CN108569093B - Parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system and vehicle - Google Patents

Parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system and vehicle Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108569093B
CN108569093B CN201810426736.3A CN201810426736A CN108569093B CN 108569093 B CN108569093 B CN 108569093B CN 201810426736 A CN201810426736 A CN 201810426736A CN 108569093 B CN108569093 B CN 108569093B
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suspension
electromagnetic actuator
electromagnetic
piston
damper
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CN108569093A (en
Inventor
彭虎
张进秋
张雨
黄大山
张建
彭志召
孙宜权
王兴野
姚军
赵明媚
李欣
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Army Academy of Armored Forces
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Army Academy of Armored Forces
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G17/00Resilient suspensions having means for adjusting the spring or vibration-damper characteristics, for regulating the distance between a supporting surface and a sprung part of vehicle or for locking suspension during use to meet varying vehicular or surface conditions, e.g. due to speed or load
    • B60G17/015Resilient suspensions having means for adjusting the spring or vibration-damper characteristics, for regulating the distance between a supporting surface and a sprung part of vehicle or for locking suspension during use to meet varying vehicular or surface conditions, e.g. due to speed or load the regulating means comprising electric or electronic elements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60GVEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS
    • B60G17/00Resilient suspensions having means for adjusting the spring or vibration-damper characteristics, for regulating the distance between a supporting surface and a sprung part of vehicle or for locking suspension during use to meet varying vehicular or surface conditions, e.g. due to speed or load
    • B60G17/06Characteristics of dampers, e.g. mechanical dampers
    • B60G17/08Characteristics of fluid dampers
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F16ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
    • F16FSPRINGS; SHOCK-ABSORBERS; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
    • F16F9/00Springs, vibration-dampers, shock-absorbers, or similarly-constructed movement-dampers using a fluid or the equivalent as damping medium
    • F16F9/32Details
    • F16F9/53Means for adjusting damping characteristics by varying fluid viscosity, e.g. electromagnetically
    • F16F9/535Magnetorheological [MR] fluid dampers

Abstract

The invention discloses a parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system and a vehicle. The system comprises: the magnetorheological damper, the electromagnetic actuator and the controller; one end of the magneto-rheological damper is connected with the vehicle body, and the other end of the magneto-rheological damper is connected with the wheel; one end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the vehicle body, the other end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the wheel, the electromagnetic actuator comprises a motor, the motor is connected with the controller, and the controller is used for controlling the rotation of the motor. By adopting the system, the parallel suspension system comprising the magneto-rheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator can form 4 working states of an active control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback-free control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback control working condition and a passive energy feedback working condition, and the diversity of suspension working modes and the adaptability to different road conditions are improved.

Description

Parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system and vehicle
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of vehicle control, in particular to a parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system and a vehicle.
Background
The vehicle suspension system is used for supporting a vehicle body, buffering impact and vibration generated by road unevenness on suspension, and playing a role in vibration isolation. Since the 80 s of the last century, the energy dissipation of the suspension system has been widely noticed by scholars at home and abroad, and with the proposal of energy-saving concept and the popularization of new energy technology, how to recover the vibration energy of the suspension system becomes a research hotspot. The U.S. environmental protection agency has conducted a great deal of research and study on the distribution of the flow direction of energy of automobiles sold in the U.S. market, and the results show that the energy of an engine dissipated by vibration damping is about 17.2%, and simulation studies of the Gilin university, length vast and the like based on Carsim software show that when a certain type of four-wheel-drive SUV vehicle runs on a C-class road surface at a speed of 10m/s, the power dissipated by the vibration damper in heat energy accounts for 42.3% of the output power of the engine. With the popularization and development of new energy and all-electric vehicle technologies, if the energy recovery device can be adopted to recover the suspension vibration energy, the cruising ability of the vehicle can be improved; meanwhile, if the original passive suspension can be changed into controllable suspension, the riding comfort of the vehicle can be improved, the operation stability is improved, and the method has important practical significance.
The energy feedback type electromagnetic suspension system directly realizes active output and energy feedback through mutual conversion of electricity and magnetism, the energy conversion is rapid and direct, and the design and the practical application are easy. The linear motor has a simple structure, can directly apply force to realize vibration reduction and energy feedback, but has limited force and not high energy feedback power density; the rotating motor has high power density, compact structure, large output and good reliability, but needs a set of motion conversion device to convert linear motion into rotary motion; the rack and pinion structure is easy to design and install, large in force transmission and accurate in transmission, and therefore the rack and pinion structure is adopted in the invention.
An electromagnetic Actuator (electromagnetic Actuator) is a high-efficiency Actuator which can be switched between active control and energy feedback according to the working condition of a motor and has the characteristics of vibration reduction and energy feedback. When the motor works in a generator state, the suspension is excited by road surface unevenness to reciprocate, a motor rotor is driven to rotate positively and negatively, magnetic induction lines generated by the permanent magnet are cut, current is generated in a motor coil, and electric energy converted from the partial mechanical energy is recovered by adopting an energy feedback circuit and an energy storage device, so that the energy feedback effect is achieved. In the process, the current in the coil generates an ampere force opposite to the rotation direction of the motor rotor, and the ampere force resists the rotation motion, and is called as electromagnetic damping force. The energy feedback circuit analyzes that the electromagnetic damping force is mainly influenced by the resistance value of the external resistor when the structural parameters of the electromagnetic actuator are fixed. Because the energy feedback circuit is a lower-layer control loop, passive active control of the suspension is difficult in a mode of changing electromagnetic damping force.
Due to the characteristics of the motor, a dead zone phenomenon exists under a low-speed condition, namely, when the speed is lower than a certain value, the motor does not generate electricity and generate electromagnetic damping force. If the original passive damper is replaced by the electromagnetic actuator alone, the suspension can have a non-damping state under a low-speed condition; meanwhile, when the control loop fails, the electromagnetic actuator does not generate electromagnetic damping force, so that the suspension does not have the failure-safety characteristic and does not meet the vibration reduction requirement.
The Magneto-rheological Damper (Magneto-rheological Damper) is an intelligent Damper with adjustable damping force, and the magnetic field intensity in a damping gap is changed by electrifying a coil on a damping piston, so that the viscosity of Magneto-rheological Fluid (MRF) flowing through the damping gap is changed, and the function of variable damping is realized; after power-up is cancelled, the magnetic field disappears, the MRF returns to the zero magnetic field state, and the magneto-rheological damper returns to viscous damping force. The magneto-rheological damper has the advantages of flexible design, convenient installation, large damping adjustable range, quick response and easy control, and is an ideal damper.
The Liu pine mountain of Jilin university discovers when carrying out the research to the parallelly connected structure ball screw formula electromagnetism of design and present can the suspension, and to make the electromagnetism hang and satisfy damping force and present can the requirement, need match great powerful motor, nevertheless can increase size and cost, and the increase of inertia is unfavorable to hanging. The electromagnetic actuator and the shock absorber with adjustable damping are designed in a combined mode, and the contradiction between shock absorption and energy feedback can be improved by designing a corresponding energy management strategy. A built-in magneto-rheological damper and an external linear motor type combined electromagnetic actuator structure are designed in the Wang Yangyang of Chongqing university, the structure is large in size and complex in combined design structure, and the magnetic field generated by the external linear motor in the energy feedback power generation process can influence the work of the internal magneto-rheological damper. In addition, the actual energy feedback power is only a few watts due to the high magnetic leakage rate and the low power generation efficiency of the linear motor, and the requirement for high energy feedback performance is difficult to meet.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system and a vehicle, so that the contradiction between shock absorption and energy feedback is solved, and the diversity of suspension working modes and the adaptability to different road conditions are improved.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following scheme:
a parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system, the system comprising: the magnetorheological damper, the electromagnetic actuator and the controller;
one end of the magneto-rheological damper is connected with the vehicle body, and the other end of the magneto-rheological damper is connected with the wheel;
one end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the vehicle body, the other end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the wheel, the electromagnetic actuator comprises a motor, the motor is connected with the controller, and the controller is used for controlling the rotation of the motor.
Optionally, the system further includes: the power supply equipment is respectively connected with the magnetorheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator, and the power supply equipment is used for supplying power to the magnetorheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator.
Optionally, the system further includes: and two ends of the power supply line of the magneto-rheological damper are respectively connected with the magneto-rheological damper and the power supply equipment.
Optionally, the magnetorheological damper includes: the magnetorheological damper comprises a first upper lifting lug, a protective cover, a steel cylinder, a piston assembly and a first lower lifting lug, wherein a small hole is formed in one side of the first upper lifting lug, the protective cover is connected with the first upper lifting lug through threads, and the protective cover is used for preventing dust from entering the magnetorheological damper; the piston assembly is fixedly connected with the first upper lifting lug; the steel cylinder is fixedly connected with the piston assembly and is used for providing a closed space for the piston assembly; the first lower lifting lug is respectively connected with the steel cylinder and the wheel.
Optionally, the piston assembly comprises: the piston rod is connected with the upper lifting lug, the piston rod is connected with the sealing end cover, the sealing end cover is fixedly connected with a steel cylinder, the guide piston is connected with the piston rod through threads, and the guide piston is sealed with the steel cylinder through the two annular sealing rings; the piston rod is in threaded connection with the damping piston, and the coil is wound on the damping piston, penetrates through a wire hole of the damping piston, penetrates through a through hole in the piston rod and then penetrates out of the through hole and is connected with power supply equipment; the upper working cavity and the lower working cavity are respectively positioned at the upper side and the lower side of the guide piston, and magnetorheological fluid is filled in the upper working cavity and the lower working cavity and is used for providing magnetic field intensity; the floating piston is positioned at the lower end of the lower working chamber, the compensation air chamber cavity is positioned at the lower end of the floating piston, nitrogen is filled in the compensation air chamber cavity, and the nitrogen is filled in the compensation air chamber cavity through the inflation valve.
Optionally, the upper end of the guide piston is provided with a first magnetorheological fluid circulation hole, and the diameter of the first magnetorheological fluid circulation hole is 3 mm; the lower end of the guide piston is provided with a second magnetorheological fluid circulation hole, and the diameter of the second magnetorheological fluid circulation hole is 10 mm.
Optionally, the system further includes: the electromagnetic actuator power supply line comprises a control signal line and an electromagnetic actuator power supply line, the two ends of the control signal line are respectively connected with the electromagnetic actuator and the controller, and the two ends of the electromagnetic actuator power supply line are respectively connected with the electromagnetic actuator and the power supply equipment.
Optionally, the electromagnetic actuator includes: the vehicle wheel lifting device comprises a second upper lifting lug, a gear assembly, a steel cylinder, a motor and a second lower lifting lug, wherein the second upper lifting lug is connected with the vehicle body, the upper end of the gear assembly is connected with the upper lifting lug, the lower end of the gear assembly is connected with the steel cylinder, the motor is located on one side of the gear assembly, the motor is connected with the gear assembly, and two ends of the second lower lifting lug are respectively connected with the steel cylinder and the wheel.
Optionally, the motor includes a rotary servo motor and a planetary gear motor, one end of the planetary gear motor is connected with the gear assembly, the other end of the planetary gear motor is connected with the rotary servo motor, and the rotary servo motor is fixedly connected with the planetary gear motor through a spline.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following scheme:
a parallel compound electromagnetic suspension vehicle comprising a parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 9.
According to the specific embodiment provided by the invention, the invention discloses the following technical effects: the invention discloses a parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system, which comprises: the magnetorheological damper, the electromagnetic actuator and the controller; one end of the magneto-rheological damper is connected with the vehicle body, and the other end of the magneto-rheological damper is connected with the wheel; one end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the vehicle body, the other end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the wheel, the electromagnetic actuator comprises a motor, the motor is connected with the controller, and the controller is used for controlling the rotation of the motor. Because the electromagnetic actuator works in 3 states of active output, energy feedback and no control, and the magneto-rheological damper can work in two states of passive damping and semi-active control, a parallel suspension system consisting of the magneto-rheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator can form 4 working states of an active control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback-free control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback control working condition and a passive energy feedback working condition, and the diversity of suspension working modes and the adaptability of different road conditions are increased.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings needed to be used in the embodiments will be briefly described below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious for those skilled in the art to obtain other drawings without inventive exercise.
FIG. 1 is a block diagram of a parallel hybrid electromagnetic suspension system according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a magnetorheological damper according to an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of an electromagnetic actuator according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a graph of the friction-displacement characteristic of an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 5 is a graph of friction versus speed characteristics for an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 6 is a diagram illustrating electromagnetic damping force-velocity characteristics of an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 7 is a graph of electromagnetic damping coefficient versus velocity for an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 8 is a graph illustrating an active force characteristic of an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 9 is a graph of the induced electromotive force of the electromagnetic actuator versus the relative suspension velocity according to an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 10 is a damping force versus displacement graph of a magnetorheological damper in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 11 is a damping force versus velocity graph of a magnetorheological damper in accordance with an embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 12 is a pictorial view of a magnetorheological damper in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 13 is a diagram of an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present invention will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present invention, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present invention, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present invention.
The invention aims to provide a parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system and a vehicle, so that the contradiction between shock absorption and energy feedback is solved, and the diversity of suspension working modes and the adaptability to different road conditions are improved.
In order to make the aforementioned objects, features and advantages of the present invention comprehensible, embodiments accompanied with figures are described in further detail below.
Fig. 1 is a structural diagram of a parallel combined electromagnetic suspension system according to an embodiment of the present invention. As shown in fig. 1, a parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system, the system comprising: the magnetorheological damper comprises a magnetorheological damper 1, an electromagnetic actuator 2 and a controller 3;
one end of the magnetorheological damper 1 is connected with the vehicle body 4, and the other end of the magnetorheological damper is connected with the wheel 5;
one end of the electromagnetic actuator 2 is connected with the vehicle body 4, the other end of the electromagnetic actuator 2 is connected with the wheel 5, the electromagnetic actuator 2 comprises a motor 6, the motor 6 is connected with the controller 3, and the controller 3 is used for controlling the rotation of the motor 6.
The system further comprises: and the power supply equipment 7 is respectively connected with the magnetorheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator, and is used for supplying power to the magnetorheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator.
The system further comprises: and the power supply line 8 of the magneto-rheological damper is connected with the magneto-rheological damper and the power supply equipment respectively at two ends of the power supply line of the magneto-rheological damper.
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a magnetorheological damper in an embodiment of the invention. As shown in fig. 2, the magnetorheological damper 1 includes: the magnetorheological damper comprises a first upper lifting lug 11, a protective cover 12, a steel cylinder 13, a piston assembly 14 and a first lower lifting lug 15, wherein a small hole is formed in one side of the first upper lifting lug 11, the protective cover 12 is in threaded connection with the first upper lifting lug 11, and the protective cover 12 is used for preventing dust from entering the magnetorheological damper 1; the piston assembly 14 is fixedly connected with the first upper lifting lug 11; the steel cylinder 13 is fixedly connected with the piston assembly 14, and the steel cylinder 11 is used for providing a closed space for the piston assembly 14; the first lower lifting lug 15 is respectively connected with the steel cylinder 13 and the wheel 5.
The piston assembly includes: the piston rod is connected with the upper lifting lug, the piston rod is connected with the sealing end cover, the sealing end cover is fixedly connected with a steel cylinder, the guide piston is connected with the piston rod through threads, and the guide piston is sealed with the steel cylinder through the two annular sealing rings; the piston rod is in threaded connection with the damping piston, and the coil is wound on the damping piston, penetrates through a wire hole of the damping piston, penetrates through a through hole in the piston rod and then penetrates out of the through hole and is connected with power supply equipment; the upper working cavity and the lower working cavity are respectively positioned at the upper side and the lower side of the guide piston, and magnetorheological fluid is filled in the upper working cavity and the lower working cavity and is used for providing magnetic field intensity; the floating piston is positioned at the lower end of the lower working chamber, the compensation air chamber cavity is positioned at the lower end of the floating piston, nitrogen is filled in the compensation air chamber cavity, and the nitrogen is filled in the compensation air chamber cavity through the inflation valve.
The upper end of the guide piston is provided with a first magnetorheological fluid circulation hole, and the diameter of the first magnetorheological fluid circulation hole is 3 mm; the lower end of the guide piston is provided with a second magnetorheological fluid circulation hole, and the diameter of the second magnetorheological fluid circulation hole is 10 mm.
The system further comprises: an electromagnetic actuator feeder line including a control signal line 9 and an electromagnetic actuator feeder line 10, the electromagnetic actuator 2 and the controller 3 being connected to both ends of the control signal line 9, respectively, and the electromagnetic actuator 2 and the power supply device 7 being connected to both ends of the electromagnetic actuator feeder line 10, respectively.
Fig. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of an electromagnetic actuator according to an embodiment of the invention. As shown in fig. 3, the electromagnetic actuator includes 2: the vehicle wheel lifting device comprises a second upper lifting lug 21, a gear assembly 22, a steel cylinder 23, a motor 6 and a second lower lifting lug 24, wherein the second upper lifting lug 21 is connected with the vehicle body 4, the upper end of the gear assembly 23 is connected with the second upper lifting lug 21, the lower end of the gear assembly 22 is connected with the steel cylinder 23, the motor 6 is located on one side of the gear assembly 22, the motor 6 is connected with the gear assembly 22, and two ends of the second lower lifting lug 24 are respectively connected with the steel cylinder 23 and the wheel 5.
The motor comprises a rotary servo motor and a planetary gear motor, one end of the planetary gear motor is connected with the gear assembly, the other end of the planetary gear motor is connected with the rotary servo motor, and the rotary servo motor and the planetary gear motor are fixedly connected through splines.
Because the electromagnetic actuator works in 3 states of active output, energy feedback and no control, and the magneto-rheological damper can work in two states of passive damping and semi-active control, a parallel suspension system consisting of the magneto-rheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator can form 4 working states of an active control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback-free control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback control working condition and a passive energy feedback working condition, and the diversity of suspension working modes and the adaptability of different road conditions are increased. The switching control strategy for the parallel suspension system (PCES) is shown in table 1. In tablesAnd RMS _ fdAre all for a period of time tgapRoot mean square value of internal statistics, whereinIn order to achieve the actual vertical acceleration of the vehicle body,for setting the vertical acceleration of the vehicle body, RMSfdFor the actual suspension stroke, [ f ]d]Setting a suspension moving stroke value, switching to a corresponding parallel suspension system (PCES) working mode after meeting two conditions of the vertical acceleration and the suspension moving stroke of the vehicle body according to the result of the judgment logic, determining that the Electromagnetic Actuator (EA) works in an active control or energy feedback mode, and the magneto-rheological damper (MRD) works in a zero magnetic field modeOr a variable damping mode.
TABLE 1 Handover control strategy
The multi-mode switching control process adopts a logic judgment mode and clearance pairsAnd fdThe determination of the magnitude relationship between the two indicators and the respective thresholds determines in which mode the system operates. The mode switching rule is:
1) passive energy feed (PER) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd≤[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,and fdThe value of (b) is not more than the threshold value, the riding comfort is considered to be better at the moment, the probability of hanging and impacting the limit block is lower, the mode is switched to the PER mode, the vibration reduction is not needed, and the system is in a complete energy feedback state.
2) Semi-active energy feed (SER) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd>[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,does not exceed the threshold, but fdIf the value of (b) exceeds the threshold value, the riding comfort is considered to be good at this time, but the probability of the suspension striking the stopper becomes high. To improve driving safety, the system switches to the SER mode. The system is in a semi-active control + energy feedback state, and the semi-active control is used for reducing fdAnd the energy feedback can still recover energy.
3) Semi-active energy-regenerative (SC) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd≤[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,is above the threshold, but fdIf the value of (b) does not exceed the threshold value, the ride comfort is considered to be poor at that time, and vibration damping control is required. Because the probability of hanging the impact limiting block is small, only semi-active control is needed, energy feedback is not needed any more, and the system is switched to an SC mode.
4) Active Control (AC) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd>[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,and fdWhen the vehicle speed exceeds the threshold value, the riding comfort is considered to be poor, and vibration damping control is required. Because the probability of hanging the impact limiting block is high, active control is needed, and the system is switched to an AC mode.
In the design of the multi-mode switching control strategy, tgapThe value of (2) determines how often to execute switching control judgment, if the value is smaller, the switching is too frequent, and the service life of a control system and an actuator is influenced; if the value is too large, the switching needs a long time to be judged once, and the effective switching control effect cannot be achieved. In the multi-mode damping switching control process of the damper in Tang poem, the designed time reference value is 2s, the damper is a semi-active control device, and the damping switching does not need to be adjusted greatly, so that multiple times of switching can be executed in a short time, the system performance cannot be influenced, and the 2s switching time reference value can meet the design requirement. The time given by experience is 5s, and the time interval of 0-5 s is calculated once for the multi-mode switching controller designed by the composite suspension of the linear motor and the adjustable damper. The shorter the time interval, the filtering of sudden road conditions such as bumps and pitsThe worse the performance is, but the time interval is too long, the data is too smooth, the real situation of the current road surface cannot be reflected, the data amount needing to be processed is greatly increased, and the response speed of the system is influenced. The factors are comprehensively considered, the statistical time interval is set to be 10s, and the switching to the next working state is determined after the switching judgment is completed.
Considering the situation that if the PCES was operated in SC mode at the previous time, the comfort index is improved due to the presence of SC,and (4) descending. At the next time, since the comfort index is improved, the switching controller determines that the comfort requirement can be properly reduced, and switches to the PER or SER mode, but actually still in the control mode requiring SC, so that it is not good to switch from the SC mode to the PER or SER. This problem can lead to system decision errors, leading to system upsets.
If the data acquisition frequency is f, tgapThe number of data in the interval is N ═ f × tgapEvery t, everygapTime period calculation onceAnd fdAnd performing a switching control judgment once. If only at time interval tgapAs a basis for switching control, the controller may jump back and forth between several operating modes as a result of the calculation, which is not favorable for the stability of the system. Based on this, the controller calculatesAnd RMS _ fdAfter comparing with the corresponding threshold respectively, the initial calculation result will make the obtained switching control mode enter the preparatory switching state, and then the latter tgapThe next switching judgment is carried out within the time period, if the continuous m times of judgment results are the same result, the switching is executed after the m times, otherwise, the switching is not carried out, if different results exist within the m times, the counting is carried out again from the different times until the switching condition is met,this may increase the stability of the handover control system.
The parallel electromagnetic suspension system is used for replacing an original passive shock absorber, and the following requirements can be met in the design process:
a) basic damping force requirements. The damping coefficient 1600N.s/m of the original passive shock absorber is known from the semi-active control simulation of suspension, the smaller the basic damping value is, the larger the adjustable damping value is, and the better the control effect can be obtained in the control process. Therefore, it is desirable that the base damping value of the parallel electromagnetic suspension system be as small as possible. The basic damping force of the parallel electromagnetic suspension system mainly comprises a viscous damping force of a magnetorheological damper and a mechanical friction damping force of an electromagnetic actuator, and the control performance of the semi-active or active control performance of the composite structure is slightly lower than that of a single semi-active or active actuator due to the consideration of various working conditions such as active, semi-active and energy feedback, so that the requirement on the basic damping is not more than 60 percent of the original passive damping, namely about 960N.s/m, in order to meet certain control performance. The basic damping value can basically meet the requirement of the suspension on damping under the condition of system failure, so that the system has the characteristics of failure-safety.
b) The damping adjustability of the magneto-rheological damper is required. To ensure that the magneto-rheological damper can effectively execute semi-active control, the difference between the maximum damping coefficient and the original passive damping value is not less than the difference between the passive damping and the basic damping, namely 1600N.s/m of the passive damping, if the basic damping is 960N.s/N, the maximum damping is not less than 2240N.s/m, and if the mechanical friction damping value of the electromagnetic actuator is 480N.s/m, the maximum damping value of the magneto-rheological damper is not less than 1760 N.s/m.
c) Active force demand. The active output is provided by an electromagnetic actuator, consumes control energy and is mainly used for occasions needing good vehicle running smoothness. Referring to the design requirements of 'gun soldier' war chariot of America army on the active suspension actuator, the maximum output of the actuator is 0.9 times of the vehicle weight, and the rated output is 0.3 times of the vehicle weight. To match the active force demand, a large motor power is needed, and patent ZL201621110157.0, "an active electromagnetic actuator based on a rack and pinion structure", proposes that the motor power needs about 1000W for a common 4-wheel vehicle. The parallel electromagnetic suspension system has two devices of the electromagnetic actuator and the magneto-rheological damper, and can realize damping auxiliary active control by designing a control strategy, thereby reducing the requirement on pure active control force. Thus, the demand for active control force is reduced to 60% of active force based on the design requirement of "gun soldiers".
The damping piston is made of DT4 electrical pure iron with good magnetic conductivity, the guide piston, the piston rod and the steel cylinder are made of 45# steel with strength and certain magnetic conductivity, the winding wire is made of copper enameled wires, and the outside of the winding wire is sealed by epoxy resin. The dimensions of key components of the magnetorheological damper part are shown in table 2.
TABLE 2 magnetorheological damper part critical part dimensions
The magneto-rheological damper is connected with the electromagnetic actuator in parallel, the control of the magneto-rheological damper is divided into a control state and a non-control state, and the magneto-rheological damper keeps the viscous damping force of a zero magnetic field under the non-control state of the magneto-rheological damper. When the magnetorheological damper is in a control state, the suspension reciprocating motion drives the piston rod of the magnetorheological damper and the steel cylinder to generate linear reciprocating relative motion, if the coil is powered by an electric wire, and the magnetic field intensity in a damping gap between the guide piston and the damping piston changes the viscosity of MRF, so that the damping force of the magnetorheological damper is changed, the aim of damping suspension vibration is fulfilled, and the semi-active control of the magnetorheological damper is realized.
The working modes of the damping force of the magnetorheological damper include 3 types of shearing type, valve type and shearing valve type, the internal and external piston structure of the magnetorheological damper enables magnetorheological Fluid (MRF) to be in a flowing mode only under the action of differential pressure at two ends of a piston, and therefore the damping force of the magnetorheological damper works in the valve type. The damping force of the magnetorheological damper comprises viscous damping force and coulomb damping force, and the expression of the damping force is
In the formula: fdTotal damping force in N; f0Viscous damping force in units of N; ffCoulomb damping force in unit N, MRF zero field viscosity in unit Pa.s η, effective damping gap length in unit mm, ApIs the piston area in mm2(ii) a h is the width of the damping gap in mm; d is the outer diameter of the piston in mm; d is the diameter of the piston rod in mm; tau isyMRF shear yield strength in kN/mm2(ii) a v is the suspension relative movement velocity in m/s.
The motor adopts an HLM-9607H06LN type direct current rotary servo motor produced by MOTEC company, has the advantages of small volume, high energy density, easiness in control and the like, and meets the model selection requirement of an electromagnetic actuator on the motor. The planetary reducer adopts an MOTEC-APE60-16 type reducer matched with a motor, the reducer has the advantages of large transmission torque, compact structure, easiness in maintenance and the like, and the requirements on the planetary reducer are met through reduction ratio matching. The dimensions of the electromagnetic actuator key components are shown in table 3.
TABLE 3 electromagnetic actuator Key component dimensions
The vehicle is excited by road surface unevenness in the running process, the suspension generates reciprocating motion, on one hand, a rack of the electromagnetic actuator is driven to linearly reciprocate relative motion with a steel cylinder, the rack drives a gear to generate reciprocating rotary motion, the gear drives a shaft of a planetary reducer to rotate through a gear shaft, the planetary reducer drives a rotating shaft of a rotary servo motor to rotate through internal planetary motion, power generation and energy feedback are realized by magnetic induction lines in a magnetic field generated by a rotor rotating and cutting a permanent magnet, meanwhile, electromagnetic damping force generated by power generation acts on the suspension through an opposite path to play a certain vibration reduction role, and the working mode is called as passive active control of the electromagnetic actuator. When the motor is actively controlled, the torque and motion transmission direction is opposite to the energy feeding direction, and energy is consumed during active control. Suspension vibration signals are detected through a sensor, a data acquisition instrument is sent to a controller, the magnitude of active output force and the time of the output force are judged through an active control algorithm, power is supplied to a motor coil, torque generated by a motor is amplified through a planetary reducer, and a gear rack changes rotary motion into suspension linear motion, so that the effect of active control vibration reduction is achieved.
The equation for motion conversion between the motor and the suspension system can be expressed as
In the formula, F is the reciprocating motion output force of the rack in unit N; t is gear torque in Nm; n is the motor speed in r/min; i is the transmission ratio of the speed reducing mechanism; rgIs the gear reference circle radius, unit m; v. ofsFor the suspension relative velocity, the unit m/s.
When the motor is used as the motor active output, the active power is set to be FanThen, then
In the formula, I is power supply current and has a unit A; ktThe unit is the motor torque constant, N.m/A.
When the motor works in an energy feedback mode, according to the Faraday electromagnetic induction principle, an ampere force which hinders the motor to move can be generated in the power generation process of the motor, and the ampere force is called as electromagnetic damping force. Electromagnetic damping force FemIs expressed as an electromagnetic damping coefficient cemAnd vsProduct of, i.e.
Fem=cemvs(3)
The motor induces an electromotive force E of
Because the inductance is small, the influence of the inductance is not considered, and the method is known by kirchhoff's law
E=I(Rin+Rout) (5)
In the formula: e is induced electromotive force of the motor, and the unit is V; rinThe unit is the internal resistance of the motor and is omega; l is the inductance of the motor coil in unit H; routIs a load variable resistance, in omega; i is the loop current, in units of A.
According to the law of conservation of energy, the electromagnetic damping force and the active force of the motor are equivalent, i.e. Fan=Fem. The electromagnetic damping coefficient obtained by the combined vertical type (1) - (5) is
When the electromagnetic actuator parameters are determined, cemIs only subject to external resistance RoutIn inverse proportional relation thereto, and thereafter adjusting cemAll by regulating RoutTo be realized.
After the designed electromagnetic actuator and the magneto-rheological damper are processed, characteristic tests are respectively carried out to verify whether the design requirements are met. The electromagnetic actuator mainly performs 4 groups of tests on mechanical friction characteristics, electromagnetic damping characteristics, active output characteristics, feedback voltage characteristics and the like, and the magnetorheological damper mainly performs a damping force-displacement indicator characteristic test.
1) Electromagnetic actuator
a) Mechanical friction characteristics
The basic resistance of the electromagnetic actuator is divided into friction FmAnd inertial force FiThe friction force is mainly generated by the planetary reducer and the motor, and the inertia force is mainly generated by the equivalent inertia mass of the motor rotor after the motor rotor is amplified through the transmission ratio of the planetary reducer. Taking the suspension relative displacement of 50mm and the relative speeds of 0.05m/s, 0.1m/s, 0.2m/s, 0.3m/s, 0.4m/s and 0.5m/s, FIG. 4 is a diagram of the friction force-displacement characteristic of the electromagnetic actuator according to the embodiment of the invention. FIG. 5 is a graph of friction versus speed characteristics for an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. As can be seen from fig. 4 and 5:
under the steady-state condition of the relative speed of 0.05m/s, the maximum base resistance in the positive direction and the maximum base resistance in the negative direction are 165N and 135N respectively, and the average value is about 150N during estimation; under the condition that the maximum speed is 0.5m/s, the basic resistance is about 255N, and the corresponding friction damping coefficient is 510N.s/m at the moment, so that the requirement on the limitation of the friction force and the basic damping coefficient is met.
b) Electromagnetic damping characteristics
In the case of a defined parameter, cemAnd RoutIn connection with, FemAnd RoutAnd vsIt is related. RoutRespectively take 10Ω、20Ω、40Ω、60Ω、80ΩAnd 100Ω,vsTaking 0.03m/s, 0.05m/s, 0.1m/s, 0.2m/s, 0.3m/s, 0.4m/s and 0.5m/s, FIG. 6 is an electromagnetic damping force-velocity characteristic diagram of the electromagnetic actuator according to the embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 7 is a diagram of electromagnetic damping coefficient versus velocity characteristics of an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention. As can be seen from fig. 6 and 7:
along with the increase of the speed, the electromagnetic damping force gradually increases and basically linearly increases in a speed range of 0.1-0.4m/s, and the stage is a constant damping area. The rated power is reached at a certain point in the interval of 0.4-0.5m/s, and then the damping force value is constant along with the increase of the speed, and the constant power area is entered. RoutIncrease, and FemGradually decreases in inverse proportion, and increases in external resistance valueemThe inverse proportion is reduced, and the result is consistent with the theoretical analysis result; actual maximum FemAbout 1100N, which is close to the theoretical value, corresponds to a damping coefficient of about 3000Ns/m at most, and meets the requirement of vibration reduction on damping.
c) Active force characteristic
The electromagnetic actuator is loaded with currents of ± 0.2A, ± 0.5A, ± 1A, ± 2A, ± 3A, ± 4A, ± 5A, ± 6A and ± 7A, respectively, and the active output characteristics of the electromagnetic actuator under different currents are obtained by comparing the test values with the theoretical values, and fig. 8 is a diagram of the active output characteristics of the electromagnetic actuator according to the embodiment of the present invention.
A positive current corresponds to a tensile state, and a negative current corresponds to a compressive state. From fig. 8, the following conclusions can be drawn:
1) the test value is slightly smaller than the theoretical value because the static friction has an influence on the test result. The test value is basically consistent with the theoretical value, is linearly distributed, and has symmetrical characteristics in stretching and compressing;
2) the test value is consistent with the theoretical value before the current is +/-5A, and then the test value is slightly lower than the theoretical value, so that the continuous constant active output characteristic of the motor is slightly reduced and the power is saturated in the stage of approaching the rated power. In the actual control process, the current is not recommended to be loaded to be more than +/-5A, so that the motor is protected from overload, and the main power efficiency is improved;
3) the active output is about 444N at a motor current of 3A and about 1000N at a current of 7A. The relation of the main power and the current is calculated by the formula (3) and is Fac160.4I, the experimental values were fitted to give Fac152.6I. Because the influence of factors such as friction, machining precision and the like is slightly smaller than a theoretical value, the requirement of active control can be basically met under the condition of considering errors.
d) Feedback voltage characteristic
Taking the relative suspension motion speeds of 0.05m/s, 0.1m/s, 0.2m/s, 0.3m/s, 0.4m/s and 0.5m/s, testing the change of a feedback voltage value by using an oscilloscope, and storing the change in the feedback voltage value in a control upper computer, wherein FIG. 9 is a relational graph of induced electromotive force and the relative suspension speed of the electromagnetic actuator in the embodiment of the invention.
Theoretically calculating induced electromotive forces E and vsThe relationship of (E) is 167.1vsFitting the test values to obtain a relation E of 154.2vsThe obtained back electromotive force constant is 28.7632V/krpm, which is slightly less than the theoretical value, but can meet the energy feedback requirement.
2) Magneto-rheological damper
The suspension relative movement speed is 0.52m/s, the amplitude is 25mm, the loading currents are 0A, 0.1A, 0.25A, 0.5A, 1A, 1.5A and 2A respectively under the sine excitation condition, and an indicator diagram and a damping force-speed characteristic curve of the magneto-rheological damper are obtained, and fig. 10 is a damping force-displacement characteristic diagram of the magneto-rheological damper in the embodiment of the invention. FIG. 11 is a damping force vs. velocity diagram of a magnetorheological damper in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
When the current is 0, the maximum damping force is 250N, and when the current is 2A, the maximum damping force is 1400N, so that the calculated viscous damping coefficient of the magnetorheological damper is 480.77N.s/m, the adjustable coulomb damping coefficient is 2211.5N.s/m, the adjustable damping multiple of the magnetorheological damper is 5.6, the magnetorheological damper has better adjustable damping performance, and the requirements of a parallel electromagnetic suspension system on low damping under zero current and high damping under a loading current condition can be met.
Existing energy-regenerative suspension systems include: linear motor type systems, rack and pinion type systems, ball screw type systems, planetary gear type systems and hydraulic transmission type systems, the advantages and disadvantages thereof are shown in table 4:
TABLE 4 energy-feedback suspension superiority and inferiority comparison
The electromagnetic actuator and the magnetorheological damper are connected in parallel, the respective working characteristics of the electromagnetic actuator and the magnetorheological damper can be utilized, the combination of different working conditions can be realized in various ways, and the dual purposes of vibration control and energy recovery can be achieved by coordinating the relation of vibration reduction and energy feedback. By designing the multi-mode switching control method, the parallel electromagnetic suspension system can execute different control strategies on different roads and under different working conditions, and the adaptability to the driving working conditions and requirements is enhanced. In summary, the following advantages are achieved:
1) compared with a pure electromagnetic suspension, the structure can solve the problem of insufficient damping characteristics of an independent electromagnetic actuator in a low-speed and control failure state when the electromagnetic actuator works in an energy feedback working condition, and when a system fails, viscous damping of the magnetorheological damper can still be used as a passive damper to continue working, so that the suspension has the failure-safety characteristic and has better reliability;
2) compared with a hydraulic energy feedback suspension structure, the structure has no hydraulic pipeline, the problems of oil leakage and the like of the hydraulic structure do not exist, the installation volume is smaller than that of the hydraulic structure, and the maintenance is easy;
3) the parallel electromagnetic suspension system is utilized to damp vibration, so that the performances of vehicle riding comfort, driving smoothness, operating stability and the like can be improved; the energy is fed by using the energy feedback device, the suspension vibration energy can be recovered, the cruising ability of the vehicle-mounted battery is improved while the energy-saving effect is achieved, the dependence of the vehicle on electric energy is reduced, certain excitation, running working conditions and control conditions are met, and the system can realize self-energy supply;
4) the parallel electromagnetic suspension system structure increases the selection range of suspension working conditions, and has wider adaptability to different road conditions and requirements. By designing the multi-mode switching control method of the parallel electromagnetic suspension system, the vibration control or the energy feedback can be selected according to different requirements on vibration control or energy feedback and the like so as to meet different driving working conditions and driving requirements;
5) the multi-mode switching control method can meet the requirements of vibration reduction and energy feedback performance of the parallel electromagnetic suspension system under different road conditions and driving conditions, the magnetorheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator work independently, electromagnetic mutual interference caused by a combined type integrated structure is avoided, and the stability of the control and system is improved.
FIG. 12 is a diagram of a magnetorheological damper in an embodiment of the invention. FIG. 13 is a diagram of an electromagnetic actuator in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
A parallel compound electromagnetic suspension vehicle comprising a parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system.
The embodiments in the present description are described in a progressive manner, each embodiment focuses on differences from other embodiments, and the same and similar parts among the embodiments are referred to each other. For the system disclosed by the embodiment, the description is relatively simple because the system corresponds to the method disclosed by the embodiment, and the relevant points can be referred to the method part for description.
The principles and embodiments of the present invention have been described herein using specific examples, which are provided only to help understand the method and the core concept of the present invention; meanwhile, for a person skilled in the art, according to the idea of the present invention, the specific embodiments and the application range may be changed. In view of the above, the present disclosure should not be construed as limiting the invention.

Claims (7)

1. A parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system, the system comprising: the magnetorheological damper, the electromagnetic actuator and the controller;
one end of the magnetorheological damper is connected with the vehicle body, and the other end of the magnetorheological damper is connected with the vehicle wheel;
one end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the vehicle body, the other end of the electromagnetic actuator is connected with the wheel, the electromagnetic actuator comprises a motor, the motor is connected with the controller, and the controller is used for controlling the rotation of the motor;
the magnetorheological damper comprises: the magnetorheological damper comprises a first upper lifting lug, a protective cover, a steel cylinder, a piston assembly and a first lower lifting lug, wherein a small hole is formed in one side of the first upper lifting lug, the protective cover is connected with the first upper lifting lug through threads, and the protective cover is used for preventing dust from entering the magnetorheological damper; the piston assembly is fixedly connected with the first upper lifting lug; the steel cylinder is fixedly connected with the piston assembly and is used for providing a closed space for the piston assembly; the first lower lifting lug is respectively connected with the steel cylinder and the wheel; the piston assembly includes: the piston rod is connected with the upper lifting lug, the piston rod is connected with the sealing end cover, the sealing end cover is fixedly connected with a steel cylinder, the guide piston is connected with the piston rod through threads, and the guide piston is sealed with the steel cylinder through two annular sealing rings; the piston rod is in threaded connection with the damping piston, and the coil is wound on the damping piston, penetrates through a wire hole of the damping piston, penetrates through a through hole in the piston rod and then penetrates out of the through hole and is connected with power supply equipment; the upper working cavity and the lower working cavity are respectively positioned at the upper side and the lower side of the guide piston, and magnetorheological fluid is filled in the upper working cavity and the lower working cavity and is used for providing magnetic field intensity; the floating piston is positioned at the lower end of the lower working chamber, the compensation air chamber cavity is positioned at the lower end of the floating piston, nitrogen is filled in the compensation air chamber cavity, and the nitrogen is filled in the compensation air chamber cavity through the inflation valve;
the electromagnetic actuator includes: the vehicle body is provided with a first upper lifting lug, a gear assembly, a steel cylinder, a motor and a first lower lifting lug, wherein the first upper lifting lug is connected with the vehicle body;
the electromagnetic actuator works in 3 states of active force output, energy feedback and no control, and the magneto-rheological damper can work in two states of passive damping and semi-active control, so that a parallel suspension system consisting of the magneto-rheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator can form 4 working states of an active control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback-free control working condition, a semi-active energy feedback control working condition and a passive energy feedback working condition, the diversity of suspension working modes and the adaptability of different road conditions are increased, and the switching control strategy of the parallel suspension system is as follows:
1) passive energy feed (PER) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd≤[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,and fdThe values of the energy storage device and the energy storage device do not exceed the threshold value, the riding comfort is considered to be better at the moment, the probability of hanging and impacting a limiting block is lower, the mode is switched to a PER mode, vibration reduction is not needed, and the system is in a complete energy feedback state;
2) semi-active energy feed (SER) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd>[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,does not exceed the threshold, but fdWhen the value of (A) exceeds the threshold value, the riding comfort is considered to be better at the moment, but the probability of hanging and impacting a limit block becomes higher; in order to improve the driving safety, the system is switched to an SER mode; the system is in a semi-active control + energy feedback state, and the semi-active control is used for reducing fdThe energy feedback can still recover energy;
3) semi-active energy-regenerative (SC) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd≤[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,is above the threshold, but fdIf the value of (A) does not exceed the threshold value, the riding comfort is considered to be poor at the moment, and vibration damping control is required; because the probability of hanging the impact limiting block is low, only semi-active control is needed, energy feedback is not needed any more, and the system is switched to an SC mode;
4) active Control (AC) mode
When in useAnd RMS _ fd>[fd]When the temperature of the water is higher than the set temperature,and fdWhen the values exceed the threshold value, the riding comfort is considered to be poor at the moment, and vibration reduction control is required; the probability of hanging the impact limiting block is high, active control is needed, and the system is switched to an AC mode;
and RMS _ fdAre all for a period of time tgapRoot mean square value of internal statistics, whereinIn order to achieve the actual vertical acceleration of the vehicle body,for setting the vertical acceleration of the vehicle body, RMSfdFor the actual suspension stroke, [ f ]d]And (3) setting a suspension moving stroke, switching to a corresponding parallel suspension system (PCES) working mode after meeting two conditions of the vertical acceleration and the suspension moving stroke of the vehicle body according to the result of the judgment logic, determining that the Electromagnetic Actuator (EA) works in an active control or energy feedback mode, and determining that the magneto-rheological damper (MRD) works in a zero magnetic field mode or a variable damping mode.
2. The parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system of claim 1, further comprising: the power supply equipment is respectively connected with the magnetorheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator, and the power supply equipment is used for supplying power to the magnetorheological damper and the electromagnetic actuator.
3. The parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system of claim 2, further comprising: and two ends of the power supply line of the magneto-rheological damper are respectively connected with the magneto-rheological damper and the power supply equipment.
4. The parallel combined type electromagnetic suspension system according to claim 1, wherein a first magnetorheological fluid flow hole is formed at the upper end of the guide piston, and the diameter of the first magnetorheological fluid flow hole is 3 mm; the lower end of the guide piston is provided with a second magnetorheological fluid circulation hole, and the diameter of the second magnetorheological fluid circulation hole is 10 mm.
5. The parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system of claim 1, further comprising: the electromagnetic actuator power supply line comprises a control signal line and an electromagnetic actuator power supply line, the two ends of the control signal line are respectively connected with the electromagnetic actuator and the controller, and the two ends of the electromagnetic actuator power supply line are respectively connected with the electromagnetic actuator and the power supply equipment.
6. The parallel connection composite electromagnetic suspension system of claim 5, wherein the motor comprises a rotary servo motor and a planetary reducer, one end of the planetary reducer is connected with the gear assembly, the other end of the planetary reducer is connected with the rotary servo motor, and the rotary servo motor and the planetary reducer are fixedly connected through a spline.
7. A parallel compound electromagnetic suspension vehicle comprising a parallel compound electromagnetic suspension system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6.
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CN110171261A (en) * 2019-05-05 2019-08-27 南京师范大学 A kind of magnetorheological feed energy suspension vibration damping and the half active negotiation control method that generates electricity
CN110486409B (en) * 2019-08-29 2020-12-25 武汉中车株机轨道交通装备有限公司 Magnetorheological damper for train of independently adjusting

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