CN108643954A - A kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system and method based on visibility detection - Google Patents

A kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system and method based on visibility detection Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108643954A
CN108643954A CN201810369394.6A CN201810369394A CN108643954A CN 108643954 A CN108643954 A CN 108643954A CN 201810369394 A CN201810369394 A CN 201810369394A CN 108643954 A CN108643954 A CN 108643954A
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China
Prior art keywords
tunnel
visibility
personal computer
industrial personal
detection
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CN201810369394.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
许伦辉
钟海兴
胡三根
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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South China University of Technology SCUT
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Priority to CN201810369394.6A priority Critical patent/CN108643954A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F1/00Ventilation of mines or tunnels; Distribution of ventilating currents
    • E21F1/003Ventilation of traffic tunnels
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21FSAFETY DEVICES, TRANSPORT, FILLING-UP, RESCUE, VENTILATION, OR DRAINING IN OR OF MINES OR TUNNELS
    • E21F17/00Methods or devices for use in mines or tunnels, not covered elsewhere
    • E21F17/18Special adaptations of signalling or alarm devices
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F04POSITIVE - DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS
    • F04DNON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
    • F04D27/00Control, e.g. regulation, of pumps, pumping installations or systems
    • F04D27/004Control, e.g. regulation, of pumps, pumping installations or systems by varying driving speed
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N21/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means, i.e. using sub-millimetre waves, infrared, visible or ultraviolet light
    • G01N21/84Systems specially adapted for particular applications

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control systems based on visibility detection, and the system comprises visibility detection systems and tunnel ventilation drive system;Visibility detection system includes mainly video camera, practical blackbody, light source target;Tunnel ventilation drive system includes mainly industrial personal computer, server, interchanger, local controller, frequency converter and axial flow blower.The system of the present invention can set up visibility detection system by using the monitor camera of tunnel internal, the real-time visibility of tunnel internal is detected by visibility detection system, when visibility does not meet the standard of safety traffic, the pollutant in tunnel is diluted by tunnel ventilation drive system driving axial flow blower, various ventilation blower electromechanical equipments in tunnel can be not only made to play a role to the maximum extent, moreover it is possible to be effectively saved the cost and the energy of tunnel operation.

Description

A kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system and method based on visibility detection
Technical field
The present invention relates to modern electronic technology field more particularly to a kind of freeway tunnel based on visibility detection are logical Air control system and method.
Background technology
Visibility is also known as visibility, refers to the maximum distance that observer can be seen clearly that object under twenty-twenty vision, leads to Often with " sighting distance ", i.e., " visual range " it is of equal value.In meteorology, visibility is defined as atmospheric transparency, therefore under same air Visibility in day and night be the same, height is usually by the suspended matter (such as particulate matter, subtle droplet) in air Number determine.With the getting worse that global atmosphere pollutes, direct performance of the visibility as outdoor air increasingly causes Pay attention to, many countries and regions are using visibility as one of index of air pollution.
Visibility also extensive application in traffic above-ground and aviation field.Visibility is too low to cause driver to preceding The barrier and pedestrian determination of side easy to produce mistake, to influence the orientation in driving process, positioning, confirm distance and speed The visual senses such as impression.Since attention needs high concentration, it is also easy to produce mental fatigue;Due to the reduction of traffic speed, it is easy It causes traffic jam, phenomena such as traffic order is chaotic, is reduced so as to cause traffic efficiency.
Visibility in vcehicular tunnel is the principal element that must take into consideration under the conditions of normal operation and fire incident.Although Country's outer tunnel related specifications use carbon monoxide (CO) and extinction coefficient (K) two indices to carry out required airflow meter at present at present It calculates, however as the significant decrease year by year of carbon monoxide (CO) vehicular emission factors, Ventilation Design for Tunnels of the CO in many countries In be no longer deciding factor.Since quantity of the heavy goods vehicles in wagon flow of diesel driven is continuously increased, the bavin of some countries Oily vehicle is even and gasoline car quantity is suitable, and many particulate matters are adulterated in the tail gas of emission of diesel engine, is caused very to visibility Big to influence, therefore, visibility plays decisive role in the calculating of more and more tunnel ventilation amounts.
Under the environmental pressure of atmosphere pollution getting worse, the vehicle emission standards of countries in the world are increasingly stringent, automobile Various emission performances (Exhaust) pollutant factor of tail gas is reduced, and is rubbed for automobile tire and skidding abrasion, road surface Wipe and the non-emission performance (Non-exhaust) such as dust on the roads distribute particulate matter become influence in visibility it is non-negligible it is important because Element.
So how in the case where detecting tunnel low visibility, and integrating tunnel ventilating system is shown in tunnel interior energy Degree carries out improving the important research content for current tunnel Ventilation Control.
Invention content
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control systems based on visibility detection.For Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system in the present invention, the present invention are detected using the dual differential luminance algorithm in video detection method Visibility in tunnel.
The purpose of the present invention can be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system based on visibility detection, the system comprises visibility detection systems System and tunnel ventilation drive system;
Visibility detection system includes mainly video camera, practical blackbody, light source target;
Video camera for being acquired to the video data of image in tunnel, so as to control system to visibility in tunnel into Row detection.
Preferably, in the present system, the video camera can directly use the monitoring camera of tunnel internal, be convenient for visibility The installation and realization of detecting system;
Specifically, practical blackbody is referred in visible light-near infrared band reflectivity very little, the energy in specific measurement problem Enough made Target objects for ignoring reflected light influence completely;
Practical blackbody is used for the object sufficiently low as reflectivity;
Specifically, when object is non-practical blackbody, increase and visibility of the detection error with object reflectivity Raising and increase, therefore select practical blackbody that can ensure measurement accuracy as object.
Preferably, in the present system, the practical blackbody uses cuboid black box and follow-on ball cavity type blackbody mould Type can take into account practicability requirement under the premise of ensureing that black matrix reflectivity is sufficiently low;
Light source target is for constructing two light intensity approximately equals, the identical optical target of variation.
Specifically, the light source target uses semiconductor laser, is sent out semiconductor laser using optical beam-splitter Light be divided into the approximately equal two-beam of light intensity, then emit after being collimated respectively, to form two light intensity approximately equals, become Change identical optical target.
Tunnel ventilation drive system includes mainly industrial personal computer, server, interchanger, local controller, frequency converter and axis Flow fan;
The industrial personal computer be tunnel ventilation drive system host computer, shown for realizing remote operation, monitoring interface and Export the functions such as decision;
The server for realizing industrial control data is preserved, the functions such as real-time, interactive;
The interchanger is used to for Industrial Ethernet in system provide a plurality of circuit, make each circuit be fused to one greatly be In system;
The local controller is for receiving the order sent from industrial personal computer and controlling axial flow blower;
The frequency converter is used to carry out speed governing to axial flow blower;
The axial flow blower is dispersed for being aerated to the pollutant in tunnel.
Further, industrial personal computer reads monitoring data from server, and industrial personal computer does not locally store mass data, data master It stores in the server, so that outer net or IP access and read monitoring data.
Specifically, a kind of operation of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system based on visibility detection is:
Visibility detection system is inputted using video camera as picture signal, and practical blackbody is placed into light source target and is taken the photograph In camera monitoring range, visibility live in tunnel is detected;The visibility data that visibility detection system obtains detection pass In the defeated industrial personal computer to tunnel ventilation drive system;Industrial personal computer determines to the visibility data that visibility detection system exports Plan judges whether to operate the axial flow blower in tunnel;Industrial personal computer reads monitoring data from server;Industrial personal computer is determined Plan signal is transferred to the local controller of axial flow blower in tunnel by interchanger, and local controller is received from industrial personal computer Decision signal, control frequency converter operates the axial flow blower in tunnel, to complete industrial personal computer to axial flow blower in tunnel Remote operation, realization the pollutant in tunnel is dispersed, so that the visibility in tunnel is reached the standard of safety traffic.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control methods based on visibility detection.
Another object of the present invention can be achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control method based on visibility detection, specific steps include:
(1) video camera is used to carry out video data acquiring to freeway tunnel;
(2) target identification, Target Segmentation and target gray extraction process are carried out to the video data of acquisition;
(3) the visibility value in freeway tunnel is calculated according to dual differential luminance algorithm;
(4) according to the visibility value being calculated, the ventilation condition in freeway tunnel is controlled.
Specifically, the dual differential luminance algorithm employed in the step (3), the basis for calculating visibility is to be based on The video method general formula that Koschmieder laws obtain.
The visual contrast threshold value provided according to World Meteorological Organization (Meteorological Optical Range) is 0.05, if object is absolute black body, have:
e-σV=0.05
Wherein, σ indicates that the extinction coefficient of medium, V indicate visibility value.
Further, according to highway at home and abroad tunnel specification to designing extinction coefficient and light transmittance under different running speeds Practical reckoning, visual contrast threshold value takes 0.61 in tunnel, then has:
e-σV=0.61
Therefore, the universal calculation equation of video visibility is:
According to the universal calculation equation of video method visibility, it is only necessary to atmospheric extinction coefficient be calculated, you can To visibility value.Therefore, extinction coefficient is sought using dual differential luminance algorithm, and then obtains visibility value.
Specifically, the present invention needs to use double light sources, at this time tunnel when detecting tunnel visibility using dual differential luminance algorithm The calculation formula of road visibility is:
Wherein, R1、R2Indicate that the air line distance of camera lens two groups of objects of distance, the object are one respectively The overall goals object that practical blackbody and a target light source are formed;GL1、GL2Two groups of target light source L are indicated respectively1、L2Gray scale Value;Gt1、Gt2Two groups of practical blackbody t are indicated respectively1、t2Gray value;BL10/BL20Indicate light source target L1、L2Intrinsic brightness it Than.Further, in the ideal case, BL10Equal to BL20, so ln (BL10/BL20)=0;When the positional factor of every group of target Different, when other placement factors are consistent, the calculation formula of ideal dual differential luminance algorithm is transformed to:
When actually measuring visibility, due to factors such as the othernesses of target object, variable b, Coefficient m are introduced to it It is modified.Tunnel visibility calculation formula is after coefficient amendment:
Wherein, variable b indicates light source target L1、L2The natural logrithm of intrinsic gray level ratio, variable b are actually to measure energy Measured light source target L when degree of opinion1、L2Intrinsic gray value determined by because practical when measuring visibility, due to target The factors such as the otherness of object, this variable be not be 0, therefore introduce b coefficients be modified;Coefficient m indicates artificial settings Revisory coefficient.
The present invention compared to the prior art, has advantageous effect below:
1, the present invention combines feasibility and accuracy, using video detection by comparing other visibility detecting methods Method detects the visibility in tunnel.Include double brightness algorithm, stencil matching method, camera model standardizations in video detection method Etc., and dual differential luminance algorithm has prodigious advantage in required precision and round-the-clock context of detection.
2, the method that the present invention is detected by using visibility detects visibility value in real time, is by tunnel ventilation driving System improves environment in tunnel in real time, relative to traditional sectional type tunnel ventilated control system, reaches to the maximum extent Energy-saving and emission-reduction, high-efficient ventilation under tunnel normal operation state, intelligent control.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural schematic diagram of tunnel ventilation drive system in the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a kind of flow chart of the Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control method detected based on visibility in the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the testing principle schematic diagram of dual differential luminance in the present invention;
Fig. 4 is that dual differential luminance specifically detects setting schematic diagram in embodiment.
In figure, 1-industrial personal computer, 2-servers, 3-interchangers, 4-local controllers, 5-frequency converters, 6-axis stream wind Machine.
Specific implementation mode
Present invention will now be described in further detail with reference to the embodiments and the accompanying drawings, but embodiments of the present invention are unlimited In this.
Embodiment
A kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system based on visibility detection, the system comprises visibility detection systems System and tunnel ventilation drive system;
Visibility detection system includes mainly video camera, practical blackbody, light source target;
Video camera for being acquired to the video data of image in tunnel, so as to control system to visibility in tunnel into Row detection.
Preferably, in the present system, the video camera can directly use the monitoring camera of tunnel internal, be convenient for visibility The installation and realization of detecting system;
Specifically, practical blackbody is referred in visible light-near infrared band reflectivity very little, in specific measurement problem The made Target object of reflected light influence can be ignored completely;
Practical blackbody is used for the object sufficiently low as reflectivity;
Specifically, when object is non-practical blackbody, increase and visibility of the detection error with object reflectivity Raising and increase, therefore select practical blackbody that can ensure measurement accuracy as object.
Preferably, in the present system, the practical blackbody uses cuboid black box and follow-on ball cavity type blackbody mould Type can take into account practicability requirement under the premise of ensureing that black matrix reflectivity is sufficiently low;
Light source target is for constructing two light intensity approximately equals, the identical optical target of variation.
Specifically, the light source target uses semiconductor laser, is sent out semiconductor laser using optical beam-splitter Light be divided into the equal two-beam of light intensity spun gold, then emit after being collimated respectively, to form two light intensity approximately equals, become Change identical optical target.
It is the structural schematic diagram of tunnel ventilation drive system as shown in Figure 1, the tunnel ventilation drive system includes mainly Industrial personal computer 1, server 2, interchanger 3, local controller 4, frequency converter 5 and axial flow blower 6;
The industrial personal computer 1 be tunnel ventilation drive system host computer, shown for realizing remote operation, monitoring interface and Export the functions such as decision;
The server 2 for realizing industrial control data is preserved, the functions such as real-time, interactive;
The interchanger 3 is used to for Industrial Ethernet in system provide a plurality of circuit, and each circuit is made to be fused to one greatly In system;
The local controller 4 is for receiving the order sent from industrial personal computer and controlling axial flow blower;
The frequency converter 5 is used to carry out speed governing to axial flow blower;
The axial flow blower 6 is dispersed for being aerated to the pollutant in tunnel.
Further, industrial personal computer reads monitoring data from server, and industrial personal computer does not locally store mass data, data master It stores in the server, so that outer net or IP access and read monitoring data.
Specifically, a kind of operation of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system based on visibility detection is:
Visibility detection system is inputted using video camera as picture signal, and practical blackbody is placed into light source target and is taken the photograph In camera monitoring range, visibility live in tunnel is detected;The visibility data that visibility detection system obtains detection pass In the defeated industrial personal computer to tunnel ventilation drive system;Industrial personal computer determines to the visibility data that visibility detection system exports Plan judges whether to operate the axial flow blower in tunnel;Industrial personal computer reads monitoring data from server;Industrial personal computer is determined Plan signal is transferred to the local controller of axial flow blower in tunnel by interchanger, and local controller is received from industrial personal computer Decision signal, control frequency converter operates the axial flow blower in tunnel, to complete industrial personal computer to axial flow blower in tunnel Remote operation, realization the pollutant in tunnel is dispersed, so that the visibility in tunnel is reached the standard of safety traffic.
It is illustrated in figure 2 a kind of flow chart of the Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control method detected based on visibility, specifically Step includes:
(1) video camera is used to carry out video data acquiring to freeway tunnel;
In the present embodiment, the testing principle of dual differential luminance and specific detection setting are as shown in Figure 3, Figure 4.Visibility is examined Examining system is inputted using the monitor camera in tunnel as picture signal, and two groups of practical blackbodies and light source target are placed into prison It controls within the scope of video camera.First group of practical blackbody t1With light source target L1Horizontal length R apart from camera lens1For 20cm;Second group real With black matrix t2With light source target L2Horizontal length R apart from camera lens2It has been recorded for 50cm to ensure Bi-objective imaging clearly The pixel information of effect.
(2) target identification, Target Segmentation and target gray extraction process are carried out to the video data of acquisition;
In the present embodiment, the picture signal that system is returned by analyzing camera acquisition, intercepts out practical blackbody t1、t2 With light source target L1、L2Target area, extract the gray value of target area pixel, and find out the gray average in the region Gt1、Gt2、GL1、GL2
(3) the visibility value in freeway tunnel is calculated according to dual differential luminance algorithm;
Specifically, it when detecting tunnel visibility using dual differential luminance algorithm, needs to use double light sources, tunnel can be shown at this time The calculation formula of degree is:
Wherein, R1、R2Indicate that the air line distance of camera lens two groups of objects of distance, the object are one respectively The overall goals object of practical blackbody and target light source composition;GL1、GL2Two groups of light source target L are indicated respectively1、L2Gray scale Value;Gt1、Gt2Two groups of practical blackbody t are indicated respectively1、t2Gray value;BL10/BL20Indicate light source target L1、L2Intrinsic brightness it Than.
Further, ideal double when the positional factor of every group of target is different, other placement factors are consistent The calculation formula of brightness difference algorithm is transformed to:
When actually measuring visibility, due to factors such as the othernesses of target object, variable b, Coefficient m are introduced to it It is modified.Tunnel visibility calculation formula is after coefficient amendment:
After demarcating scalar b and Coefficient m, the visibility of tunnel internal is calculated using visibility calculation formula.
(4) according to the visibility value being calculated, the ventilation condition in freeway tunnel is controlled.
The above embodiment is a preferred embodiment of the present invention, but embodiments of the present invention are not by above-described embodiment Limitation, it is other it is any without departing from the spirit and principles of the present invention made by changes, modifications, substitutions, combinations, simplifications, Equivalent substitute mode is should be, is included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system based on visibility detection, the system comprises visibility detection systems With tunnel ventilation drive system;
Visibility detection system includes mainly video camera, practical blackbody, light source target;
Video camera is used for the video data acquiring to image in tunnel, so that control system is detected visibility in tunnel;
Practical blackbody is used for the object sufficiently low as reflectivity;
Light source target is for constructing two light intensity approximately equals, the identical optical target of variation;
Tunnel ventilation drive system includes mainly industrial personal computer, server, interchanger, local controller, frequency converter and axis stream wind Machine;
The industrial personal computer is the host computer of tunnel ventilation drive system, shows and exports for realizing remote operation, monitoring interface The functions such as decision;
The server for realizing industrial control data is preserved, the functions such as real-time, interactive;
The interchanger is used to provide a plurality of circuit for Industrial Ethernet in system, and each circuit is made to be fused to a big system In;
The local controller is for receiving the order sent from industrial personal computer and controlling axial flow blower;
The frequency converter is used to carry out speed governing to axial flow blower;
The axial flow blower is dispersed for being aerated to the pollutant in tunnel.
2. a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system based on visibility detection according to claim 1, feature It is, industrial personal computer reads monitoring data from server, and industrial personal computer does not locally store mass data, and data are mainly stored in service In device, so that outer net or IP access and read monitoring data.
3. a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system based on visibility detection according to claim 1, running Process is specially:
Visibility detection system is inputted using video camera as picture signal, and practical blackbody and light source target are placed into video camera In monitoring range, visibility live in tunnel is detected;Visibility detection system arrives the visibility data transmission that detection obtains In the industrial personal computer of tunnel ventilation drive system;Industrial personal computer carries out decision to the visibility data that visibility detection system exports, and sentences It is disconnected whether the axial flow blower in tunnel to be operated;Industrial personal computer reads monitoring data from server;The decision of industrial personal computer is believed The local controller of axial flow blower in tunnel number is transferred to by interchanger, local controller receives the decision from industrial personal computer Signal, control frequency converter the axial flow blower in tunnel is operated, to complete industrial personal computer in tunnel axial flow blower it is remote Journey operates, and the pollutant in tunnel is dispersed in realization, and the visibility in tunnel is made to reach the standard of safety traffic.
4. special for realizing a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control method based on visibility detection of claim 1-3 Sign is that specific steps include:
(1) video camera is used to carry out video data acquiring to freeway tunnel;
(2) target identification, Target Segmentation and target gray extraction process are carried out to the video data of acquisition;
(3) the visibility value in freeway tunnel is calculated according to dual differential luminance algorithm;
(4) according to the visibility value being calculated, the ventilation condition in freeway tunnel is controlled.
5. a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control method based on visibility detection according to claim 4, feature It is, the method is needed when detecting tunnel visibility using dual differential luminance algorithm using double light sources, therefore tunnel visibility Calculation formula be:
Wherein, R1、R2The air line distance of camera lens two groups of objects of distance is indicated respectively;GL1、GL2Two groups of mesh are indicated respectively Mark light source L1、L2Gray value;Gt1、Gt2Two groups of practical blackbody t are indicated respectively1、t2Gray value;BL10/BL20Indicate light source target L1、L2The ratio between intrinsic brightness.
6. a kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control method based on visibility detection according to claim 5, feature It is, when the positional factor of every group of target is different, other placement factors are consistent, the meter of ideal dual differential luminance algorithm Calculating fortran is:
When actually measuring visibility, due to factors such as the othernesses of target object, variable b is introduced, Coefficient m carries out it It corrects;
Variable b is the light source target L in the case of practical measure1、L2The natural logrithm of intrinsic gray level ratio, Coefficient m are to be manually set Revisory coefficient;
Tunnel visibility calculation formula is after coefficient amendment:
CN201810369394.6A 2018-04-24 2018-04-24 A kind of Systems of Tunnel Ventilation of Expressways control system and method based on visibility detection Pending CN108643954A (en)

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Application publication date: 20181012

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