
邓巍
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Thermal Power Research Institute
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Thermal Power Research Institute
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01MTESTING STATIC OR DYNAMIC BALANCE OF MACHINES OR STRUCTURES; TESTING OF STRUCTURES OR APPARATUS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • G01M13/00Testing of machine parts
    • G01M13/04Bearings
    • G01M13/045Acoustic or vibration analysis

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for detecting faults of a wind turbine variable-pitch bearing, which can collect vibration signals of the variable-pitch bearing when the variable-pitch bearing normally operates, detect early faults of the variable-pitch bearing by analyzing impact signals caused by peeling, scratches, metal debris and the like in the vibration signals, give early warning, replace the bearing as soon as possible and avoid serious accidents.

Description

Fault detection method for variable-pitch bearing of wind turbine
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of wind turbines, and particularly relates to a fault detection method for a variable-pitch bearing of a wind turbine.
Technical Field
At present, when a pitch system of a wind turbine has obvious faults or failures and normal operation of the pitch system cannot be recovered after the reasons of other elements (such as a pitch motor and a controller) except the pitch bearing in the pitch system are checked, the pitch bearing is generally detached from the wind turbine and decomposed, and then the faults of the pitch bearing are detected in the aspects of macroscopic view, microcosmic view, mechanical property, hardness, metallographic structure, heat treatment and the like.
In general, the method for detecting the fault of the rolling bearing on line is that the vibration of a plurality of running periods of the rolling bearing is measured at a bearing seat or other positions close to the bearing, and then whether a periodic impact signal exists in a vibration waveform or not and whether the amplitude of the fault frequency and the frequency multiplication of the bearing in an envelope spectrum are prominent or not are analyzed, so as to judge whether the fault occurs or not.
In the prior art, generally, when a pitch system has obvious faults or fails, a pitch bearing is detached from a wind turbine and then the faults are detected. At this time, the fault of the variable pitch bearing generally develops to the extent that the variable pitch bearing cannot rotate, the internal structure of the variable pitch bearing is seriously damaged, and the internal peeling or the crack is likely to cause the fracture of the inner ring and the outer ring, so that the serious accident of the blade fracture is caused.
In the prior art, whether a fault occurs is generally judged by detecting whether a periodic impact signal exists in a vibration waveform of a rolling bearing and whether the fault frequency and the amplitude of frequency multiplication of the bearing in a primary envelope spectrum are prominent. However, compared with a common rolling bearing, the rotating speed of the variable pitch bearing is not stable, the rotating range is only 90 degrees, and in the rotating process of the impeller, the load raceway of the variable pitch bearing is changed. When the variable pitch bearing fails due to the reasons, the periodicity of an impact signal caused by the failure is generally not good, the vibration signal in the primary variable pitch process only contains less impact, and the obvious fault frequency and the prominent amplitude of frequency multiplication of the variable pitch bearing cannot appear in the vibration envelope spectrum. Therefore, the prior art is not well suited for fault diagnosis of pitch bearings.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a fault detection method for a variable-pitch bearing of a wind turbine, aiming at the defects in the prior art, the fault detection method can be used for collecting vibration signals of the variable-pitch bearing when the variable-pitch bearing normally operates, detecting early faults of the variable-pitch bearing by analyzing impact signals caused by peeling, scratches, metal debris and the like in the vibration signals, giving early warning, replacing the bearing as early as possible and avoiding serious accidents.
In order to realize the purpose, the invention adopts the technical scheme that: a fault detection method for a variable-pitch bearing of a wind turbine comprises the following steps:
step 1: the method for acquiring the vibration signals specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) stopping the wind turbine and locking the impeller;
(2) a plurality of vibration acceleration sensors are radially arranged on the inner ring or the outer ring of the selected variable-pitch bearing, which does not rotate relative to the impeller, and are connected with an acquisition system;
(3) changing the pitch to 90 degrees, collecting the vibration acceleration during the pitch changing period, and recording the pitch changing angle and time;
(4) whether the vibration of the variable pitch bearing is measured at three positions of the impeller, which are 120 degrees apart, if not, the step (5) is carried out, and if so, the step (6) is carried out;
(5) removing the vibration acceleration sensor, rotating the impeller by 120 degrees clockwise, locking the impeller, and repeating the steps (2) to (4) until the three positions of the impeller separated by 120 degrees are measured;
(6) dismantling the vibration acceleration sensor and restoring the wind turbine;
step 2: analyzing the vibration signal, specifically comprising the following steps:
(1) calculating an effective value RMS of the vibration acceleration, and giving a threshold value A which is n RMS, wherein n is 3-6;
(2) detecting a point which is greater than A in the vibration acceleration, and if the point is not detected, judging that the bearing has no fault;
(3) giving impact attenuation vibration duration B of the variable-pitch bearing;
(4) points with the time length less than B between the adjacent points are regarded as the same impact;
(5) finding out a peak point of the same impact, and defining the peak point as an impact time point;
(6) calculating the fault characteristic frequency of the variable-pitch bearing according to a fault characteristic frequency formula of the rolling bearing, and obtaining a corresponding impact time interval range C by combining the fluctuation range of the fault characteristic frequency of the bearing;
(7) finding out all paired impacts with intervals in C;
(8) in the pair of impacts, searching an impact chain;
(9) giving the length D of an impact chain for judging the local fault;
(10) and (4) checking whether an impact chain with the length not less than D exists, if so, locally failing the bearing part corresponding to the failure characteristic frequency, and otherwise, enabling metal debris hard objects to exist in the bearing raceway.
Preferably, 4 vibration acceleration sensors are radially mounted on the inner or outer ring of the selected pitch bearing that does not rotate relative to the impeller, each vibration acceleration sensor being spaced 90 ° apart.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. according to the invention, the vibration data of the variable pitch bearing are collected at three impeller positions at intervals of 120 degrees in sequence, and the vibration data of the rolling body when each roller path rolls can be obtained.
2. The invention fully considers the factors of low rotating speed, unstable rotating speed, small rotating range and the like of the variable-pitch bearing, strictly defines the periodicity of the impact, and adjusts the periodicity to be the period of the impact to be slightly prolonged or shortened; and adjusting the periodic impact signals which should continuously appear during the rotation of the fault bearing to be that the bearing is judged to be in fault as long as the impact signals of several class periods continuously appear. Through the adjustment, the method is more suitable for detecting the fault of the variable-pitch bearing than the conventional method.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a flow chart of vibration signal acquisition.
Fig. 2 is a flow chart for analyzing a vibration signal.
FIG. 3 shows the mounting position of the vibration acceleration sensor on the pitch bearing.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
The invention discloses a method for detecting faults of a variable-pitch bearing of a wind turbine, which comprises the following steps of:
step 1: collecting vibration signals, as shown in fig. 1, specifically includes the following steps:
(1) stopping the wind turbine and locking the impeller;
(2) as shown in fig. 3, 4 vibration acceleration sensors, namely a first vibration acceleration sensor 2, a second vibration acceleration sensor 3, a third vibration acceleration sensor 4 and a fourth vibration acceleration sensor 5, are radially mounted on a raceway 1, namely an inner ring or an outer ring, of a selected pitch bearing, which does not rotate relative to an impeller, and the vibration acceleration sensors are spaced by 90 degrees and connected with an acquisition system;
(3) changing the pitch to 90 degrees, collecting the vibration acceleration during the pitch changing period, and recording the pitch changing angle and time;
(4) whether the vibration of the variable pitch bearing is measured at three positions of the impeller, which are 120 degrees apart, if not, the step (5) is carried out, and if so, the step (6) is carried out;
(5) removing the vibration acceleration sensor, rotating the impeller by 120 degrees clockwise, locking the impeller, and repeating the steps (2) to (4) until the three positions of the impeller separated by 120 degrees are measured;
(6) dismantling the vibration acceleration sensor and restoring the wind turbine;
step 2: analyzing the vibration signal, as shown in fig. 2, specifically includes the following steps:
(1) calculating an effective value RMS of the vibration acceleration, and giving a threshold value A-n RMS, wherein n is 3-6 (adjustable according to data conditions);
(2) detecting a point which is greater than A in the vibration acceleration, and if the point is not detected, judging that the bearing has no fault;
(3) giving impact attenuation vibration duration B of the variable-pitch bearing;
(4) points with the time length less than B between the adjacent points are regarded as the same impact;
(5) finding out a peak point of the same impact, and defining the peak point as an impact time point;
(6) calculating the fault characteristic frequency of the variable-pitch bearing according to a fault characteristic frequency formula of the rolling bearing, and obtaining a corresponding impact time interval range C by combining the fluctuation range of the fault characteristic frequency of the bearing;
(7) finding out all paired impacts with intervals in C;
(8) in the pair of impacts, searching an impact chain;
(9) giving the length D of an impact chain for judging the local fault;
(10) and (4) checking whether an impact chain with the length not less than D exists, if so, locally failing the bearing part corresponding to the failure characteristic frequency, and otherwise, enabling metal debris hard objects to exist in the bearing raceway.

Claims (2)

1. A fault detection method for a variable-pitch bearing of a wind turbine is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the following steps:
step 1: the method for acquiring the vibration signals specifically comprises the following steps:
(1) stopping the wind turbine and locking the impeller;
(2) a plurality of vibration acceleration sensors are radially arranged on the inner ring or the outer ring of the selected variable-pitch bearing, which does not rotate relative to the impeller, and are connected with an acquisition system;
(3) changing the pitch to 90 degrees, collecting the vibration acceleration during the pitch changing period, and recording the pitch changing angle and time;
(4) whether the vibration of the variable pitch bearing is measured at three positions of the impeller, which are 120 degrees apart, if not, the step (5) is carried out, and if so, the step (6) is carried out;
(5) removing the vibration acceleration sensor, rotating the impeller by 120 degrees clockwise, locking the impeller, and repeating the steps (2) to (4) until the three positions of the impeller separated by 120 degrees are measured;
(6) dismantling the vibration acceleration sensor and restoring the wind turbine;
step 2: analyzing the vibration signal, specifically comprising the following steps:
(1) calculating an effective value RMS of the vibration acceleration, and giving a threshold value A which is n RMS, wherein n is 3-6;
(2) detecting a point which is greater than A in the vibration acceleration, and if the point is not detected, judging that the bearing has no fault;
(3) giving impact attenuation vibration duration B of the variable-pitch bearing;
(4) points with the time length less than B between the adjacent points are regarded as the same impact;
(5) finding out a peak point of the same impact, and defining the peak point as an impact time point;
(6) calculating the fault characteristic frequency of the variable-pitch bearing according to a fault characteristic frequency formula of the rolling bearing, and obtaining a corresponding impact time interval range C by combining the fluctuation range of the fault characteristic frequency of the bearing;
(7) finding out all paired impacts with intervals in C;
(8) in the pair of impacts, searching an impact chain;
(9) giving the length D of an impact chain for judging the local fault;
(10) and (4) checking whether an impact chain with the length not less than D exists, if so, locally failing the bearing part corresponding to the failure characteristic frequency, and otherwise, enabling metal debris hard objects to exist in the bearing raceway.
2. The method for detecting the fault of the wind turbine variable pitch bearing according to claim 1, wherein the method comprises the following steps: and 4 vibration acceleration sensors are radially arranged on the inner ring or the outer ring of the selected variable-pitch bearing, which does not rotate relative to the impeller, and the vibration acceleration sensors are spaced by 90 degrees.
CN201811007469.2A 2018-08-31 2018-08-31 Fault detection method for variable-pitch bearing of wind turbine Active CN108760318B (en)

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CN108760318B true CN108760318B (en) 2020-04-21

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
KR101108087B1 (en) * 2009-04-24 2012-02-06 한국기계연구원 Evaluation apparatus for large size bearings
CN202547923U (en) * 2011-12-14 2012-11-21 华北电力大学 Vibration detecting device for pitch-variable bearing of wind turbine generator system
CN104019000B (en) * 2014-06-23 2017-03-15 宁夏银星能源股份有限公司 The loading spectrum of wind power generating set is determined and perspective maintenance system
CN105134510A (en) * 2015-09-18 2015-12-09 北京中恒博瑞数字电力科技有限公司 State monitoring and failure diagnosis method for wind generating set variable pitch system
CN107448362B (en) * 2016-05-31 2018-11-20 北京金风科创风电设备有限公司 State monitoring method, device and the wind power generating set of pivoting support bearing
CN107630793B (en) * 2016-07-18 2018-11-20 北京金风科创风电设备有限公司 The detection method of blower toothed belt or pitch variable bearings fatigue state, apparatus and system
CN107781106B (en) * 2017-06-26 2019-06-18 科诺伟业风能设备(北京)有限公司 A kind of wind generating set pitch control of no independent control is away from system failure guard method
CN207485607U (en) * 2017-11-09 2018-06-12 西安热工研究院有限公司 A kind of wind energy conversion system pitch variable bearings fault detection system
CN108181107B (en) * 2018-01-12 2019-08-30 东北电力大学 The Wind turbines bearing mechanical method for diagnosing faults of meter and more class objects

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