CN108640424B - Comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution - Google Patents

Comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108640424B
CN108640424B CN201810478951.8A CN201810478951A CN108640424B CN 108640424 B CN108640424 B CN 108640424B CN 201810478951 A CN201810478951 A CN 201810478951A CN 108640424 B CN108640424 B CN 108640424B
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paddy
artificial wetland
artificial
wetland
water
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CN108640424A (en
Inventor
冯骞
台喜荣
孙亚青
钟天意
赵新宇
钱唐健
薛朝霞
邵光成
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Hohai University HHU
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/34Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the microorganisms used
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/46Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
    • C02F1/461Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods by electrolysis
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/30Aerobic and anaerobic processes
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/32Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage characterised by the animals or plants used, e.g. algae
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/105Phosphorus compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/16Nitrogen compounds, e.g. ammonia
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/30Organic compounds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/007Contaminated open waterways, rivers, lakes or ponds
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2201/00Apparatus for treatment of water, waste water or sewage
    • C02F2201/002Construction details of the apparatus
    • C02F2201/007Modular design

Abstract

The invention discloses a comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution, which consists of an interception system, a purification system, a deep treatment system and a treated water feedback system; the intercepting system is a paddy field ridge with the periphery of the paddy field not less than 30 cm; the purification system is a drainage channel positioned at the periphery of the paddy field ridge, a plurality of hole structures are arranged at the bottom of the drainage channel, a slow-release oxygen material is placed below the hole structures, and one or more of loosestrife, cress or calamus are planted in the hole structures; the advanced treatment system is a stepped artificial wetland at the tail end of a drainage ditch; the treated water feedback system is an artificial pond positioned at the tail end of the stepped artificial wetland; the artificial pond is connected with the paddy field through a pipeline, and a water return pump is arranged on the connecting pipeline. The system of the invention adopts a multi-level control means to solve the eutrophication problem of rivers, lakes and reservoirs caused by the loss of nutrients in paddy fields along with rainwater, and can effectively solve the environmental problem caused by agricultural non-point source pollution of the paddy fields.

Description

Comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution
Technical Field
The invention relates to a comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution, and belongs to the technical field of farmland drainage and prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution.
Background
Due to the dependence of the yield of agricultural products on chemical fertilizers today, whether in dry or paddy fields, the application of fertilizers is inevitable in order to guarantee the yield. However, statistics shows that the utilization rate of three main fertilizers in agricultural production in China is extremely low: the content of N fertilizer is about 30%; the K fertilizer is about 40%; the P fertilizer is the lowest and is only 10-20%. The loss of the fertilizer in the dry land is mainly volatilization, and the leaching and melting are mainly in the paddy field. Most of the leached fertilizer enters surface water along with water leaked from paddy fields, and eutrophication of lakes, reservoirs and the like is caused.
In order to cope with the phenomenon, the prior art adopts measures such as soil testing formula, construction of ecological interception ditches and the like to reduce the non-point source pollution. However, the measures can only slow down the influence of chemical fertilizers on the environment to a certain extent, namely only locally, and environmental pollution still exists.
Disclosure of Invention
The purpose of the invention is as follows: the invention aims to solve the technical problem of providing a comprehensive control system aiming at the agricultural non-point source pollution of paddy fields, which adopts a multi-level control means to solve the eutrophication problem of rivers, lakes and reservoirs caused by the loss of nutrients of the paddy fields along with rainwater and can effectively solve the environmental problem caused by the agricultural non-point source pollution of the paddy fields.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical means adopted by the invention is as follows:
a comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution is composed of an interception system, a purification system, a deep treatment system and a treated water feedback system;
the intercepting system is a paddy field ridge with the periphery of a paddy field not less than 30 cm;
the purification system is a drainage channel positioned at the periphery of the paddy field ridge, a plurality of hole structures are arranged at the bottom of the drainage channel, a slow-release oxygen material is placed below the hole structures, and one or more of loosestrife, cress or calamus are planted in the hole structures;
the advanced treatment system is a stepped artificial wetland at the tail end of a drainage ditch;
the treated water feedback system is an artificial pond positioned at the tail end of the stepped artificial wetland;
the artificial pond is connected with the paddy field through a pipeline, and a water return pump is arranged on the connecting pipeline.
The stepped artificial wetland is an anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic artificial wetland, the anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic artificial wetland is formed by sequentially connecting an anoxic artificial wetland, an anaerobic artificial wetland and an aerobic artificial wetland, and the anoxic artificial wetland, the anaerobic artificial wetland and the aerobic artificial wetland are arranged in a stepped manner; the anoxic artificial wetland and the anaerobic artificial wetland are filled with filler layers with certain depths, the aerobic artificial wetland is internally provided with a siphon, and the siphon sucks water treated by the aerobic artificial wetland into the artificial pond.
Wherein the open pore area of the pore structure is no more than 30% of the area of the bottom surface of the drainage channel.
Wherein the filling amount of the filler layer in the anoxic artificial wetland accounts for 10-12% of the volume of the wetland, and the filling amount of the filler layer in the anaerobic artificial wetland accounts for 16-18% of the volume of the wetland.
Wherein, the anoxic artificial wetland and the anaerobic artificial wetland both adopt effluent weir to discharge water.
The filler layer is formed by mixing the following components in parts by weight: 10-12 parts of iron-carbon filler and 3-4 parts of manganese dioxide particles.
Wherein, an anti-seepage water-proof layer is laid on the bottom surface of the anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic artificial wetland.
Wherein, one or more of the moist iris, the grassleaf sweelflag rhizome or the taro are planted in the aerobic artificial wetland.
Compared with the prior art, the technical scheme of the invention has the beneficial effects that:
the comprehensive control system can effectively solve the environmental problem caused by non-point source pollution of the paddy field, adopts a multi-level control means to solve the eutrophication problem of rivers, lakes, reservoirs and the like caused by the loss of nutrients of the paddy field along with rainwater, and can also realize the recovery of N, P, K by harvesting plants and other modes; meanwhile, the treated water can be directly used for recycling farmland irrigation water.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a system schematic of the integrated control system of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a drain channel in the integrated control system of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a top view of a drain channel in the integrated control system of the present invention;
fig. 4 is a schematic structural diagram of the stepped constructed wetland in the integrated control system of the invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solution of the present invention is further explained with reference to the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.
1-4, the invention is directed to a comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution, which consists of an interception system, a purification system, an advanced treatment system and a treated water feedback system; the intercepting system is a paddy field ridge 14 with the periphery of the paddy field 1 not less than 30cm, and the paddy field ridge 14 is heightened to at least 30cm from the current 20cm or so; the purification system is a drainage channel 7 positioned at the periphery of the paddy field ridge 14, the bottom of the drainage channel 7 is provided with a plurality of square hole structures or circular hole structures 7-1, and the area of an opening at the bottom of the drainage channel 7 is not more than 30% of the area of the bottom surface of the drainage channel 7; the oxygen slow-release material is placed below the pore structure 7-1, the inside of the pore structure 7-1 is planted with the lodging-resistant economic crops which can absorb the surface-source pollutants, namely N, P, K and the like, such as one or more of loosestrife, cress or calamus, the main body of the drainage channel 7 is still rectangular, two side walls of the drainage channel 7 are formed by piling hollow bricks with holes, and crops for removing N, P in water can be planted in the holes, so that the removal rate of the pollutants by the system is further improved; the advanced treatment system is a stepped artificial wetland 8 positioned at the tail end of the drainage channel 7; the stepped artificial wetland 8 is an anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic artificial wetland, the anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic artificial wetland is formed by sequentially connecting an anoxic artificial wetland 2, an anaerobic artificial wetland 6 and an aerobic artificial wetland 9, and the anoxic artificial wetland 2, the anaerobic artificial wetland 6 and the aerobic artificial wetland 9 are arranged in a stepped manner; the anaerobic constructed wetland 2 and the anaerobic constructed wetland 6 are filled with filler layers with certain depths, the filler amount of the filler layer 3 in the anaerobic constructed wetland 2 accounts for 10-12% of the volume of the wetland (forming an anaerobic environment), the filler amount of the filler layer 5 in the anaerobic constructed wetland 6 accounts for 16-18% of the volume of the wetland (forming an anaerobic environment), and the filler layers 3 and 5 are respectively a mixed filler of 10-12 parts by weight of iron-carbon filler and 3-4 parts by weight of manganese dioxide particles; an anti-seepage water-proof layer 12 is laid on the bottom surface of the stepped artificial wetland 8; a siphon pipe 10 is arranged in the aerobic artificial wetland 9, and the siphon pipe 10 sucks the water treated by the aerobic artificial wetland 9 into an artificial pond 11; the treated water feedback system is an artificial pond 11 positioned at the tail end of the stepped artificial wetland 8, and the effluent of the artificial wetland 8 is collected and converged into the artificial pond 11 to be used as an irrigation water source; the artificial pond 11 is connected with the paddy field 1 through a pipeline 15, and a water return pump 4 is arranged on the communicating pipeline 15; the water in the artificial pond 11 can be sent back to the paddy field, so that the cyclic utilization is realized.
The tail end of the drainage channel 7 is provided with a stepped artificial wetland 8, water to be purified flows into the anoxic artificial wetland 2 of the stepped artificial wetland 8 from the drainage channel 7 for treatment, the effluent of the anoxic artificial wetland 2 flows out through the effluent weir, the effluent flows into the anaerobic artificial wetland 6, the water treated by the anaerobic artificial wetland 6 flows into the aerobic artificial wetland 9 through the overflow weir, and the water treated in the aerobic artificial wetland 9 is discharged into the artificial pond 11 through the siphon 10. The water outlet end of the aerobic artificial wetland 9 is provided with a siphon pipe 10, the siphon pipe 10 plays a role of closing water outlet when sewage enters the aerobic artificial wetland 9 and does not reach the top of the siphon pipe 10, at the moment, the water surface in the aerobic artificial wetland 9 rises until the water surface reaches the top of the siphon pipe 10, water in the siphon pipe 10 flows to the artificial pond 11 along the outlet to form a siphon effect, at the moment, under the siphon effect, the water in the aerobic artificial wetland 9 is quickly discharged, partial negative pressure is formed inside the aerobic artificial wetland 9, a suction effect is formed on the atmosphere, and the purpose of strengthening reoxygenation of the aerobic artificial wetland 9 is achieved; therefore, an aeration device is not required to be additionally arranged in the aerobic reaction environment. The siphon action can quickly discharge the water of the aerobic artificial wetland 10 to the artificial pond 11, when the water level of the aerobic artificial wetland 9 is reduced to be below the pipe orifice of the siphon pipe 10, the hydraulic force is broken, the siphon action is destroyed, and as the water continuously enters the aerobic artificial wetland 9, the sewage is continuously accumulated in the wetland to prepare for the next siphon action. One or more plants of the wet iris, the grass-leaved sweetflag or the taro can be planted in the aerobic artificial wetland 9, so that pollutants in the water body can be further removed;
the stepped artificial wetland 8 is constructed in a grading way, and the filling layers are arranged in the anoxic artificial wetland 2 and the anaerobic artificial wetland 6; the iron-carbon filler in the filler layer can generate internal electrolysis reaction in the wetland, on one hand, macromolecular pollutants can be degraded into micromolecular organic matters through the internal electrolysis reaction of the filler, and meanwhile, microorganisms can be helped to rapidly degrade easily-degradable micromolecular pollutants, so that the occurrence of blocking phenomenon in the wetland is effectively reduced, the operation period of the wetland is prolonged, on the other hand, the internal electrolysis reaction of the filler can consume oxygen in anoxic and anaerobic sections, the anoxic artificial wetland 2 is positioned in an anoxic environment, the anaerobic artificial wetland 6 is positioned in an anaerobic reaction environment, the anoxic and anaerobic environments which are beneficial to denitrification are formed, and the denitrification efficiency of the system is improved; the manganese dioxide particles mixed in the filler layer can cooperate with the iron-carbon filler to promote the internal electrolysis reaction of the filler layer, so that the whole filler layer has higher pollutant removal efficiency, more importantly, the manganese dioxide particles can also react with organic ligands in the system, and the H production of microorganisms by the organic ligands is reduced2O2The inhibition of the action further improves the utilization efficiency of the filler in the system and the pollutant removal efficiency, and can also effectively reduce the pH value of the environment and accelerate the reaction rate of internal electrolysis; the subsequent aerobic artificial wetland 9 is oxygenated under the siphon action to form an aerobic environment. The stepped artificial wetland 8 can effectively promote the denitrification and dephosphorization effect of the wetland on water through the synergistic effect of the aerobic and anaerobic effects.
The comprehensive control system increases the volume of water which can be contained in the paddy field by heightening the ridges of the paddy field without influencing the mechanical field operation, thereby carrying out control from the source and reducing the loss of chemical fertilizers to the maximum extent; the drainage channel which is ecologically improved is adopted, so that the in-situ growth of economic crops can be kept, the blockage of the water channel due to overgrowth and diffusion of plants is avoided, and the suspended matters of surface runoff can be intercepted; oxygen released by the slow-release oxygen material in the drainage channel can help microorganisms to degrade pollutants and prevent the roots of the economic crops from ulcerating due to oxygen deficiency; finally, the water quality can be further improved through the interception and decontamination effects of the artificial wetland, and then the water is sent back to the paddy field for recycling; and the purpose of recovering N, P, K can be achieved by harvesting wetland plants. The comprehensive control system has the advantages of good operation effect, low cost, small occupied area and additional economic benefit.
When raining, eutrophic water which runs off along with rainwater in a paddy field flows out of the paddy field ridge 14, flows into the drainage channel 7 positioned at the periphery of the paddy field ridge 14, is treated by the drainage channel 7, flows into the stepped artificial wetland 8, is deeply treated by the stepped artificial wetland 8, is sucked into the artificial pond 11 through the siphon 10, the artificial pond 11 is connected with the paddy field 1 through the pipeline 15, and when the paddy field is dry, the artificial pond 11 can be pumped into the paddy field 1 by the water return pump 15 for irrigation. The COD of the wetland effluent discharged into the artificial pond 11 is less than or equal to 100mg/L, and the ammonia nitrogen concentration is less than or equal to 10 mg/L.

Claims (5)

1. The utility model provides a comprehensive control system to paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution which characterized in that: the comprehensive control system consists of an interception system, a purification system, an advanced treatment system and a treated water feedback system;
the intercepting system is a paddy field ridge with the periphery of a paddy field not less than 30 cm;
the purification system is a drainage channel positioned at the periphery of the paddy field ridge, a plurality of hole structures are arranged at the bottom of the drainage channel, a slow-release oxygen material is placed below the hole structures, and one or more of loosestrife, cress or calamus are planted in the hole structures;
the advanced treatment system is a stepped artificial wetland at the tail end of a drainage ditch;
the treated water feedback system is an artificial pond positioned at the tail end of the stepped artificial wetland;
the artificial pond is connected with the paddy field through a pipeline, and a water return pump is arranged on the connecting pipeline;
the stepped artificial wetland is an anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic artificial wetland, the anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic artificial wetland is formed by sequentially connecting an anoxic artificial wetland, an anaerobic artificial wetland and an aerobic artificial wetland, and the anoxic artificial wetland, the anaerobic artificial wetland and the aerobic artificial wetland are arranged in a stepped manner; the anoxic artificial wetland and the anaerobic artificial wetland are filled with filler layers with certain depth, the aerobic artificial wetland is internally provided with a siphon, and the siphon sucks water treated by the aerobic artificial wetland into the artificial pond; the filling amount of the filler layer in the anoxic artificial wetland accounts for 10-12% of the volume of the wetland, and the filling amount of the filler layer in the anaerobic artificial wetland accounts for 16-18% of the volume of the wetland; the filler layer is formed by mixing the following components in parts by weight: 10-12 parts of iron-carbon filler and 3-4 parts of manganese dioxide particles;
when raining, the eutrophic water in the paddy field which runs off along with rainwater flows out of the paddy field ridge, flows into the drainage channels at the periphery of the paddy field ridge, is treated by the drainage channels, flows into the stepped artificial wetland, is deeply treated by the stepped artificial wetland and is sucked into the artificial pond through the siphon pipe, the artificial pond is connected with the paddy field through the pipeline, and when the paddy field is dry, the water in the artificial pond is pumped into the paddy field by the water return pump for irrigation; COD of the wetland effluent discharged into the artificial pond is less than or equal to 100mg/L, and the concentration of ammonia nitrogen is less than or equal to 10 mg/L.
2. The integrated control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution according to claim 1, characterized in that: the open pore area of the pore structure is no more than 30% of the area of the bottom surface of the drainage channel.
3. The integrated control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution according to claim 1, characterized in that: and the anoxic artificial wetland and the anaerobic artificial wetland both adopt effluent weir to discharge water.
4. The integrated control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution according to claim 1, characterized in that: and an anti-seepage water-proof layer is laid on the bottom surface of the stepped artificial wetland.
5. The integrated control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution according to claim 1, characterized in that: one or more of the moist iris, the grassleaf sweelflag rhizome or the taro are planted in the aerobic artificial wetland.
CN201810478951.8A 2018-05-17 2018-05-17 Comprehensive control system for paddy field agricultural non-point source pollution Active CN108640424B (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109485136B (en) * 2018-11-22 2020-08-18 河海大学 Combined farmland non-point source sewage purification device, purification process and application thereof

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