CN108738852A - A method of maintain lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities to stablize - Google Patents

A method of maintain lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities to stablize Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108738852A
CN108738852A CN201810594095.2A CN201810594095A CN108738852A CN 108738852 A CN108738852 A CN 108738852A CN 201810594095 A CN201810594095 A CN 201810594095A CN 108738852 A CN108738852 A CN 108738852A
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submerged plant
waters
sub
water
pack
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CN108738852B (en
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李宽意
利翔燕
黄晓峰
钱仁勇
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Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology of CAS
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Nanjing Institute of Geography and Limnology of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/02Receptacles, e.g. flower-pots or boxes; Glasses for cultivating flowers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • A01G31/02Special apparatus therefor
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/10Aromatic or araliphatic carboxylic acids, or thio analogues thereof; Derivatives thereof
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of method that maintenance lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities are stablized, and includes the following steps:Choose target water, the block of target water divides, submerged plant habitat improves and submerged plant root system promotees to strengthen four steps.The present invention according to lake ecosystem repair present in practical problem realize Submerged plant communities and stablize the purpose maintained by the patch intervention to lake submerged plant through water overlay area, this method have the characteristics that safely, it is at low cost.

Description

A method of maintain lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities to stablize
Technical field
The present invention relates to environmental technology fields, and in particular to a kind of that lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities is maintained to stablize Method.
Background technology
Submerged vegetation recovery is the core link of ecosystem restoration, and realizes the pass that muddy water state changes to clear water state Key, among these the Ecology Action mechanism of submerged vegetation include mainly:(1)Nutriment can be utilized with algae competition, reduces algae Biomass;(2)Increase particulate matter sedimentation, inhibits sediment resuspension;(3)The place of growth and breeding is provided for zooplankter, and Hide fish predation for it to create conditions;(4)Oxygen is discharged to deposit by root system, improves deposit oxidation-reduction potential, Inhibit the release, etc. of sediment phosphorus.Ecological system degradation practice have shown that, only submerged vegetation restore after clean water system It can stablize.External numerous studies find that, if submerged vegetation does not restore after bio operon, system can also be returned to muddy water state, But vegetation is once being formed, since great variety has occurred in Biotope Landscape, will form a clean water system with different structure.
However, with the continuous success of China's restoration of the ecosystem case, during the operation of the lake clear water type ecosystem, have When will appear submerged plant the phenomenon that summer and autumn large area floats, cause water quality deterioration and ecosystem degradation or even Risk with collapse.
The main reason for submerged plant grassy marshland is floated in flakes be:The bed mud content of organic matter is higher, and moisture content is high, causes heavy water Plant holding ability is poor;Bed mud anaerobic environment damages the root system of submerged plant, black root and bad root phenomenon occurs;High temperature Season submerged plant growth is luxuriant, and organism in water amount significantly increases, and buoyancy increases, and causes submerged plant grassy marshland mainly in the summer Another major reason that autumn floats.
Therefore, during the lake clear water type ecosystem operation after restoration of the ecosystem, how to improve the habitat of submerged plant Condition promotes the stabilization of Submerged plant communities, is the key problem in technology safeguarded the ecosystem and stablized.
Invention content
In view of the above-mentioned problems, the present invention proposes a kind of method that maintenance lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities are stablized, it should Method can stablize maintenance Submerged plant communities, promote the ability of lake ecosystem health operation.
To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A method of it maintains lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities to stablize, includes the following steps:
(1)Choose target water:Investigate the biomass of submerged plant and having in number of dominant species and lake sediment in lake Machine matter content chooses submerged plant weight in wet base and is more than or equal to 1kg/m2And single-block area is more than or equal to 100m2Waters as primary election water Domain, it is the primary election that the content of organic matter in 1 or deposit is more than or equal to 5% to choose submerged plant number of dominant species later Waters is as target water;
(2)The block of target water divides:By the target water be divided into polylith it is non-conterminous, between each other independent sub- water The area in domain, every piece of sub- waters is 5 ~ 20m2, the gross area in the sub- waters is less than or equal to the target water area 30%;
(3)Submerged plant habitat improves:In each sub- waters, uniformly splash first calcium lime powder or bleaching powder, the life The dosage of pulverized limestone is 5 ~ 20g/ m2, the dosage of the bleaching powder is 0.5 ~ 2g/m2, splash altogether 2 ~ 3 times;
(4)Submerged plant root system promotees strong:Step(3)After completing 1 month, a medicine is hung at every piece of sub- waters center Packet, the pack are equipped with methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, the dosage of the methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium is 0.1 ~ 0.5g/m not in water in the pack2, often It replaces 1 pack within 7 ~ 10 days, 2 ~ 3 packs, the pack is used to be sewed for cotton material altogether.
Further, step(3)In the time interval of adjacent splash twice calcium lime powder or bleaching powder be 7 ~ 10 days.
Further, the depth of the pack is 50cm on the 50cm to bed mud of underwater.It is determined according to the area in sub- waters The depth of pack, sub- water surface area is bigger, and the position that pack is hung in water body is higher.
Preferably, the method comes into effect 2 ~ March.
Preferably, the mesh of the cotton material is 200-300 mesh.The medicine sewed using the cotton material of 200-300 mesh Packet, can be such that methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium is dissolved out in 5 ~ 7 days and finish.
The major technique thinking or principle of the present patent application are as follows:In survey target lake the coverage of submerged plant and Dominant species, the indexs such as Effects of Organic Matter in Sediments content, according to synecology basic principle, binding analysis target water The parameters such as area, biomass of submerged plant and number of dominant species and Organic Matter In Sediments content, judgement are likely to occur heavy water The target water that plant grassy marshland is floated;Target water is divided into the sub- waters of polylith, when carrying out submerged plant stabilization maintenance, is applied The sub- waters gross area of work is no more than the 30% of target water area, and is not attached between sub- waters of constructing, reason for this is that It reduces the negative effect to entire lake to the greatest extent and reduces the negative effect to submerged plant growth in adjacent sub- waters, also It is patch intervention, patch, which is intervened, also there are specific ecological functions to cause drug concentration in sub- waters by drug slow release Center is high, gradually decays in operating radius, and the drug of various concentration makes waters submerged plant growth rate have different, Formation plant height is straggly, has multifarious water body habitat, the function of similar habitat island, and large area low dosage uses drug This effect is not achieved;Then improve work in 2-3 months progress submerged plant habitat to spread specifically in the sub- waters of construction Enter calcium lime powder or bleaching powder.It carries out habitat the selection 2-3 months to improve being because submerged plant germinates not yet at this time, to plant Growth itself there is no apparent side effect, and carrying out patch intervention in this stage can also reduce to the negative shadow adjacent to sub- waters It rings.Selection quick lime or bleaching powder are the sterilizings since the drug can effectively improve the anaerobic environment of bed mud, and low dosage is multiple Its negative effect to submerged plant and vicinity waters is reduced as possible using being;After completing habitat and improving one month, Pack is hung at sub- waters center, because the submerged plant growth in sub- waters gradually restores at this time, in order to which enhance plant grabs mud energy Power promotees to strengthen drug using the root system of low dosage, promotes root system of plant thicker and becomes more, enhances the anchoring capability of submerged plant;? Complete patch intervene after, according to phytobiocoenose situation can second year continue other patches intervention, it is stable to reach Submerged plant communities are maintained, the ability of lake ecosystem health operation is promoted.
The present invention according to lake ecosystem repair present in practical problem, by lake submerged plant through water overlay area Patch intervention, realize Submerged plant communities stablize maintain purpose, this method have the characteristics that safely, it is at low cost.
Specific implementation mode
Embodiment 1
Taizhou restoration of the ecosystem demonstration waters, 80000 square metres of demonstration project area start to construct in May, 2011, main ecology Reclamation activities is that submerged plant planting is removed with benthic fishes, and June, restoration of the ecosystem construction terminated, the transformation of August part ecosystem For clear water state, main submerged plant kind has black algae, eel grass, bog pondweed, watermifoil etc..After clean water system 3 years ' operation, also It is summer in 2014, grassy marshland rising phenomenon occurs for part waters, and water quality once deteriorated.
In by the end of February, 2015, and one piece of submerged plant sociales is selected there was only a kind(Eel grass)Waters as target water, mesh Mark 300 square metres of water surface area, biomass of submerged plant(Weight in wet base)For 1kg/m2.Target water is divided into 30 sub- waters, Every 10 square metres of sub- water surface area selects 10 sub- waters to carry out patch intervention.At the beginning of 3 months quick lime is uniformly sprinkled into sub- waters Powder, dosage are 5 ~ 20g/m2, every ten days primary, continuously three times.By the end of April, below the water surface of sub- waters center at 50cm it is each hang it is heavy Water root system of plant promotees to strengthen cotton pack one, and the mesh of pack is 300, and drug is methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, dosage 0.5g/ in pack m2, a pack is changed within every ten days, it is continuous with three times.Several years later, all there is not the phenomenon that grassy marshland floating.
Embodiment 2
In Chengdu lake, the phenomenon that there are grassy marshland floatings in part waters, select one piece of submerged plant sociales only have a kind and its Biomass(Weight in wet base)For 5kg/m2Waters be target water, the area of target water is 100 m2, Effects of Organic Matter in Sediments contains Amount is more than or equal to 5%.It is 5m that water surface area is chosen in target water21, sub- waters, water surface area 20m2Sub- waters 1 It is a, and two sub- waters are non-conterminous, and patch intervention, drift of uniformly splashing in sub- waters mid-February are carried out to this two sub- waters White powder, dosage are 0.5 ~ 2g/m2, splash altogether twice, time interval twice is 7 days, splashes finish by the end of February, by the end of March when, Each suspension submerged plant root system promotees to strengthen cotton pack one, the mesh of pack at 50cm above two sub- waters center Sediments It is 200, drug is methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, dosage 0.1g/m in pack2, replace within every 7 days once, use 2 packs altogether.Later All do not occurred the phenomenon that grassy marshland floating in two years.
Embodiment 3
Small arm of lake side near Wuxi selects single dominant submerged plant(Water caltrop)The waters of distribution(About 250 square metres), cloth If enclosure(Each 10 square metres of enclosure area)5 groups, one group of control group for no processing, one group of lime treatment group of making a living, one group For methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium processing group, one group is first using quick lime group is used after methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, one group is to be used after first using quick lime Methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium group.Start to test within 2 months 2017.Experimental drug dosage and application method are same as Example 1.Experiment in April knot Shu Shi, each group of weighing handle the biomass of water caltrop, observe root growth situation.
The result shows that:Compared with the control group, water caltrop relative growth rate improves 6% after quick lime processing, and black radical amount is also bright It is aobvious to reduce;The relative growth rate with control group of water caltrop are close after the processing of methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, and root system also has almost no change.First use naphthalene Quick lime group is used after potassium acetate, water caltrop relative growth rate is only higher than control group by 2%, is less than quick lime processing group, black radical amount Also it significantly reduces.Methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium group is used after first using quick lime, compared with the control group, water caltrop relative growth rate improves 28%, Compared with using quick lime group after first using methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, water caltrop relative growth rate improves 25%, goes out almost without black root It is existing, and root quantity increases thickening.
Therefore, single use quick lime improves bed mud environment, to submerged plant growth facilitation limited, and single makes With methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium to submerged plant growth almost without effect;Quick lime is used after first using methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, submerged plant is given birth to Long facilitation is faint, and first can be greatly facilitated submerged plant growth using methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium using after quick lime.
Embodiment 4
In above-mentioned case 1, Taizhou restoration of the ecosystem demonstration waters selects one piece of area for 170 m2Eel grass has comparative advantage and hardship Careless weight in wet base is more than or equal to 1kg/m2Region tested.Mutually non-conterminous sub- waters carries out patch intervention for setting three, each 10 square metres of sub- water surface area, takes following scheme respectively:
(1)Blank control waters:It takes no action to;
(2)First implements waters:It splashes into water body at the beginning of 3 months calcium lime powder, dosage is 10 g/ m2, splash altogether 3 times, between each Every 8 days;It hangs a pack below the sub- waters center water surface at 50cm at the beginning of 5 months later, replaces within every 10 days primary, make altogether With 3 packs;
(3)Second implements waters:Start calcium lime powder of splashing into water body at the beginning of 5 months, pack is hung at the beginning of 7 months, remaining concrete measure It is identical to implement waters with first.
The pack that first implementation waters is implemented with second used in waters is identical, and interior drug is methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, and dosage is 0.5g/m2, pack is made of the cotton materials of 250 mesh.The phytomass in each sub- waters is acquired at the end of experiment, observes root It is growing state.
The result shows that compared with the control, first implements in waters, and eel grass biomass obviously increases, and relative growth rate improves 31%, eel grass root color is partially yellow, and the apparent thicker and quantity of root significantly increases;Second implements in waters, and eel grass root also has change Thick increased amount of phenomenon, but eel grass relative growth rate only improves 12% than control treatment, and this may be due to bitter when drug uses Grass has begun to grow, and quick lime has inhibition to make using the suddenly change for causing bed mud environment, in a certain stage of plant growth With.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of method for maintaining lake ecosystem Submerged plant communities to stablize, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
(1)Choose target water:Investigate the biomass of submerged plant and having in number of dominant species and lake sediment in lake Machine matter content chooses submerged plant weight in wet base and is more than or equal to 1kg/m2And single-block area is more than or equal to 100m2Waters as primary election water Domain, it is the primary election that the content of organic matter in 1 or deposit is more than or equal to 5% to choose submerged plant number of dominant species later Waters is as target water;
(2)The block of target water divides:The target water is divided into polylith independent sub- waters between each other, every piece of institute The area for stating sub- waters is 5 ~ 20m2, 30% of the gross area less than or equal to the target water area in the sub- waters;
(3)Submerged plant habitat improves:In each sub- waters, uniformly splash first calcium lime powder or bleaching powder, the life The dosage of pulverized limestone is 5 ~ 20g/ m2, the dosage of the bleaching powder is 0.5 ~ 2g/m2, splash altogether 2 ~ 3 times;
(4)Submerged plant root system promotees strong:Step(3)After completing 1 month, a medicine is hung at every piece of sub- waters center Packet, the pack are equipped with methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium, the dosage of the methyl α-naphthyl acetate potassium is 0.1 ~ 0.5g/m not in water in the pack2, often It replaces 1 pack within 7 ~ 10 days, 2 ~ 3 packs, the pack is used to be sewed for cotton material altogether.
2. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, step(3)In adjacent splash twice calcium lime powder or bleaching The time interval of powder is 7 ~ 10 days.
3. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the depth of the pack is on the 50cm to bed mud of underwater At 50cm.
4. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the method comes into effect 2 ~ March.
5. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the mesh of the cotton material is 200 ~ 300 mesh.
CN201810594095.2A 2018-06-11 2018-06-11 Method for maintaining stable submerged plant community of lake ecosystem Active CN108738852B (en)

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CN101306965A (en) * 2008-05-21 2008-11-19 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 Growth promoter for aquatic in aquaculture pond
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