CN108585799A - 一种新型陶瓷3d打印成型方法 - Google Patents

一种新型陶瓷3d打印成型方法 Download PDF

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CN108585799A
CN108585799A CN201810447784.0A CN201810447784A CN108585799A CN 108585799 A CN108585799 A CN 108585799A CN 201810447784 A CN201810447784 A CN 201810447784A CN 108585799 A CN108585799 A CN 108585799A
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ceramic
hopper
printer
printing
photosensitive resin
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郭伟明
吴利翔
牛文彬
魏世宏
尹梓绅
林华泰
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广东工业大学
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其包括以下步骤:将陶瓷的3D结构模型输入至3D打印机中;在3D打印机中设置两个料槽,分别为装有光敏树脂的料槽A和装有陶瓷浆料的料槽B;启动3D打印机开始打印,通过3D打印机控制料槽A利用光敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体的首层和/或支撑结构,通过3D打印机控制料槽B利用陶瓷浆料打印陶瓷胚体,直至得到陶瓷胚体;对陶瓷胚体进行脱脂和烧结得到陶瓷产品。本发明通过设计陶瓷3D打印机的系统和料槽,采用光敏树脂打印陶瓷的首层以及支撑结构,解决了陶瓷浆料打印过程中首层成型难的问题,并且,由于光敏树脂可以直接在脱脂过程中去除,因此,可以实现在打印坯体时不用去除支撑,直接制备复杂形状陶瓷材料。

Description

一种新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法
技术领域
[0001]本发明涉及3D打印技术领域,具体涉及了一种新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法。
背景技术
[0002] 3D打印制造技术是指基于离散材料逐层堆积成形的原理,通过CAD设计数据采用 材料逐层累加的方法制造实体零件的技术。相对于传统的材料去除(切削加工)技术,是一 种“自上而下”材料累加的制造方法。3D打印制造技术,解决许多过去难以制造的复杂结构 零件的成形,并大大减少了加工工序,缩短了加工周期。而且越是复杂结构的产品,其制造 的速度作用越显著。
[0003]陶瓷3D打印基于数字化直接成型,可实现各种复杂形状陶瓷材料的制备。目前,应 用较广的陶瓷3D打印主要是光固化成型技术(SLA),也称作数字光处理技术(DLP) ALP技术 打印陶瓷主要有两种途径,即陶瓷固溶于光敏树脂制备陶瓷浆料进行打印成型,另一种为 制备陶瓷前驱体溶液进行打印。陶瓷浆料既可以打印氧化物,也可以打印非氧化物,并且具 有更小的收缩率。因此,采用陶瓷浆料进行3D打印制备陶瓷材料作为DLP技术的主流。DLP技 术通过对固含陶瓷颗粒的光敏树脂进行固化,进行逐层打印。
[0004]采用DLP技术对陶瓷浆料进行打印时,固含的陶瓷颗粒对陶瓷浆料的固化成型有 影响,尤其对于自下往上打印原理的DLP技术,第一层很难在成型托盘上固化成型,然而,第 一层的成型程度却对整体结构的打印成型起到关键作用。并且,采用DLP技术的打印成型过 程中物体往往需要设计有支撑结构,复杂的支撑结构增加后续支撑结构去除工序的工作 直,导致成本升筒,效率低下。
发明内容
[0005]本发明目的在于克服现有技术的缺点与不足,提供了一种新型陶瓷31)打印成型方 法,解决了陶瓷浆料打印过程中首层成型难的问题,优化了陶瓷3D打印的支撑结构设计,实 现了不用去支撑制备复杂形状陶瓷材料的3D打印。
[0006]为实现上述目的,本发明采用的技术方案如下:
[0007] 一种新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,包括以下步骤:
[0008] 将陶瓷的3D结构模型输入至3D打印机中;
[0009]在3D打印机中设置两个料槽,分别为装有光敏树脂的料槽A和装有陶瓷浆料的料 槽B;
[0010]启动3D打印机开始打印,通过3D打印机控制料槽A利用光敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体的 首层和/或支撑结构,通过3D打印机控制料槽B利用陶瓷浆料打印陶瓷胚体,直至得到陶瓷 胚体;
[0011]对陶瓷胚体进行脱脂和烧结得到陶瓷产品。
[0012]本发明通过设计陶瓷3D打印机的系统和料槽,采用光敏树脂打印陶瓷的首层以及 支撑结构,解决了陶瓷浆料打印过程中首层成型难的问题,并且,由于光敏树脂可以直接在 脱脂过程中去除,因此,可以实现在打印坯体时不用去除支撑,直接制备复杂形状陶瓷材 料。
[0013]作为本发明一种改进,所述步骤“启动3D打印机开始打印,通过3D打印机控制料槽 A利用光敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体的首层和/或支撑结构,通过3D打印机控制料槽b利用陶瓷衆 料打印陶瓷胚体,直至得到陶瓷胚体”具体过程为:所述支撑结构设置在陶瓷胚体的下方, 先通过3D打印机控制料槽A利用光敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体的首层和支撑结构,再控制料槽6利 用陶瓷浆料打印陶瓷胚体。
[0014]进一步地,所述料槽A盛装的光敏树脂是由10〜90wt%单体、1〇〜90wt%低聚物、 0.1〜5wt %光引发剂、0.1〜5wt %光敏剂、0.1〜5wt %增感剂和〇 • 1〜5wt %消泡剂组成。 [0015]作为本发明一种改进,所述料槽B盛装的陶瓷楽料是由分散剂改性的陶瓷粉体与 光敏树脂混合再除泡处理后获得。
[0016] 进一步地,所述的陶瓷浆料中陶瓷比例为30%〜70%。
[0017] 进一步地,所述的脱脂工艺为在3000〜80(TC下保温0.5〜24h。
[0018]进一步地,所述的烧结工艺为在900〜2200°C下保温0.5〜24h。
[0019]与现有技术相比,本发明技术方案的创新点和有益效果在于:
[0020]本发明通过设计陶瓷3D打印机的系统和料槽,采用光敏树脂打印陶瓷的首层以及 支撑结构,解决了陶瓷楽料打印过程中首层成型难的问题,并且,由于光敏树脂可以直接在 脱脂过程中去除,因此,可以实现在打印坯体时不用去除支撑,直接制备复杂形状陶瓷材 料。
附图说明
[0021] 图1为本发明新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法的流程图;
[0022] 图2为利用本发明方法打印得到的陶瓷产品图。
具体实施方式
[0023]下面结合附图和实施例对本发明作进一步说明。可以理解的是,此处所描述的具 体实施例仅仅用于解释本发明,而非对本发明的限定。另外还需要说明的是,为了便于描 述,附图中仅示出了与本发明相关的部分而非全部内容。
[0024] 实施例1
[0025] 请参考图1,一种新型陶瓷邪打印成型方法,包括以下步骤:
[0026] S1.将陶瓷的3D结构模型输入至3D打印机中。
[0027] S2 •在3D打印机中设置两个料槽,分别为装有光敏树脂的料槽A和装有陶瓷浆料的 料槽B;其中所述料槽A盛装的光敏树脂是由10〜90wt %单体、1〇〜9〇wt %低聚物、0.1〜 5wt %光引发剂、0 • 1〜5wt %光敏剂、0 • 1〜5wt %增感剂和0 • 1〜5wt %消泡剂组成;所述料 槽B盛装的陶瓷浆料是由分散剂改性的陶瓷粉体与光敏树脂混合再除泡处理后获得,所述 的陶瓷浆料中陶瓷比例为30 %〜70 %。
[0028] S3.启动3D打印机开始打印,通过3D打印机控制料槽A利用光敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体 的首层和/或支撑结构,通过3D打印机控制料槽B利用陶瓷浆料打印陶瓷胚体,直至得到陶 瓷胚体;
[0029] 具体地,所述支撑结构设置在陶瓷胚体的下方,先通过3D打印机控制料槽A利用光 敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体的首层和支撑结构,再控制料槽B利用陶瓷浆料打印陶瓷胚体。
[0030] S4.对陶瓷胚体进行脱脂和烧结得到陶瓷产品;
[0031] 具体地,所述的脱脂工艺为在3000〜80(TC下保温0.5〜24h;所述的烧结工艺为在 900〜2200 °C 下保温0.5〜24h。
[0032]请参考图2,图2所示的为利用本发明方法打印得到的陶瓷产品,该陶瓷产品的首 层和支撑结构采用光敏树脂打印而成,再在首层和支撑结构基础上继续打印出陶瓷胚体, 解决了陶瓷浆料打印过程中首层成型难的问题。
[0033]本发明通过设计陶瓷3D打印机的系统和料槽,采用光敏树脂打印陶瓷的首层以及 支撑结构,解决了陶瓷浆料打印过程中首层成型难的问题,并且,由于光敏树脂可以直接在 脱脂过程中去除,因此,可以实现在打印坯体时不用去除支撑,直接制备复杂形状陶瓷材 料。
[0034] 具体地,在本实施例中,料槽A盛装的光敏树脂是由2〇 %己二醇二丙烯酸酯单体, 78%丙烯酸酯低聚物,0.5% (2,4,6-三甲基苯甲酰基)二苯基氧化膦光引发剂,0.5%苯并 卟啉衍生物单酸光敏剂,〇. 5 %脂肪族叔胺增感剂和0.5 %巴斯夫-8034A消泡剂组成。料槽B 盛装的陶瓷浆料是由〇 • 1 %油酸分散剂改性的陶瓷粉体与光敏树脂混合再进行0.5h除泡处 理后获得。陶瓷固含量为50%,陶瓷粉体为Als〇3,纯度为99%,粒径为3wn。通过制备得到的 Al2〇3陶瓷致密度为98%,硬度为18GPa,抗弯强度为800MPa,断裂軔性为7MPa • m12。
[0035] 实施例2
[0036]陶瓷粉体为Zr〇2,纯度为99%,粒径为50nm;Al2〇3粉体纯度99%,粒径为3unuZr02: A12〇3的比例为10 % : 9〇 %,陶瓷浆料中陶瓷比例为6〇 %。按照实施例1方法制备得到ZTA陶 瓷,其中脱脂和烧结工艺为:在65〇°C真空脱脂和1400°C烧结。本实施例制备得到ZTA陶瓷相 对密度达到99%,硬度为17GPa,抗弯强度为llOOMpa,断裂韧性为l〇MPa • m12。
[0037] 实施例3
[0038] 陶瓷粉体SisN4,纯度为99%,粒径为0_2um;Mg0粉体纯度99%,粒径为100nm;Y203 粉体纯度99 %,粒径为0. lwn。ShN4: MgO: Y2〇3的比例为93 % : 2% : 5%,陶瓷浆料中陶瓷比例 为5〇%。按照实施例1方法制备得到SisN4陶瓷,其中脱脂和烧结工艺为:在7〇〇。(:真空脱脂, 在5MPa的氮气压力下进行1850°C气压烧结。本实施例制备得到Si3N4陶瓷相对密度达到 99%,硬度为18GPa,抗弯强度为lOOOMpa,断裂韧性为lOMPa • m12。
[0039] 实施例4
[0040] 陶瓷粉体为ZrB2,纯度为99 %,粒径为0 • lwn; SiC粉体纯度为99 %,粒径为30nm。 ZrB2: SiC的比例为90 % : 10 %,陶瓷浆料中陶瓷比例为40 %。按照实施例1方法制备得到 ZrB2-SiC陶瓷,其中脱脂和烧结工艺为:在650°C真空脱脂,在Ar保护气氛下进行2000°C烧 结。本实施例制备得到ZrB2_SiC陶瓷相对密度达到99%,硬度为25GPa,抗弯强度为 lOOOMpa,断裂靭性为8MPa • m12。
[0041] 实施例5
[0042] 陶瓷粉体为SiC,纯度为99%,粒径为0_lwn,陶瓷浆料中陶瓷比例为50%。按照实 施例1方法制备得到SiC陶瓷,其中脱脂和烧结工艺为:在65〇°C真空脱脂,在Ar保护气氛下 进行1900°C烧结。本实施例制备得到SiC陶瓷相对密度达到的%,表层硬度为20GPa,抗弯强 度为llOOMpa,断裂:則1*生为lOMPa • m。
[0043]上述实施例为本发明较佳的实施方式,但本发明的实施方式并不受上述实施例的 未1^离本发觀精神实妈廳下所_改变、修饰、贼、组合、简化, 均应为_的纖对,都包触本发明_护麵之内。

Claims (7)

1. 一种新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其特征在于包括以下步骤. 将陶瓷的3D结构模型输入至3D打印机中; ’ ’ 在3D打印机中设置两个料槽,分别为装有光敏树脂的料槽八和装有陶瓷浆料的料槽B; 启动3D打印机开始打印,通过3D打印机控制料槽a利用光敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体的首层 和/或支撑结构,通过3D打印机控制料槽B利用陶瓷衆料打印陶瓷胚体,直至得到陶瓷胚体. 对陶瓷胚体进行脱脂和烧结得到陶瓷产品。 ' ^ ’
2. 根据权利要求1所述的新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其特征在于:所述步骤“启动3D打 印机开始打印,通过3D打印机控制料槽A利用光敏树脂打印陶瓷胚体的首层和/或支撑结 构,通过3D打印机控制料槽B利用陶瓷楽J斗打印陶瓷胚体,直至得到陶瓷胚体”具体过程为: 所述支撑结构设置在陶瓷胚体的下方,先通过3D打印机控制料槽A利用光敏树脂打印 陶瓷胚体的首层和支撑结构,再控制料槽B利用陶瓷浆料打印陶瓷胚体。
3.根据权利要求1所述的新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其特征在于:所述料槽八盛装的光 敏树脂是由10〜9〇wt%单体、10〜9〇wt%低聚物、0• 1〜光引发剂、〇• 1〜5wt%光敏 剂、0 • 1〜5wt %增感剂和0.1〜5wt %消泡剂组成。
4.根据权利要求1所述的新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其特征在于:所述料槽B盛装的陶 瓷浆料是由分散剂改性的陶瓷粉体与光敏树脂混合再除泡处理后获得。
5. 根据权利要求4所述的新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其特征在于:所述的陶瓷浆料中陶 瓷比例为30 %〜70 %。
6. 根据权利要求1所述的新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其特征在于:所述的脱脂工艺为在 3000〜800°C 下保温 0.5 〜24h。
7. 根据权利要求1所述的新型陶瓷3D打印成型方法,其特征在于:所述的烧结工艺为在 900〜2200°C 下保温0 • 5〜24h。
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