CN108575560B - Cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus - Google Patents

Cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus Download PDF

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CN108575560B
CN108575560B CN201810316221.8A CN201810316221A CN108575560B CN 108575560 B CN108575560 B CN 108575560B CN 201810316221 A CN201810316221 A CN 201810316221A CN 108575560 B CN108575560 B CN 108575560B
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cultivation
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hypsizygus marmoreus
marmoreus
mushroom
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CN108575560A (en
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韩建东
宫志远
姚强
李瑾
万鲁长
高燕
杨鹏
黄春燕
谢红艳
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms
    • A01G18/20Culture media, e.g. compost
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of edible fungi, and particularly relates to a cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus. The cultivation method of the Hypsizygus marmoreus comprises the following steps: (1) preparing materials; (2) bagging; (3) sterilizing; (4) cooling; (5) inoculating; (6) culturing hyphae; (7) scratching fungi; (8) injecting water; (9) bud forcing; (10) cultivating mushrooms; (11) and (6) harvesting. According to the method, through the matching combination of the raw materials in the culture material and the mutual cooperation between the culture material and other culture conditions, the culture period is greatly shortened, the subsequent storage and preservation time is prolonged, and the culture cost is greatly reduced.

Description

Cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of edible fungi, and particularly relates to a cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus.
Background
The Hypsizygus marmoreus has unique delicate flavor, unique flavor and excellent taste, the flavor is fresher than oyster mushroom, the meat is thicker than Pholiota nameko, the quality is tougher than shiitake mushroom, and the taste is excellent. The protein of the Hypsizigus marmoreus contains various amino acids, including 8 amino acids necessary for human body, and also contains various polysaccharides, the hot water and organic solvent extract of the fruiting body of the Hypsizigus marmoreus has the function of removing free radicals of human body, and the Hypsizigus marmoreus which is frequently eaten has the effects of resisting cancer, preventing cancer, improving immunity, preventing aging and prolonging life, is a low-calorie and low-fat health-care food, is popular with consumers, and has wide market and development prospect.
However, the growth and development process of the mycelium and the fruiting body of the Hypsizygus marmoreus is slow, and the Hypsizygus marmoreus is inoculated to the culture medium for 85-95 days generally
The cultivation period is 110-120 days, which is much longer than that of oyster mushroom, pleurotus eryngii, pholiota nameko, hericium erinaceus and needle mushrooms, particularly, after mycelia are full of bags, the mushrooms can normally grow after being cultured for 40-50 days under specific conditions and physiological maturity, if the primordial differentiation and ecological regulation and control in the sporocarp development period are slightly uncomfortable, mushroom bases can expand, differentiation is poor, the quality does not reach the standard, the grade is low, production benefits are directly influenced, the storage and preservation time after harvesting is short, the effect is poor, the cost of the whole cultivation management is greatly improved, and therefore an optimized cultivation mode suitable for the market is urgently needed.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus aiming at the problems of overlong period, overhigh cultivation cost and short storage and preservation time after harvesting of the conventional Hypsizygus marmoreus cultivation mode.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows: a cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus comprises the following steps: (1) preparing materials; (2) bagging; (3) sterilizing; (4) cooling; (5) inoculating; (6) culturing hyphae; (7) scratching fungi; (8) injecting water; (9) bud forcing; (10) cultivating mushrooms; (11) harvesting; the method is characterized in that the compost in the step (1) is prepared from the following raw materials: KH (Perkin Elmer)2PO4、Na2SeO3Chitin oligosaccharide, peanut vine, tea tree dregs, asparagus stem, pennisetum hydridum, kathon gulu green bristlegrass and rumex; in the step (7), the mycelium stimulation period is that after hyphae grow over the fungus bags, the fungus bags are subjected to after-ripening for 30 days; the step (8) of injecting water is to inject 10-15 mL of hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted by 20 times with clear water into each bag; and (3) spraying mushroom bodies with a mushroom sugar solution with the mass fraction of 0.5% 1-2 days before harvesting, so as to reduce the relative humidity of a mushroom house and control the relative humidity to 70-80%.
KH in the ingredients in the step (1)2PO4The concentration is 1.7-2.5 g/L, Na2SeO3The concentration is 2.0-2.8 g/L;chitin
The oligosaccharide concentration was 0.005 mg/mL.
The peanut seedlings are prepared from the ingredients in the step (1) according to the weight parts: tea-oil tree residues: the asparagus stem is 3:1: 1; proportionally mixing bamboo with other raw materials
Grass: green grass of kathon gulu: rumex is 3:2: 1.
The compost in the step (1) is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: KH with concentration of 1.7-2.5 g/L2PO40.2~
0.4 part of Na with the concentration of 2.0-2.8 g/L2SeO30.3-0.5 part, 2-5 parts of chitosan oligosaccharide with the concentration of 0.005mg/mL, 15-21 parts of peanut seedlings, 5-7 parts of tea-seed oil tree residues, 5-7 parts of asparagus stems, 18-24 parts of pennisetum hydridum, 12-16 parts of green bristlegrass and 6-8 parts of rumex.
The pH value of the culture material in the step (1) is 7.7-8.2. Measured by a growth test in the pH value range
The Yuzhu mushroom grows fast daily to 5.30-5.62 mm/day, and the yield is 320.4-339.6 g/bag.
The water content of the compost in the step (1) is 69-72%. Fruiting tube under water content of the culture material
The yield per unit of the obtained Hypsizygus marmoreus is increased by 3.6-5.3%.
And (3) injecting 12mL of hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted by 20 times with clear water into each bag by water injection in the step (8).
The step (8) of preparing the hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution in the water injection: firstly, picking up the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff obtained in the cultivation method process, and crushing the dry and mildew-free hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff into 80-100 meshes to obtain the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff powder; then putting the mixture into a pot according to the proportion of 1 part of the hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff powder and 5 parts of water by weight, heating to boil, turning to mild fire for boiling for 20 minutes, turning off the fire, and finally filtering to obtain the hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extracting solution.
Spraying mushroom bodies with 0.5% mushroom sugar solution 36 hours before harvesting in the step (11), controlling the relative humidity at 75%, and prolonging the fresh mushroom preservation period for more than 10 days at 4-6 ℃ after harvesting sporocarp.
The invention has the beneficial effects that: firstly, the compost in the ingredients of the hypsizigus marmoreus cultivation method is prepared from the following raw materials: KH (Perkin Elmer)2PO4、Na2SeO3Chitin oligosaccharide, peanut vine, tea tree dregs, asparagus stem, pennisetum hydridum, kathon gulu green bristlegrass and rumex.
Mixing KH with water2PO4With Na2SeO3The two types of the hypsizigus marmoreus are matched, mineral substances and selenium are supplemented, and the comparison test shows that the combination of the two types of the hypsizigus marmoreus can improve the yield of the hypsizigus marmoreus by 8.7% -9.9%, the conversion rate is increased, and the spawn running time is shortened by 4-5 days. Note: comparative experiment in which test group 1 was not added KH2PO4With Na2SeO3Other raw materials are as described in the invention; test group 2 was conducted by adding KH alone2PO4Other raw materials are as described in the invention; test group 3 was Na alone2SeO3Other raw materials are as described in the invention; test group 4 was a conventional formulation; test group 5 was conducted by adding KH simultaneously2PO4With Na2SeO3Other materials are as described herein. Under the premise that other cultivation conditions are the same, the yield is determined: repeating for 3 times every 30 bags of treatment, performing conventional fruiting management, observing fruiting body growth condition, and recording fruiting period and yield.
The chitosan oligosaccharide is added and is matched and combined with other raw materials in a synergistic way, so that the growth of the hypsizygus marmoreus hyphae is obviously promoted, the spawn running period can be shortened by 4-6 days, the spawn running uniformity is improved, and the bag filling proportion in the same period can be improved by 41.6% -45.7% compared with that in a control group without the chitosan oligosaccharide; but also can increase the water holding capacity of the fungus bag and reduce the water loss during sterilization, thereby keeping the fungus bag with higher water content in the whole growth period.
The tea oil tree residues are sticky, the peanut seedlings and the asparagus stems are loose, the air permeability of the culture material is increased, the growth of hyphae is accelerated, the bag filling time of the hyphae is obviously reduced, the production period is shortened by 6-8 days, the production energy consumption is reduced, the production cost is saved, and meanwhile, the cultured Hypsizygus marmoreus fruiting body is also best in agricultural shape and excellent in condition; the reasonable combination of the three can create a more suitable production environment for the hypsizigus marmoreus hyphae, so that the yield per unit is improved by 10.2-14.4%, the biotransformation rate of cultivation raw materials is obviously improved, and the production cost of the hypsizigus marmoreus is saved.
Adding pennisetum hydridum, green bristlegrass herb and rumex in a culture material to enable the peak value of extracellular laccase of the rubiaceae yunnanensis to appear earlier than that of a conventional culture material, degrading lignin in the formula faster than that of the conventional formula, enabling the fungus bag to appear color change earlier, enabling the formula to finish after-ripening earlier than that of the conventional formula, and transferring to a reproductive growth stage, so as to shorten the cultivation period of the rubiaceae yunnanensis for 7-10 days, specifically, the determination test comprises the following steps of (1) collecting samples, wherein a test group is a formula, a control group 1 is prepared by not adding bamboo grass, green bristlegrass herb and rumex, other raw materials are prepared by the invention, a control group 2 is a conventional formula, sampling is performed at 5 different periods of ① fungus silk growing to a fungus bag 1/2, ② hyphae full bags, ③ full bags are ripe after the bags are filled, ④ are opened for 15 days, ⑤ is collected, a sample is taken from 5 cm below the material surface, 3 bags, each formula is treated with a constant volume hyphae, 20g bags are added, the filtrate is filtered and is measured in a centrifuge tube, the supernatant is taken from a sample is taken, the supernatant is weighed is taken, the supernatant is taken.
And (3) injecting water into each bag, wherein each bag is filled with 10-15 mL of the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted by 20 times with clear water. The hypsizigus marmoreus mushroom bran is rich in polysaccharide, oligosaccharide, mycoprotein, growth promoting substances secreted in the growth process of the hypsizigus marmoreus and the like, has a remarkable promoting effect on the growth and development of the hypsizigus marmoreus, and can accelerate the maturation and budding of hyphae. A comparative test is carried out below, wherein in the test group 1, 12mL of the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted by 20 times with clear water is injected into each bag, only clear water is injected into each test group 2, the two test groups are respectively sprayed on the surface of the mycelium stimulation material after being soaked in the bag and after-ripened for 30 days and 40 days, and the average yield of the two test groups is measured to have no significant difference, so that the condition that the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted by 20 times with clear water is injected into each bag and can be subjected to fungus stimulation about 10 days ahead of the untreated hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution is shown, the after-ripened time of the hypsizigus marmoreus is greatly shortened, the production efficiency of industrial cultivation is improved, and.
And (3) spraying mushroom bodies with a mushroom sugar solution with the mass fraction of 0.5% 1-2 days before harvesting in the step (11), reducing the relative humidity of mushroom houses, controlling the relative humidity to be 70-80%, effectively maintaining the water content and the good sensory quality of the hypsizigus marmoreus, reducing the weight loss rate, improving the content of soluble total sugar, inhibiting the respiration rate and PPO enzyme activity of the hypsizigus marmoreus, being beneficial to prolonging the shelf life and improving the shelf life quality of the hypsizigus marmoreus.
In conclusion, the method provided by the invention has the advantages that through the matching combination of the raw materials in the compost and the mutual cooperation between the compost and other cultivation conditions, the cultivation period is greatly shortened, the subsequent storage and preservation time is prolonged, and the cultivation cost is greatly reduced.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in detail below with reference to examples.
The method for measuring the nutrient content comprises the following steps:
moisture content: measured according to GB 5009.3;
coarse ash content: measured according to GB 5009.4-2010;
crude protein: according to GB 5009.5-2010/first method;
crude fat: measured according to GB/T5009.6-2003/first method;
coarse fiber: measured according to GB/T5009.10-2003;
amino acids: measured according to GB/T5009.124-2003.
Example 1
The cultivation method of the Hypsizygus marmoreus comprises the following steps: (1) preparing materials: the culture material is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
the concentration of the KH is 1.7g/L2PO40.4 part of Na with the concentration of 2.0 g/L2SeO30.5 part, 2 parts of chitosan oligosaccharide with the concentration of 0.005mg/mL, 15 parts of peanut vine, 5 parts of tea-seed oil tree residue, 5 parts of asparagus stem, 18 parts of pennisetum hydridum, 12 parts of kathon gulu green bristlegrass and 6 parts of rumex; the pH value of the culture material is 7.7; the water content was 69%;
(2) bagging: bagging the mixture by using a 17 cm x 33 cm polypropylene plastic bag with the thickness of 5 filaments (0.05 mm) to the height of 16-18 cm,
each bag has a wet weight of 1130g, which is equivalent to 350 g of dry material, and a neck ring and a cotton plug are added at the bag opening;
(3) and (3) sterilization: sterilizing with high pressure steam for 2.5h when the steam pressure reaches 0.15MPa, naturally reducing pressure to zero, and discharging;
(4) and (3) cooling: transferring the sterilized cultivation bag to a pre-sterilized cooling chamber, and preparing for inoculation when the temperature of the bag is reduced to below 25 ℃;
(5) inoculation: inoculating according to aseptic operation standard;
(6) hypha culture: the inoculated cultivation bags are arranged in a dark or dim light fungus culturing room, the temperature is kept at 22-24 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is 65% -70%;
(7) scratching fungi: after the hypha grows over the fungus bags, performing fungus scratching after 30 days of after-ripening, and culturing the material surface to form a circular groove which is about 1.5-2 cm away from the bottle mouth to enable the material surface to be in a circular hill shape;
(8) water injection: injecting 10mL of Hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted 20 times with clear water into each bag, wherein the Hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution is prepared as follows: firstly, picking up the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff obtained in the cultivation method process, and crushing the dry and mould-free hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff into 80 meshes to obtain the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff powder; then putting the mixture into a pot according to the proportion of 1 part of the hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff powder and 5 parts of water by weight, heating to boil, turning to mild fire for boiling for 20 minutes, turning off the fire, and finally filtering to obtain a hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extracting solution;
(9) bud forcing: keeping the temperature of the mushroom house at 14-16 ℃, the relative humidity of air at 90-95 percent and CO2The concentration is controlled to be below 0.1%, and the illumination is 50-100 lux;
(10) and (3) mushroom cultivation: after the mushroom buds are formed, the temperature is controlled to be 14-16 ℃ in the early stage, 13-14 ℃ in the later stage, the relative humidity of air is controlled to be 85-90%, the concentration of carbon dioxide is controlled to be 0.3-0.4%, and the illumination is 300-500 lux;
(11) spraying mushroom body with 0.5% mushroom sugar solution 24 hr before harvesting to reduce relative humidity of mushroom room and control at 70%. And harvesting when the length of the mushroom stem is 12-15 cm and the diameter of the mushroom cap is 1.5-2.5 cm.
Example 2
The cultivation method of the Hypsizygus marmoreus comprises the following steps: (1) preparing materials: the culture material is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
the concentration of the KH is 2.5g/L2PO40.2 portion of Na with the concentration of 2.8 g/L2SeO30.3 part, 5 parts of chitosan oligosaccharide with the concentration of 0.005mg/mL, 21 parts of peanut vine, 7 parts of tea-seed oil tree residue, 7 parts of asparagus stem, 24 parts of pennisetum hydridum, 16 parts of kathon gulu green bristlegrass and 8 parts of rumex; the pH value of the ingredients is 8.2; the water content is 72 percent;
(2) bagging: bagging the mixture by using a 17 cm x 33 cm polypropylene plastic bag with the thickness of 5 filaments (0.05 mm) to the height of 16-18 cm,
each bag has a wet weight of 1250 g, which is equivalent to 350 g of dry material, and a neck ring and a cotton plug are added at the bag opening;
(3) and (3) sterilization: sterilizing with high pressure steam for 2.5h when the steam pressure reaches 0.15MPa, naturally reducing pressure to zero, and discharging;
(4) and (3) cooling: transferring the sterilized cultivation bag to a pre-sterilized cooling chamber, and preparing for inoculation when the temperature of the bag is reduced to below 25 ℃;
(5) inoculation: inoculating according to aseptic operation standard;
(6) hypha culture: the inoculated cultivation bags are arranged in a dark or dim light fungus culturing room, the temperature is kept at 22-24 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is 65% -70%;
(7) scratching fungi: after the hypha grows over the fungus bags, performing fungus scratching after 30 days of after-ripening, and culturing the material surface to form a circular groove which is about 1.5-2 cm away from the bottle mouth to enable the material surface to be in a circular hill shape;
(8) water injection: injecting 15mL of Hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted 20 times with clear water into each bag, wherein the Hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution is prepared as follows: firstly, picking up the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff obtained in the cultivation method process, and crushing the dry and mould-free hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff into 100 meshes to obtain the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff powder; then putting the mixture into a pot according to the proportion of 1 part of the hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff powder and 5 parts of water by weight, heating to boil, turning to mild fire for boiling for 20 minutes, turning off the fire, and finally filtering to obtain a hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extracting solution;
(9) bud forcing: keeping the temperature of the mushroom house at 14-16 ℃, the relative humidity of air at 90-95 percent and CO2The concentration is controlled to be below 0.1%, and the illumination is 50-100 lux;
(10) and (3) mushroom cultivation: after the mushroom buds are formed, the temperature is controlled to be 14-16 ℃ in the early stage, 13-14 ℃ in the later stage, the relative humidity of air is controlled to be 85-90%, the concentration of carbon dioxide is controlled to be 0.3-0.4%, and the illumination is 300-500 lux;
(11) spraying mushroom with 0.5 wt% of mushroom sugar solution 48 hr before harvesting to reduce mushroom house phase
For humidity, control is at 80%. And harvesting when the length of the mushroom stem is 12-15 cm and the diameter of the mushroom cap is 1.5-2.5 cm.
Example 3
The cultivation method of the Hypsizygus marmoreus comprises the following steps: (1) preparing materials: the culture material is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight:
the concentration of the KH is 2.2g/L2PO40.3 portion of Na with the concentration of 2.5g/L2SeO30.4 part, 3 parts of chitosan oligosaccharide with the concentration of 0.005mg/mL, 18 parts of peanut vine, 6 parts of tea-seed oil tree residue, 6 parts of asparagus stem, 21 parts of pennisetum hydridum, 14 parts of green bristlegrass and 7 parts of rumex; the pH value of the culture material is 8.0; the water content is 70%;
(2) bagging: bagging the mixture by using a 17 cm x 33 cm polypropylene plastic bag with the thickness of 5 filaments (0.05 mm) to the height of 16-18 cm,
the wet weight of each bag is 1167 g, which is equivalent to 350 g of dry materials, and a neck ring and a cotton plug are added at the mouth of each bag;
(3) and (3) sterilization: sterilizing with high pressure steam for 2.5h when the steam pressure reaches 0.15MPa, naturally reducing pressure to zero, and discharging;
(4) and (3) cooling: transferring the sterilized cultivation bag to a pre-sterilized cooling chamber, and preparing for inoculation when the temperature of the bag is reduced to below 25 ℃;
(5) inoculation: inoculating according to aseptic operation standard;
(6) hypha culture: the inoculated cultivation bags are arranged in a dark or dim light fungus culturing room, the temperature is kept at 22-24 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is 65% -70%;
(7) scratching fungi: after the hypha grows over the fungus bags, performing fungus scratching after 30 days of after-ripening, and culturing the material surface to form a circular groove which is about 1.5-2 cm away from the bottle mouth to enable the material surface to be in a circular hill shape;
(8) water injection: injecting 12mL of Hypsizygus marmoreus chaff extraction solution diluted 20 times with clear water into each bag, wherein the Hypsizygus marmoreus chaff extraction solution is prepared as follows: firstly, picking up the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff obtained in the cultivation method process, and crushing the dry and mould-free hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff into 90 meshes to obtain the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff powder; then putting the mixture into a pot according to the proportion of 1 part of the hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff powder and 5 parts of water by weight, heating to boil, turning to mild fire for boiling for 20 minutes, turning off the fire, and finally filtering to obtain a hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extracting solution;
(9) bud forcing: keeping the temperature of the mushroom house at 14-16 ℃, the relative humidity of air at 90-95 percent and CO2The concentration is controlled to be below 0.1%, and the illumination is 50-100 lux;
(10) and (3) mushroom cultivation: after the mushroom buds are formed, the temperature is controlled to be 14-16 ℃ in the early stage, 13-14 ℃ in the later stage, the relative humidity of air is controlled to be 85-90%, the concentration of carbon dioxide is controlled to be 0.3-0.4%, and the illumination is 300-500 lux;
(11) spraying mushroom body with 0.5% mushroom sugar solution 36 hr before harvest to reduce relative humidity of mushroom room and control the humidity at 75%. And harvesting when the length of the mushroom stem is 12-15 cm and the diameter of the mushroom cap is 1.5-2.5 cm.
Comparative example
The cultivation method of the Hypsizygus marmoreus comprises the following steps: (1) preparing materials: the culture material is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight
The composition is as follows: 68 parts of sawdust, 16 parts of cottonseed hulls, 10 parts of bran, 4 parts of soybean meal and 2 parts of calcium superphosphate. The pH value of the culture material is 8.0, and the water content is 65%;
(2) bagging: bagging the mixture by using a 17 cm x 33 cm polypropylene plastic bag with the thickness of 5 filaments (0.05 mm) to the height of 16-18 cm,
each bag has a wet weight of 1000 g, which is equivalent to 350 g of dry materials, and a neck ring and a cotton plug are added at the mouth of the bag;
(3) and (3) sterilization: sterilizing with high pressure steam for 2.5h when the steam pressure reaches 0.15MPa, naturally reducing pressure to zero, and discharging;
(4) and (3) cooling: transferring the sterilized cultivation bag to a pre-sterilized cooling chamber, and preparing for inoculation when the temperature of the bag is reduced to below 25 ℃;
(5) inoculation: inoculating according to aseptic operation standard;
(6) hypha culture: the inoculated cultivation bags are arranged in a dark or dim light fungus culturing room, the temperature is kept at 22-24 ℃, and the relative humidity of air is 65% -70%;
(7) scratching fungi: after the hypha grows over the fungus bags, performing fungus scratching after 45 days of after-ripening, and culturing the material surface to form a circular groove which is about 1.5-2 cm away from the bottle mouth to enable the material surface to be in a circular hill shape;
(8) water injection: injecting 12mL of clear water into each bag;
(9) bud forcing: keeping the temperature of the mushroom house at 14-16 ℃, the relative humidity of air at 90-95 percent and CO2The concentration is controlled to be below 0.1%, and the illumination is 50-100 lux;
(10) and (3) mushroom cultivation: after the mushroom buds are formed, the temperature is controlled to be 14-16 ℃ in the early stage, 13-14 ℃ in the later stage, the relative humidity of air is controlled to be 85-90%, the concentration of carbon dioxide is controlled to be 0.3-0.4%, and the illumination is 300-500 lux;
(11) harvesting: and harvesting when the length of the mushroom stem is 12-15 cm and the diameter of the mushroom cap is 1.5-2.5 cm.
The growth conditions in the whole cultivation process of the examples and the comparative examples were observed, and the production cycle, the yield and the fresh mushroom preservation period were recorded, and the results are shown in table 1.
The fruiting bodies of Hypsizigus marmoreus obtained in examples and comparative examples were subjected to the measurement of the nutrient components according to the measurement method, and the results are shown in Table 2:
TABLE 1 Effect of examples and comparative examples on the growth and development and the preservation of Hypsizigus marmoreus
Measurement index Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Comparative example
Time of filling bag with hypha d 37 38 37 48
After ripening time d 30 30 30 45
Yield g/bag 335.1 328.6 338.4 273.7
4 to 6 ℃ ofFresh period d 32 33 33 22
TABLE 2 nutritional ingredient determination of Hypsizigus marmoreus fruiting body of each example and comparative example
Nutrient components of surface Example 1 Example 2 Example 3 Comparative example
Water content% 88.7 89.1 89.9 88.3
Crude protein% 30.6 31.0 31.8 26.1
Crude fat% 4.0 3.5 3.4 4.2
Crude fiber% 18.5 18.3 19.1 16.5
The total amount of amino acids% 14.5 15.8 16.5 12.2
Comparing the results with the analysis:
compared with the production cycle, the yield and the preservation period recorded in the comparative example, the hypha full-bag time of the example is shortened by more than 11 days, the required after-ripening time is shortened by 15 days, the yield is improved by more than 20.1 percent compared with the comparative example, and the preservation period at 4-6 ℃ is prolonged by more than 10 days compared with the comparative example.
The comparison of the nutrient components of the examples and the comparative examples shows that the total amount of crude protein, crude fiber and amino acid in the fruiting body of the Hypsizygus marmoreus produced by the examples of the present invention is greatly increased compared with the comparative examples, and the content of crude fat is reduced.

Claims (8)

1. A cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus comprises the following steps: (1) preparing materials; (2) bagging; (3) sterilizing; (4) cooling; (5) inoculating; (6) culturing hyphae; (7) scratching fungi; (8) injecting water; (9) bud forcing; (10) cultivating mushrooms; (11) harvesting; the method is characterized in that the compost in the step (1) is prepared from the following raw materials: KH (Perkin Elmer)2PO4、Na2SeO3Chitin oligosaccharide, peanut vine, tea tree dregs, asparagus stem, pennisetum hydridum, kathon gulu green bristlegrass and rumex; in the step (7), the mycelium stimulation period is that after hyphae grow over the fungus bags, the fungus bags are subjected to after-ripening for 30 days; and (3) injecting water into each bag, wherein each bag is filled with 10-15 mL of the Hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution diluted by 20 times with clear water, and the Hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extraction solution is prepared as follows: firstly, picking up the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff obtained in the cultivation method process, and crushing the dry and mildew-free hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff into 80-100 meshes to obtain the hypsizigus marmoreus fungus chaff powder; then putting the mixture into a pot according to the proportion of 1 part of the hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff powder and 5 parts of water by weight, heating to boil, turning to mild fire for boiling for 20 minutes, turning off the fire, and finally filtering to obtain a hypsizygus marmoreus fungus chaff extracting solution; and (3) spraying mushroom bodies with a mushroom sugar solution with the mass fraction of 0.5% 1-2 days before harvesting, so as to reduce the relative humidity of a mushroom house and control the relative humidity to 70-80%.
2. The cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus according to claim 1, wherein the ingredient of step (1) is KH2PO4The concentration is 1.7-2.5 g/L, Na2SeO3The concentration is 2.0-2.8 g/L; the concentration of the chitosan oligosaccharide is 0.005 mg/mL.
3. The cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus according to claim 2, wherein the ingredients in step (1) comprise, by weight: tea-oil tree residues: the asparagus stem is 3:1: 1; pennisetum hydridum according to the weight portion: green grass of kathon gulu: rumex is 3:2: 1.
4. The cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus according to claim 3, wherein the compost in the ingredients in the step (1) is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: KH with concentration of 1.7-2.5 g/L2PO40.2 to 0.4 part, 2.0 to 2.8 g/LNa2SeO30.3 to 0.5 part, 2 to 5 parts of chitosan oligosaccharide with the concentration of 0.005mg/mL, 15 to 21 parts of peanut vine, 5 to 7 parts of tea-seed oil tree residue, 5 to 7 parts of asparagus stem, 18 to 24 parts of pennisetum hydridum, 12 to 16 parts of green bristlegrass and lumex6-8 parts.
5. The cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus according to claim 1, wherein the pH value of the culture medium in the ingredients of step (1) is 7.7-8.2.
6. The cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus according to claim 1, wherein the water content of the culture material in the ingredients of step (1) is 69-72%.
7. The cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus according to claim 1, wherein the water injection of step (8) is 12mL per bag of a Hypsizygus marmoreus chaff extraction solution diluted 20-fold with clear water.
8. The cultivation method of Hypsizygus marmoreus according to claim 1, wherein the mushroom body is sprayed with a 0.5% by mass of mushroom sugar solution 36 hours before harvesting in step (11), and the relative humidity of the mushroom house is controlled at 75%.
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