CN108657088B - High-voltage distribution box for electric automobile, electric control system and electric automobile - Google Patents

High-voltage distribution box for electric automobile, electric control system and electric automobile Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108657088B
CN108657088B CN201710212782.9A CN201710212782A CN108657088B CN 108657088 B CN108657088 B CN 108657088B CN 201710212782 A CN201710212782 A CN 201710212782A CN 108657088 B CN108657088 B CN 108657088B
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bus
direct current
vehicle
resistor
external
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CN108657088A (en
Inventor
周浩
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Nio Co Ltd
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Nio Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R16/00Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for
    • B60R16/02Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements
    • B60R16/023Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements for transmission of signals between vehicle parts or subsystems
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R16/00Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for
    • B60R16/02Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements
    • B60R16/023Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements for transmission of signals between vehicle parts or subsystems
    • B60R16/0238Electrical distribution centers
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/60Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/12Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries responding to state of charge [SoC]
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60RVEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B60R16/00Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for
    • B60R16/02Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements
    • B60R16/03Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements for supply of electrical power to vehicle subsystems or for
    • B60R16/033Electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for; Arrangement of elements of electric or fluid circuits specially adapted for vehicles and not otherwise provided for electric constitutive elements for supply of electrical power to vehicle subsystems or for characterised by the use of electrical cells or batteries
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/327Testing of circuit interrupters, switches or circuit-breakers
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/327Testing of circuit interrupters, switches or circuit-breakers
    • G01R31/3271Testing of circuit interrupters, switches or circuit-breakers of high voltage or medium voltage devices
    • G01R31/3272Apparatus, systems or circuits therefor
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01RMEASURING ELECTRIC VARIABLES; MEASURING MAGNETIC VARIABLES
    • G01R31/00Arrangements for testing electric properties; Arrangements for locating electric faults; Arrangements for electrical testing characterised by what is being tested not provided for elsewhere
    • G01R31/36Arrangements for testing, measuring or monitoring the electrical condition of accumulators or electric batteries, e.g. capacity or state of charge [SoC]
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0029Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with safety or protection devices or circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0047Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries with monitoring or indicating devices or circuits
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/0068Battery or charger load switching, e.g. concurrent charging and load supply
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/40Drive Train control parameters
    • B60L2240/54Drive Train control parameters related to batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage systems for electromobility, e.g. batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies relating to charging of electric vehicles
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles

Abstract

The invention relates to an automobile electronic power technology, in particular to a high-voltage distribution box for an electric automobile, an electric control system comprising the high-voltage distribution box and the electric automobile comprising the electric control system. A high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle according to an aspect of the present invention includes: a direct current positive bus; a direct current negative bus; an external DC charging port coupled to the DC positive bus and DC negative bus via a pair of relays; a plurality of output ports coupled with the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus; and a monitoring unit coupled between the relay and an external direct current charging port, configured to monitor a power supply state of the external direct current power supply.

Description

High-voltage distribution box for electric automobile, electric control system and electric automobile
Technical Field
The invention relates to an automobile electronic power technology, in particular to a high-voltage distribution box for an electric automobile, an electric control system comprising the high-voltage distribution box and the electric automobile comprising the electric control system.
Background
Research has shown that the heavy use of fossil fuels is the main cause of haze development, with automobile exhaust emissions again being one of the important sources of PM2.5 particles. In addition, with the large-scale use of fossil fuels by human beings, the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is steadily increasing, the greenhouse effect is increasingly obvious, and extreme climatic events frequently occur around the world. In the face of such a critical situation, if no more advantageous measures are taken, irremediable catastrophic consequences can be brought to the human living environment. In this regard, the automobile industry is investing in a great deal of manpower and material resources to develop new automobiles using electric power as a power source, such as hybrid automobiles and pure electric automobiles. The pure electric vehicle is a vehicle which takes a vehicle-mounted battery as a power source and drives wheels to run by using a motor, and meets various requirements of road traffic and safety regulations. Because the influence on the environment is smaller than that of the traditional automobile, the prospect is widely seen.
A high-voltage on-vehicle power battery as a power source is a core component of an electric vehicle, which is generally equipped with a high-voltage distribution box. The high-voltage distribution box is distribution equipment for pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and a centralized distribution scheme is adopted to reasonably distribute a high-voltage power supply to various vehicle-mounted equipment. Because the high-voltage distribution box works in a state of high voltage and large current, the high-voltage distribution box has high requirements on the performance of the high-voltage distribution box, but the current high-voltage distribution box for the electric automobile generally adopts the design concept of an industrial high-voltage distribution box, and cannot meet the requirements on safety, reliability and durability.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a high-voltage distribution box for an electric automobile, which has the advantages of compact structure, monitoring function and the like.
A high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle according to an aspect of the present invention includes:
a direct current positive bus;
a direct current negative bus;
an external DC charging port coupled to the DC positive bus and DC negative bus via a pair of relays;
a plurality of output ports coupled with the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus; and
a monitoring unit coupled between the relay and an external DC charging port, configured to monitor a power supply status of the external DC power supply.
Preferably, in the above high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle, the vehicle-mounted power battery is connected to one of the output ports via an electronic switching system, and the vehicle-mounted device is connected to the remaining output ports, the electronic switching system being configured to selectively connect or disconnect the vehicle-mounted power battery to or from an external direct current power supply.
Preferably, in the above high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle, the monitoring unit includes:
a first resistor group connected in series between the positive dc bus and the negative dc bus and between the relay and an external dc charging port;
a second resistor group connected in series between the positive and negative dc busses and between the relay and an output port connected to the electronic switching system;
a switch connected between a tap of the first resistor group and a tap of the second resistor group; and
and the input end of the first operational amplifier is coupled with a tap of the second resistor group, and the output end of the first operational amplifier is coupled with the whole vehicle control unit.
Preferably, in the above-described high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle, the vehicle control unit determines the state of the relay according to a voltage at a tap of the second resistor group measured in a state where the switch is closed and the relay is open.
Preferably, in the above high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle, the monitoring unit includes:
a third resistor group connected in series between the positive dc bus and the negative dc bus and between the relay and an external dc charging port; and
and the input end of the second operational amplifier is coupled with a tap of the third resistor group, and the output end of the second operational amplifier is coupled with the whole vehicle control unit.
Preferably, in the above-described high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle, the vehicle control unit determines the voltage between the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus according to the measured voltage at the tap of the third resistor group.
Preferably, in the above-mentioned high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle, the monitoring unit further includes a current sensing element connected to the direct current positive bus or the direct current negative bus and configured to monitor a power supply state in the following manner: and when the external direct current power supply charges the vehicle-mounted power battery, measuring the current flowing through the direct current positive bus or the direct current negative bus and outputting a current signal to a vehicle control unit.
It is another object of the present invention to provide an electrical control system for an electric vehicle that provides the above and other advantages by including the above-described high voltage distribution box.
An electrical control system for an electric vehicle according to another aspect of the present invention includes:
a vehicle control unit;
a high voltage distribution box, comprising:
a direct current positive bus;
a direct current negative bus;
an external DC charging port coupled to the DC positive bus and DC negative bus via a pair of relays;
a plurality of output ports coupled with the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus; and
a monitoring unit coupled between the relay and an external DC charging port, configured to monitor a power supply status of the external DC power supply; and
the vehicle-mounted power battery is connected with one output port of the high-voltage distribution box through the electronic switch system, the vehicle-mounted equipment is connected with the other output ports, and the electronic switch system is configured to selectively enable the vehicle-mounted power battery to be connected with or disconnected from an external direct-current power supply under the control of the whole vehicle control unit.
Preferably, in the above-described electric control system, the vehicle control unit is configured to generate a command to turn off the relay when a power supply state monitoring signal is not received from the monitoring unit.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide an electric vehicle that provides the above and other advantages by including the above-described electrical control system.
An electric vehicle according to another aspect of the present invention includes:
the above-mentioned electrical control system; and
and (4) a vehicle-mounted power battery.
Drawings
The above and/or other aspects and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent and more readily appreciated from the following description of the various aspects, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in which like or similar elements are designated with like reference numerals, and which:
fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of an electrical control system for an electric vehicle according to an embodiment of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a high voltage distribution box in the electrical control system of fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an exemplary circuit schematic of a monitoring unit in the high voltage distribution box of fig. 2.
FIG. 4 is an exemplary flow chart of a method for determining the state of the relay contacts as applied to the monitoring unit shown in FIG. 3.
Detailed Description
The present invention will now be described more fully hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which exemplary embodiments of the invention are shown. This invention may, however, be embodied in different forms and should not be construed as limited to the embodiments set forth herein. The embodiments described above are intended to be illustrative of the full and complete disclosure of this invention, and thus, to provide a more complete and accurate understanding of the scope of the invention.
Words such as "comprising" and "comprises" mean that, in addition to having elements or steps which are directly and unequivocally stated in the description and the claims, the solution of the invention does not exclude other elements or steps which are not directly or unequivocally stated.
Terms such as "first" and "second" do not denote an order of the elements in time, space, size, etc., but rather are used to distinguish one element from another.
According to one aspect of the invention, an external direct current charging port is connected to a direct current positive bus and a direct current negative bus in a high voltage distribution box through a pair of relays, an on-board power battery and an on-board device are coupled to the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus, and the on-board power battery is selectively connected to an external direct current power source and the on-board device by means of an electronic switching system. The bus access mode of the vehicle-mounted power battery and the vehicle-mounted equipment enables the internal structure of the high-voltage distribution box to be simpler and improves reliability.
According to another aspect of the present invention, by connecting a monitoring unit between the external dc charging port and the relay, real-time monitoring of the charging state can be achieved, and a timely response can be made when a fault is detected. For example, when an external dc power supply charges the on-board power battery, the monitoring unit may measure the voltage at the external dc charging port and provide a measured voltage signal to the vehicle control unit, or measure the current flowing through the dc positive or dc negative bus and output a current measurement signal to the vehicle control unit. Furthermore, when the external direct-current power supply finishes charging the vehicle-mounted power battery, the monitoring unit can detect the contact state (such as closing or opening) of the relay and output the detected contact state to the vehicle control unit. The vehicle control unit determines whether the charging operation is in a normal state or not based on the detection signal provided by the monitoring unit and responds accordingly (for example, instructing the external direct current power supply to stop power output or the like) when an abnormality occurs. Although the function of monitoring the charging voltage is also provided on the external dc power supply side, a redundancy mechanism is provided by providing the voltage measurement function on the high-voltage distribution box side, thereby improving the safety of the charging process.
Embodiments of the present invention are described below in detail with the aid of the attached drawings.
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of an electrical control system for an electric vehicle according to an embodiment of the present invention. The electrical control system 1 shown in fig. 1 includes a high voltage distribution box 10, a vehicle control unit 20, and an electronic switching system 30.
In the present embodiment, the high voltage distribution box 10 is coupled with the external direct current power supply 2 via the interface P110, with the vehicle-mounted power battery 3 via the output port P121, and with various vehicle-mounted devices (not shown) via the output ports P122 to P126. The vehicle-mounted device described herein includes, for example, but is not limited to, at least one of the following: the device comprises a direct current-direct current converter, a direct current-alternating current converter, a high-voltage electric heating system, an electric heater, a microcontroller and an onboard controller.
The vehicle control unit 20 is able to communicate with the high-voltage distribution box 10, on the one hand, to receive various measurement signals from the high-voltage distribution box and, on the other hand, to send control commands to the high-voltage distribution box.
The vehicle-mounted power battery 3 is connected to the output port P121 via the electronic switching system 30. Preferably, the electronic switching system 30 may take the form of a high-voltage main relay configured to selectively connect or disconnect the on-vehicle power battery 3 with the external direct-current power supply 2 under the control of the entire vehicle control unit 20.
Fig. 2 is a schematic diagram of a high voltage distribution box in the electrical control system of fig. 1. The high voltage distribution box 10 shown in fig. 2 includes a direct current positive bus DC +, a direct current negative bus DC-, an external direct current charging port P110, output ports P121-P126, and a monitoring unit 130.
In this embodiment, the external DC charging port P110 is coupled to the DC positive bus DC + and the DC negative bus DC-via a pair of relays S1, S2.
As shown in fig. 2, the monitoring unit 130 measures a voltage signal between the relays S1, S2 and the external dc charging port P110, thereby determining a voltage value of the external dc charging port P110 at the high voltage distribution box side. The monitoring unit 130 shown in FIG. 2 is also configured to detect the contact status of the relays S1, S2, embodiments of which are described further below. Optionally, the monitoring unit 130 further includes a current sensing element a connected to the DC positive bus DC + to measure the current flowing through the DC positive bus DC +. The current sensing element a can also measure the current flowing through it by switching in the direct negative bus DC-. The power supply state monitoring signal (e.g., a voltage signal of the external dc charging port P110 on the side of the high voltage distribution box, a current signal flowing through the dc positive or negative bus, and a state signal representing a state of the relay contact) measured by the monitoring unit 130 is output to the entire vehicle control unit 20, which determines whether the charging operation is in a normal state and responds accordingly when an abnormality occurs, based on the power supply state monitoring signal output by the monitoring unit 130.
With continued reference to FIG. 2, output ports P121-P126 are also coupled to the DC positive bus DC + and the DC negative bus DC +, wherein output port P121 is connected to the on-board power battery 3 and output ports P122-P126 are connected to on-board equipment (not shown). In order to prevent the impact of large current, fuse breakers F1-F5 are also connected in series between the output ports P122-P126 and the direct current positive bus or the direct current negative bus as shown in FIG. 2.
The operation of the electrical control system shown in fig. 2 is described below.
When the external direct-current power supply 2 is used for charging the vehicle-mounted power battery 3, under the control of the vehicle control unit 20, the contacts of the relays S1 and S2 of the high-voltage distribution box 10 are closed, and the vehicle-mounted power battery 3 is connected to the direct-current positive bus DC + and the direct-current negative bus DC-, so that the vehicle-mounted power battery 3 is connected with the external direct-current power supply 2. At this time, the monitoring unit 130 regularly or irregularly measures the voltage signal of the external dc charging port P110 on the high-voltage distribution box side, and feeds the measured signal to the entire vehicle control unit 20. Optionally, the monitoring unit 130 also measures the current signal flowing through the direct current positive or negative bus periodically or aperiodically and the measured signal is fed to the vehicle control unit 20. When the charging is finished, the entire vehicle control unit 20 instructs the relays S1, S2 to be turned off, and the monitoring unit 130 detects the contact state of the relays S1, S2 and outputs the detected state to the entire vehicle control unit 20. The specific manner of detection of the state of the relays S1, S2 will be described further below. Preferably, the detected state is output to the vehicle control unit 20 in a coded form, for example, a two-bit code may be used to represent the relay state, where a high bit and a low bit take a value of 1 to represent that the contacts of the relay are in a closed state and take a value of 0 to represent that the contacts of the relay are in an open state.
When the vehicle-mounted power battery 3 is used for supplying power to the vehicle-mounted equipment, under the control of the vehicle control unit 20, the contacts of the relays S1 and S2 of the high-voltage distribution box 10 are disconnected, and the vehicle-mounted power battery 3 is connected to the direct-current positive bus DC + and the direct-current negative bus DC-, so that the vehicle-mounted power battery 3 supplies power to the vehicle-mounted equipment.
In the present embodiment, when the entire vehicle control unit 20 does not receive the power supply state monitoring signal from the monitoring unit 130, a command to stop charging and a command to open the contacts of the relays S1 and S2 will be generated.
Fig. 3 is an exemplary circuit schematic of a monitoring unit in the high voltage distribution box of fig. 2.
The monitoring unit 130 shown in fig. 3 includes a relay state detection unit including resistors R1-R6, a first operational amplifier a1, and a switch S, and a charging voltage detection unit including resistors R7, R8, and a second operational amplifier a 2.
As shown in fig. 3, in the relay state detecting unit, resistors R1-R6, a first operational amplifier a1, and a switch S. As shown in fig. 3, resistors R1, R3 are connected in series between the direct current positive bus DC + and the direct current negative bus DC-and between the relay S1 and the relay S2 and the external direct current charging port P110, and resistors R2, R4 are connected in series between the direct current positive bus DC + and the direct current negative bus DC-and between the relay S1 and the relay S2 and the output port P121. The switch S is connected between the common junction or tap of the resistors R1, R3 and the common junction or tap of the resistors R2, R4, and may be a relay, an optocoupler, a field effect transistor, a triode, or the like. The switch S is configured to be in an open state or a closed state under the control of the entire vehicle control unit 20. The common junction of the resistors R2, R4 is connected to the DC negative bus DC-via the resistors R5, R6. The input terminal of the first operational amplifier a1 is connected to the common junction of the resistors R5, R6, and the output terminal is connected to the vehicle control unit 20.
The operation principle of the relay state control unit is described below.
Tables 1 and 2 exemplarily show electrical parameters of the respective circuit elements in the monitoring unit 130.
TABLE 1
R1 3.992 Mohm
R2 3.992 Mohm
R3 3.992 Mohm
R4 3.992 Mohm
R5 3.493 Mohm
R6 2.73 Kohm
Gain of the first operational amplifier 24 -
TABLE 2
R7 3.992 Mohm
R8 2.73 Kohm
Gain of the second operational amplifier 12 -
In the monitoring unit 130 shown in fig. 3, different combinations of the states of the relays S1, S2 and the switch S will cause the resistors R1-R6 to have different connection relationships, thereby generating a voltage signal at the output terminal of the first operational amplifier a1 with a corresponding value. Taking the electrical parameters given in tables 1 and 2 as an example, a list of voltage signals as shown in table 3 can be obtained.
TABLE 3
In table 3, the number 0 under columns S1, S2, S indicates that relays S1, S2 and switch S are in the open state, the number 1 indicates that relays S1, S2 and switch S are in the closed state, Vbatt indicates the voltage of the vehicle-mounted power battery, and Vo1 indicates the value of the voltage signal output by first operational amplifier a1 under different combinations of the states of relays S1, S2 and switch S.
As can be seen from table 3, with switch S in the closed state, the four state combinations of relays S1 and S2 will produce 4 different voltage signal values at the output of the first operational amplifier a1, so the contact state of relays S1, S2 can be determined by comparing the current output value of the first operational amplifier a1 with the voltage signal value Vo1 in table 3. Alternatively, the present output value may be converted into a conversion value t that is independent of the voltage of the vehicle-mounted power battery according to the following equation (1) and the conversion value may be compared with the value in the rightmost column in table 3 (hereinafter referred to as a characteristic value) to determine the contact state of the relay:
t=1000*Vo1'/Vbatt (1)
here Vo1' is the current output value of the first operational amplifier a1 and Vbatt is the voltage of the vehicle power battery.
FIG. 4 is an exemplary flow chart of a method for determining the state of the relay contacts as applied to the monitoring unit shown in FIG. 3. In the example shown in fig. 4, it is assumed that each circuit element in the monitoring unit 130 has the electrical parameters shown in tables 1 and 2.
The method shown in fig. 4 is initiated when it is detected that the external dc power supply 2 is disconnected from the external dc charging port P110. As shown in fig. 4, in step 410, the entire vehicle control unit 20 reads the voltage signal value (hereinafter, Vo11) output by the first operational amplifier a1 with the relays S1 and S2 and the high-voltage main relays S3, S4 connected in the circuit of the vehicle-mounted power battery 3 remaining in the closed state and the switch S in the open state.
Subsequently, proceeding to step 420, the entire vehicle control unit 20 causes the contacts of the relays S1 and S2 to open, continues to maintain the closed state of the high-voltage main relays S3, S4, places the switch S in the closed state, and reads the voltage signal value (hereinafter, Vo12) output by the first operational amplifier a1 in the above-described state combination of the relays S1 to S4 and the switch S.
Next, in step 430, the vehicle control unit 20 calculates a voltage Vbatt of the vehicle power battery and calculates a value 1000 Vo12/Vbatt from the obtained Vbatt, wherein the voltage Vbatt can be calculated from the voltage signal value Vo11 according to the following equation (2):
Vbatt=Vo11/0.00597 (2)
proceeding to step 440, the vehicle control unit 20 then compares the transformed values 1000 Vo12/Vbatt with the characteristic values from table 3 to determine the contact states of the relays S1, S2. For example, if 1000 Vo12/Vbatt is close to 5.97 (e.g., error between +/-0.5), it may be determined that the contacts of relays S1, S2 are both in an open state, if 1000 Vo12/Vbatt is close to 4.53 (e.g., error between +/-0.5), it may be determined that the contacts of relay S1 are in an open state and the contacts of relay S2 are in a closed state, if 1000 Vo12/Vbatt is close to 9.06 (e.g., error between +/-0.5), it may be determined that the contacts of relay S1 are in a closed state and the contacts of relay S2 are in an open state, and if 1000 Vo12/Vbatt is close to 7.29 (e.g., error between +/-0.5), it may be determined that the contacts of relays S1, S2 are both in a closed state.
As shown in fig. 3, in the charging voltage detecting unit, the resistors R7, R8 are connected in series between the direct current positive bus DC + and the direct current negative bus DC-and between the relay S1 and the relay S2 and the external direct current charging port P110. The input terminal of the second operational amplifier a2 is connected to the common junction of the resistors R7, R8, and the output terminal is connected to the vehicle control unit 20. During the charging process of the on-vehicle power battery 3 by the external DC power supply 2, the vehicle control unit 20 can calculate the voltage Vport between the DC positive bus DC + and the DC negative bus DC-according to the output signal Vo2 of the second operational amplifier a2, and accordingly determine whether the charging operation is in a normal state and respond accordingly when an abnormality occurs.
While certain aspects of the present invention have been shown and discussed, those skilled in the art will appreciate that: changes may be made in the above aspects without departing from the principles and spirit of the invention, the scope of which is, therefore, defined in the appended claims and their equivalents.

Claims (10)

1. A high voltage distribution box for an electric vehicle, comprising:
a direct current positive bus;
a direct current negative bus;
an external DC charging port coupled to the DC positive bus and DC negative bus via a pair of relays;
a plurality of output ports coupled with the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus; and
a monitoring unit coupled between the relay and an external DC charging port, configured to monitor a power supply status of the external DC power supply,
wherein the vehicle-mounted power battery is connected with one of the output ports through an electronic switching system, the vehicle-mounted equipment is connected with the other output ports, the electronic switching system is configured to selectively connect or disconnect the vehicle-mounted power battery with an external direct current power supply,
wherein the monitoring unit comprises:
a first resistor group connected in series between the positive dc bus and the negative dc bus and between the relay and an external dc charging port;
a second resistor group connected in series between the positive and negative dc busses and between the relay and an output port connected to the electronic switching system;
a switch connected between a tap of the first resistor group and a tap of the second resistor group; and
a first operational amplifier, the input end of which is coupled with the tap of the second resistor group, the output end of which is coupled with the vehicle control unit,
wherein the entire vehicle control unit determines the state of the relay according to the voltage at the tap of the second resistor group measured when the switch is in a closed state and the relay is in an open state.
2. The high voltage distribution box for electric vehicles according to claim 1, wherein the monitoring unit comprises:
a third resistor group connected in series between the positive dc bus and the negative dc bus and between the relay and an external dc charging port; and
and the input end of the second operational amplifier is coupled with a tap of the third resistor group, and the output end of the second operational amplifier is coupled with the whole vehicle control unit.
3. The high voltage distribution box for electric vehicles of claim 2, wherein the entire vehicle control unit determines the voltage between the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus according to the measured voltage at the tap of the third resistor group.
4. The high voltage distribution box for electric vehicles of claim 1, wherein said monitoring unit further comprises a current sensing element connected to said positive or negative dc bus and configured to monitor the state of supply in the following manner: and when the external direct current power supply charges the vehicle-mounted power battery, measuring the current flowing through the direct current positive bus or the direct current negative bus and outputting a current signal to a vehicle control unit.
5. An electrical control system for an electric vehicle, comprising:
a vehicle control unit;
a high voltage distribution box, comprising:
a direct current positive bus;
a direct current negative bus;
an external DC charging port coupled to the DC positive bus and DC negative bus via a pair of relays;
a plurality of output ports coupled with the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus; and
a monitoring unit coupled between the relay and an external DC charging port, configured to monitor a power supply status of the external DC power supply; and
an electronic switching system, wherein a vehicle-mounted power battery is connected with one of the output ports of the high-voltage distribution box through the electronic switching system, vehicle-mounted equipment is connected with the other output ports, the electronic switching system is configured to selectively connect or disconnect the vehicle-mounted power battery with an external direct current power supply under the control of the whole vehicle control unit,
wherein the monitoring unit comprises:
a first resistor group connected in series between the positive dc bus and the negative dc bus and between the relay and an external dc charging port;
a second resistor group connected in series between the positive and negative dc busses and between the relay and an output port connected to the electronic switching system;
a switch connected between a tap of the first resistor group and a tap of the second resistor group; and
a first operational amplifier, the input end of which is coupled with the tap of the second resistor group, the output end of which is coupled with the vehicle control unit,
wherein the entire vehicle control unit determines the state of the relay according to the voltage at the tap of the second resistor group measured when the switch is in a closed state and the relay is in an open state.
6. The electrical control system for an electric vehicle according to claim 5, wherein the monitoring unit comprises:
a third resistor group connected in series between the positive dc bus and the negative dc bus and between the relay and an external dc charging port; and
and the input end of the second operational amplifier is coupled with a tap of the third resistor group, and the output end of the second operational amplifier is coupled with the whole vehicle control unit.
7. The electrical control system for an electric vehicle according to claim 6, wherein the entire vehicle control unit determines the voltage between the direct current positive bus and the direct current negative bus from the measured voltage at the tap of the third resistor group.
8. The electrical control system for an electric vehicle of claim 5, wherein the monitoring unit further comprises a current sensing element coupled into the positive or negative DC bus and configured to monitor a state of supply in the following manner: and when the external direct current power supply charges the vehicle-mounted power battery, measuring the current flowing through the direct current positive bus or the direct current negative bus and outputting a current signal to a vehicle control unit.
9. The electrical control system for an electric vehicle according to claim 5, wherein the entire vehicle control unit is configured to generate a command to open the relay when a power supply state monitoring signal is not received from the monitoring unit.
10. An electric vehicle characterized by comprising an electric control system according to any one of claims 5 to 9.
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