CN108746447B - Manufacturing process of high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging - Google Patents

Manufacturing process of high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108746447B
CN108746447B CN201810470268.XA CN201810470268A CN108746447B CN 108746447 B CN108746447 B CN 108746447B CN 201810470268 A CN201810470268 A CN 201810470268A CN 108746447 B CN108746447 B CN 108746447B
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ring
forging
heating
temperature
aluminum alloy
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CN108746447A (en
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王健
卢雅琳
周东帅
李仁兴
徐文婷
宋雷鹏
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Jiangsu Institute of Technology
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Jiangsu Institute of Technology
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21JFORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING METAL; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES
    • B21J5/00Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
    • B21J5/002Hybrid process, e.g. forging following casting
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B21MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL
    • B21HMAKING PARTICULAR METAL OBJECTS BY ROLLING, e.g. SCREWS, WHEELS, RINGS, BARRELS, BALLS
    • B21H1/00Making articles shaped as bodies of revolution
    • B21H1/06Making articles shaped as bodies of revolution rings of restricted axial length
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C22METALLURGY; FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS ALLOYS; TREATMENT OF ALLOYS OR NON-FERROUS METALS
    • C22FCHANGING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF NON-FERROUS METALS AND NON-FERROUS ALLOYS
    • C22F1/00Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
    • C22F1/04Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working of aluminium or alloys based thereon

Abstract

The invention discloses a manufacturing process of a high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging, which comprises the following steps: the method comprises the following steps of material preparation, heating, multi-shaft forging, machining, heating, saddle reaming, heating, ring rolling, machining, solution quenching, cold pressing deformation, aging and the like, wherein the aging treatment method comprises the following steps: first-stage aging: charging the ring forging after cold pressing at room temperature, heating to 90-110 ℃, preserving heat for 1-3h, and cooling in air; and secondary aging, namely, charging the ring piece into a furnace at a warm temperature, keeping the temperature at 160 ℃ for 4-8h, and performing air cooling after the aging is finished.

Description

Manufacturing process of high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging
Technical Field
The invention relates to an aluminum alloy forming and heat treatment process, in particular to a production process suitable for a 2A14 high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy ring forging.
Background
The 2A14 aluminum alloy is Al-Cu-Mg series high-strength forging alloy, has the advantages of good process performance, good thermoplasticity, good heat resistance and the like, is mainly used for structural parts, free forgings and precision die forgings which are complex in shape or can be welded in heat resistance, and is an important material in the fields of aerospace, transportation and the like. With the rapid development of the aerospace industry in China, the use requirement of the 2A14 aluminum alloy ring forging piece is higher and higher, the requirements on the uniformity and the stability of the structure performance of the ring piece are higher and higher, and the forming and heat treatment process of the ring piece is also higher. In production, the 2A14 aluminum alloy ring forging has the structural particularity of thin wall, large diameter and the like although the shape is simple. The traditional free forging and machining forming method has the advantages of low production efficiency, low material utilization rate, large tonnage requirement, non-uniform deformation and difficult control of deformation; in the existing multi-axis forging and ring rolling process, due to the forming characteristics of the forging and ring rolling processes, the 2A14 aluminum alloy ring forging has the problems of uneven anisotropic deformation, inconsistent deformation, large structural property anisotropy and the like, the anisotropy of mechanical properties is particularly obvious, and particularly, the condition that products are unqualified due to low radial elongation is easy to occur. Although the performance of the ring forging processed by the optimized heat treatment process can meet the technical requirements, the mechanical properties in the three directions of the cutting direction, the diameter direction and the axis direction are inconsistent due to the directionality of the structure of the ring forging, particularly the elongation is very low, the margin is small, and the product performance is unqualified due to slight fluctuation, so that the use requirements of the aerospace field are difficult to meet.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects in the prior art, the invention provides the production process of the high-strength corrosion-resistant 2A14 aluminum alloy forging with a reasonable structure, and effectively reduces the anisotropy of the structure and the performance of the aluminum alloy ring forging by optimizing the heat treatment process, thereby improving the comprehensive mechanical property and the corrosion resistance of the product.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention discloses a manufacturing process of a high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging, which adopts a process scheme comprising the following steps:
(1) preparing materials: sawing the H112 state aluminum alloy round bar stock to meet the process size requirement to obtain a raw material;
(2) heating: charging the raw material obtained in the step (1) at room temperature, heating to 400 +/-5 ℃ according to power, heating to 460 +/-5 ℃ at a heating rate of 50 ℃/h, and then preserving heat for 6h to obtain a soaking raw material;
(3) multi-shaft forging: forging the soaking raw material obtained in the step (2), keeping the initial forging temperature at 420-460 ℃, keeping the final forging temperature at more than or equal to 400 ℃, and performing three-upsetting two-drawing multi-shaft forging cogging on a 3600T hydraulic press, wherein the forging process comprises the following steps: firstly upsetting for 1 time in the Z direction, upsetting for 1 time in the X direction, upsetting for 1 time in the Y direction, chamfering, rounding, upsetting, flattening the end face, and finally punching to obtain a punched blank;
(4) machining and heating: air-cooling the punched blank obtained in the step (3) to room temperature, cleaning the defects on the inner surface and the outer surface of the ring blank by using a horizontal lathe, charging the ring blank at the room temperature, heating to 440 +/-5 ℃, and preserving heat for 2-4 hours to obtain the ring blank;
(5) reaming and heating the trestle: reaming the ring blank obtained in the step (4) to a process size by using a core rod preheated to 400 +/-5 ℃, re-melting and heating the ring blank subjected to reaming to 440 +/-5 ℃, and then preserving heat for 2-4h to obtain a reaming heating ring blank;
(6) ring rolling: uniformly and continuously rolling the reaming heating ring blank obtained in the step (5) to a process size by using a 5-meter-diameter axial numerical control ring rolling machine at a core roller feeding speed of 0.1-0.5 mm/s within a temperature range of 200-440 ℃ to obtain a rolled ring piece;
(7) machining and solution quenching: transferring the ring rolled in the step (6) to the ground to be flat, machining the upper end face and the lower end face after complete cooling, charging the machined ring into a furnace at room temperature, heating to 400 +/-3 ℃, keeping the temperature for 30min, continuously heating to 500 +/-3 ℃ at the heating rate of 50 ℃/h, carrying out solid solution heat preservation for 3h, wherein the quenching transfer time is less than or equal to 10s, the quenching water temperature is 40-50 ℃, and the quenching time is 15-20min, so as to obtain a ring forging after solid solution quenching;
(8) cold pressing deformation: carrying out 6-7% axial cold pressing deformation on the ring forging subjected to solution quenching obtained in the step (7) to obtain a cold-pressed ring forging;
(9) aging: and (3) carrying out aging treatment on the cold-pressed ring forging obtained in the step (8), wherein the treatment method comprises the following steps: first-stage aging: charging the ring forging after cold pressing at room temperature, heating to 90-110 ℃, preserving heat for 1-3h, and cooling in air; and secondary aging, namely, charging the ring piece into a furnace at a warm temperature, keeping the temperature at 160 ℃ for 4-8h, and performing air cooling after the aging is finished.
Preferably, the deformation of each upsetting and drawing in the multi-shaft forging process in the step (3) is 60-65%, and the pressing speed is 25-35 mm/s.
Preferably, in the step (5), the deformation amount of the trestle reaming is 40-45% of the total deformation amount from the punched ring blank to the ring forging.
Preferably, the ring rolling process in the step (6) of the invention is performed by rolling in two temperature sections: in the first temperature section, the deformation temperature is 400-; the second temperature section, the deformation temperature is 200 ℃ and 240 ℃, the feeding speed of the core roller is 0.1-0.3mm/s, and the deformation is 10% -15%.
Preferably, the lap joint rate of every two cold pressing positions in the cold pressing deformation process of the step (8) is more than or equal to 50%.
Preferably, when the steps (3), (5) and (6) are deformed, the surfaces of the aluminum alloy ring blank and the die are uniformly coated with the nano lubricant with high absorption rate and lubricating effect;
the preferred aluminum alloy forging of the invention is a 2A14 aluminum alloy forging.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the invention effectively regulates and controls the intragranular and grain boundary precipitated phases through the optimized multi-shaft forging cogging technology, the temperature-divided section ring rolling technology, the saddle reaming technology, the cold deformation and the two-stage aging technology, and improves the comprehensive mechanical property and the corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy ring forging.
2. The multi-shaft forging cogging is carried out on the H112-state (hot-working state) round bar, the radial deformation of the ring blank during the hole expanding of the trestle is improved as much as possible, the radial deformation of the ring blank during the ring rolling is reduced, and the ring rolling is carried out by adopting the temperature division during the ring rolling, so that the ring forging has larger plastic deformation in each direction, the deformation uniformity is improved, the anisotropy of the alloy structure performance is reduced, the full crushing and dissolution of intragranular and grain boundary residual phases are effectively promoted, and the grains are refined and nearly equiaxial; through solution treatment, the ring forging deformation structure is recrystallized, the directionality of forging structure fibers is improved, and a second phase is promoted to be dissolved in a solid solution more; finally, the size and distribution of the precipitated phase in the crystal and in the crystal boundary are regulated and controlled through cold pressing deformation and a two-stage aging system, so that the comprehensive mechanical properties of the alloy in all directions reach the standard and are relatively close to each other, and the corrosion resistance of the alloy is also improved.
Drawings
FIG. 1: is a schematic diagram of the ring rolling process by temperature sections.
FIG. 2: is a schematic view of the heat treatment process of the present invention.
FIG. 3: the microstructure of the aluminum alloy ring forging subjected to heat treatment in the three directions of cutting, diameter and axis is shown, wherein (a) is tangential; (b) is axial; (c) is radial.
FIG. 4: the corrosion performance diagram of the aluminum alloy ring forging subjected to heat treatment is shown, wherein (a) is electrochemical corrosion performance; (b) the corrosion resistance is stress corrosion resistance.
Detailed Description
Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings.
Example 1: the manufacturing process of the high-strength heat-resistant 2A14 aluminum alloy forging comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing materials: sawing 790 +/-5 mm of an H112 (hot-working) phi 300 aluminum alloy extruded bar according to the weight required by the process, marking the end face of the blank by using a marking pen before forging to distinguish three directions during forging to obtain a raw material;
(2) heating: charging the raw material obtained in the step (1) at room temperature, heating to 400 +/-5 ℃ according to power (less than or equal to 150 ℃/h), then heating to 460 +/-5 ℃ at a heating speed of 50 ℃/h, then preserving heat for 6h for heating before forging, and ensuring the uniformity of furnace temperature to obtain a heated raw material;
(3) multi-shaft forging: forging the heated raw material obtained in the step (2), keeping the initial forging temperature at 420-460 ℃, keeping the final forging temperature at more than or equal to 400 ℃, and performing three-upsetting two-drawing multi-shaft forging cogging on a 3600T hydraulic press, wherein the forging process comprises the following steps: firstly, upsetting axially (Z direction) to 290 +/-3 mm, then drawing out the X direction to 790 +/-3 mm, upsetting the X direction to 290 +/-3 mm, drawing out the Y direction to 790 +/-3 mm, upsetting the Y direction to 290 +/-3 mm, chamfering, rounding, upsetting the Z direction to 290 +/-3 mm, finally punching by using a phi 180 punch preheated to 350 +/-5 ℃, flattening the upper end surface and the lower end surface to 290 +/-3 mm, and ensuring that the pressing speed of an upper cutting board is 30mm/s in the multi-shaft forging process to obtain a punched blank;
(4) machining and heating: air-cooling the punched blank obtained in the step (3) to room temperature, cleaning the defects of oxide skin, delamination, folding, cracks and the like on the inner surface, the outer surface, the upper end face and the lower end face of the ring blank by using a horizontal lathe and the like, charging the ring blank at room temperature, heating to 440 +/-5 ℃, and then preserving heat for 2.5 hours to obtain a ring blank;
(5) reaming and heating the trestle: reaming the ring blank obtained in the step (4) to the wall thickness of 98 +/-2 mm by using a phi 180mm core rod preheated to 400 +/-5 ℃, wherein the reaming deformation of the saddle is about 42% of the total deformation from the punched ring blank to the ring forging forming, returning the reamed ring blank to the furnace again, heating to 440 +/-5 ℃, and then preserving heat for 2.5 hours to obtain a reaming heating ring blank; when the trestle is reamed, the radial deformation of the ring piece during the trestle reaming is improved as much as possible, and the radial deformation during ring rolling is reduced, so that the anisotropy of the alloy structure performance is reduced;
(6) ring rolling: performing temperature-section-divided rolling forming on the chambered heating ring blank obtained in the step (5) by using a 5-meter-diameter axial numerical control ring rolling machine at a core roller feeding speed of 0.1-0.5 mm/s in a temperature section of 200 plus 440 ℃, quickly transferring the ring blank to the ring rolling machine at a first temperature section after the ring blank is discharged, performing rolling forming with the deformation amount of about 20% in a temperature range of 400 plus 440 ℃, and controlling the core roller feeding speed at the stage to be 0.2-0.5 mm/s; in the second temperature section, when the surface of the ring blank is cooled to 220 +/-5 ℃, rolling forming with the deformation amount of about 11 percent is carried out, and the hot-state size after rolling is phi 920 +/-5 mm/phi 775 +/-5 mm multiplied by 270 +/-5 mm, so that a rolled ring piece is obtained;
(7) machining and solution quenching: transferring the ring rolled in the step (6) to the ground to be flat placed, machining the upper end face and the lower end face to 265 +/-1 mm after complete cooling, charging the machined ring into a furnace at room temperature, heating to 400 +/-3 ℃, keeping the temperature for 30min, continuously heating to 500 +/-3 ℃ at the heating rate of 50 ℃/h to perform solid solution heat preservation for 3h, transferring the ring into a water tank with the quenching water temperature of 45 +/-2 ℃ within 10s after solid solution, quenching the ring for 15 min, starting the maximum power of a water circulation system in the quenching process, continuously swinging the ring forging up and down and left and right on the premise that the ring forging is completely immersed to ensure the quenching cooling effect, and obtaining the ring forging after solid solution quenching;
(8) cold pressing deformation: carrying out 6.2-6% axial cold pressing deformation on the ring forging after solution quenching obtained in the step (7), wherein the lap joint rate of the pressing position of the chopping board every two times is more than or equal to 50%, and obtaining the ring forging after cold pressing;
(9) aging: and (3) carrying out aging treatment on the cold-pressed ring forging obtained in the step (8), wherein the treatment method comprises the following steps: first-stage aging: charging the ring forging after cold pressing at room temperature, heating to 100 ℃, preserving heat for 2h, and air cooling; performing secondary aging, namely, charging the ring piece into a furnace at a warm temperature, keeping the temperature at 157 ℃ for 5 hours, and performing air cooling after the aging is finished;
all used dies (including an upper cutting board, a lower cutting board, a punch, a reaming core rod, a roller and the like) need to be preheated in the forming process, and the nano lubricant with high absorption rate and lubricating effect is uniformly coated on the surfaces of the aluminum alloy ring blank and the dies.
As shown in FIG. 3, the microstructure of the aluminum alloy ring forging subjected to heat treatment in three directions of tangential direction, axial direction and radial direction can be observed, and the microstructure of the aluminum alloy ring forging in all directions reaches the standard, and the crystal grains are uniform and relatively close to each other. Meanwhile, mechanical property tests are carried out on the aluminum alloy ring forging subjected to heat treatment in three directions, and the results are shown in the following table 1:
TABLE 1 mechanical Properties of Ring forgings after Heat treatment
The experimental data show that the room-temperature tensile strength of the aluminum alloy ring forging obtained by the manufacturing process reaches more than 420MPa, the hardness reaches 125HB, the elongation is more than 5%, and all properties in three directions can meet the requirements of the aerospace field.
FIG. 4 shows a corrosion performance diagram of an aluminum alloy ring forging after heat treatment. FIGS. 4 (1) and (2) show the corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy ring forging obtained by the above-described manufacturing process of the present invention, as can be seen from FIGS. 4(a) and 4(b), respectively, before the improvement of the manufacturing process and the manufacturing process of the present invention.
The above description is intended to be illustrative and not restrictive, and the scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims, which may be modified in any manner within the scope of the invention.

Claims (4)

1. The manufacturing process of the high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging is characterized by comprising the following steps of:
(1) preparing materials: sawing the H112 state aluminum alloy round bar stock to meet the process size requirement to obtain a raw material;
(2) heating: charging the raw material obtained in the step (1) at room temperature, heating to 400 +/-5 ℃ according to power, heating to 460 +/-5 ℃ at a heating rate of 50 ℃/h, and then preserving heat for 6h to obtain a soaking raw material;
(3) multi-shaft forging: forging the soaking raw material obtained in the step (2), keeping the initial forging temperature at 420-460 ℃, keeping the final forging temperature at more than or equal to 400 ℃, and performing three-upsetting two-drawing multi-shaft forging cogging on a 3600T hydraulic press, wherein the forging process comprises the following steps: firstly upsetting in the Z direction for 1 time, upsetting in the X direction for 1 time, upsetting in the Y direction for 1 time, chamfering, rounding, upsetting, flattening the end face, and finally punching to obtain a punched blank, wherein the deformation of each upsetting in the multi-shaft forging process is 60-65%, and the pressing speed is 25-35 mm/s;
(4) machining and heating: air-cooling the punched blank obtained in the step (3) to room temperature, cleaning the defects on the inner surface and the outer surface of the ring blank by using a horizontal lathe, charging the ring blank at the room temperature, heating to 440 +/-5 ℃, and preserving heat for 2-4 hours to obtain the ring blank;
(5) reaming and heating the trestle: reaming the ring blank obtained in the step (4) to a process size by using a core rod preheated to 400 +/-5 ℃, re-melting and heating the ring blank subjected to reaming to 440 +/-5 ℃, and then preserving heat for 2-4h to obtain a reaming heating ring blank, wherein the reaming deformation of the saddle is 40-45% of the total deformation from the ring blank subjected to punching to a ring forging;
(6) ring rolling: uniformly and continuously rolling the reaming heating ring blank obtained in the step (5) to a process size by using a 5-meter-diameter axial numerical control ring rolling machine at a core roller feeding speed of 0.1-0.5 mm/s within a temperature range of 200-440 ℃ to obtain a rolled ring piece; the ring rolling process is divided into two temperature sections for rolling: in the first temperature section, the deformation temperature is 400-; in the second temperature section, the deformation temperature is 200 ℃ and 240 ℃, the core roller feeding speed is 0.1-0.3mm/s, and the deformation amount is 10-15 percent;
(7) machining and solution quenching: transferring the ring rolled in the step (6) to the ground to be flat, machining the upper end face and the lower end face after complete cooling, charging the machined ring into a furnace at room temperature, heating to 400 +/-3 ℃, keeping the temperature for 30min, continuously heating to 500 +/-3 ℃ at the heating rate of 50 ℃/h, carrying out solid solution heat preservation for 3h, wherein the quenching transfer time is less than or equal to 10s, the quenching water temperature is 40-50 ℃, and the quenching time is 15-20min, so as to obtain a ring forging after solid solution quenching;
(8) cold pressing deformation: carrying out 6-7% axial cold pressing deformation on the ring forging subjected to solution quenching obtained in the step (7) to obtain a cold-pressed ring forging;
(9) aging: and (3) carrying out aging treatment on the cold-pressed ring forging obtained in the step (8), wherein the treatment method comprises the following steps: first-stage aging: charging the ring forging after cold pressing at room temperature, heating to 90-110 ℃, preserving heat for 1-3h, and cooling in air; and secondary aging, namely, charging the ring piece into a furnace at a warm temperature, keeping the temperature at 160 ℃ for 4-8h, and performing air cooling after the aging is finished.
2. The manufacturing process of the high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging according to claim 1, wherein the lap joint rate of each cold pressing position in the cold pressing deformation process of the step (8) is more than or equal to 50%.
3. The manufacturing process of the high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging according to claim 1, wherein nano-lubricant is uniformly coated on the surfaces of the aluminum alloy ring blank and the die during the deformation in the steps (3), (5) and (6).
4. The manufacturing process of the high-strength corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy forging according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the aluminum alloy forging is a 2A14 aluminum alloy forging.
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CN109622873B (en) * 2018-12-27 2020-11-13 天津航天长征技术装备有限公司 Manufacturing process of fine crystals of 2219 aluminum alloy ring piece
CN109554641A (en) * 2018-12-27 2019-04-02 天津航天长征技术装备有限公司 A kind of aluminum alloy ring forging thermomechanical treatment process
CN110653328A (en) * 2019-06-03 2020-01-07 遵义航天新力精密铸锻有限公司 Processing technology of inner lug special-shaped cover
CN111621676A (en) * 2020-05-29 2020-09-04 山东弗泽瑞金属科技有限公司 Short-time heat treatment method for aluminum alloy material suitable for vacuum low-speed die casting
CN111644548A (en) * 2020-06-12 2020-09-11 无锡派克新材料科技股份有限公司 Forging-modifying technology for high-strength homogeneous aluminum alloy forging for spaceflight

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FR2820438B1 (en) * 2001-02-07 2003-03-07 Pechiney Rhenalu Process for the manufacture of a corrosive product with high resistance in alznmagcu alloy
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