CN108455968B - Color ceramic aggregate and preparation method and application thereof - Google Patents

Color ceramic aggregate and preparation method and application thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108455968B
CN108455968B CN201810017460.3A CN201810017460A CN108455968B CN 108455968 B CN108455968 B CN 108455968B CN 201810017460 A CN201810017460 A CN 201810017460A CN 108455968 B CN108455968 B CN 108455968B
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ceramic aggregate
kaolin
pigment
coal ash
aggregate
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CN108455968A (en
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王景硕
安丽丽
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Hebei Sheng Huoxin Mstar Technology Ltd.
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Handan Shenghuo Ceramic Proppant Co ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B33/00Clay-wares
    • C04B33/02Preparing or treating the raw materials individually or as batches
    • C04B33/13Compounding ingredients
    • C04B33/132Waste materials; Refuse; Residues
    • C04B33/135Combustion residues, e.g. fly ash, incineration waste
    • C04B33/1352Fuel ashes, e.g. fly ash
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B33/00Clay-wares
    • C04B33/02Preparing or treating the raw materials individually or as batches
    • C04B33/04Clay; Kaolin
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    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B33/00Clay-wares
    • C04B33/02Preparing or treating the raw materials individually or as batches
    • C04B33/13Compounding ingredients
    • C04B33/14Colouring matters
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    • C04CEMENTS; CONCRETE; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES
    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/32Metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, or oxide-forming salts thereof, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
    • C04B2235/3217Aluminum oxide or oxide forming salts thereof, e.g. bauxite, alpha-alumina
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    • C04BLIME, MAGNESIA; SLAG; CEMENTS; COMPOSITIONS THEREOF, e.g. MORTARS, CONCRETE OR LIKE BUILDING MATERIALS; ARTIFICIAL STONE; CERAMICS; REFRACTORIES; TREATMENT OF NATURAL STONE
    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/02Composition of constituents of the starting material or of secondary phases of the final product
    • C04B2235/30Constituents and secondary phases not being of a fibrous nature
    • C04B2235/34Non-metal oxides, non-metal mixed oxides, or salts thereof that form the non-metal oxides upon heating, e.g. carbonates, nitrates, (oxy)hydroxides, chlorides
    • C04B2235/3427Silicates other than clay, e.g. water glass
    • C04B2235/3463Alumino-silicates other than clay, e.g. mullite
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    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/70Aspects relating to sintered or melt-casted ceramic products
    • C04B2235/96Properties of ceramic products, e.g. mechanical properties such as strength, toughness, wear resistance
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    • C04B2235/00Aspects relating to ceramic starting mixtures or sintered ceramic products
    • C04B2235/70Aspects relating to sintered or melt-casted ceramic products
    • C04B2235/96Properties of ceramic products, e.g. mechanical properties such as strength, toughness, wear resistance
    • C04B2235/9646Optical properties
    • C04B2235/9661Colour
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P40/00Technologies relating to the processing of minerals
    • Y02P40/60Production of ceramic materials or ceramic elements, e.g. substitution of clay or shale by alternative raw materials, e.g. ashes

Abstract

The invention discloses a color ceramic aggregate and a preparation method and application thereof, and relates to the technical field of paving materials. The color ceramic aggregate is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-49% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-55% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment. The preparation method comprises the steps of uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount, calcining at the temperature of 1150-1300 ℃, and cooling. The invention overcomes the defects that the aggregate obtained by the prior surface painting mode is easy to fade by friction and the strength of the aggregate mainly made of waste glass powder cannot meet the requirement. The aluminum content of the raw materials is increased under the condition of ensuring the content of the oxide, and the raw materials are mixed with the pigment for homogenization and then calcined at high temperature to obtain the colored ceramic aggregate which has bright color and high strength, is not easy to fade after friction use and prolongs the service life.

Description

Color ceramic aggregate and preparation method and application thereof
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of paving materials, in particular to a color ceramic aggregate and a preparation method and application thereof.
Background
The application in urban construction, the traditional urban road design and paving technology can not meet the requirements of modern urban construction, people begin to use various paving materials to make the road surface beautiful, the most basic use function of the road surface is met, the identifiability of the road surface can be enhanced through special color, texture and configuration, traffic intervals with different properties are divided, traffic is induced and disclosed, the speed of the vehicle is effectively limited, blocking between people and vehicles is enhanced, direction sense and direction sense are given to people, and the like, so that the safety performance of urban road traffic is further improved.
The color ceramic aggregate particles are used as a material for paving the pavement, so that the pavement is attractive, and the identifiability of the pavement is improved. With the sustainable development and the application of the people-oriented theory in urban construction, the dosage of the color ceramic aggregate is increased year by year, and the application occasions comprise: the highway deceleration strip, underground garage ramp, pedestrian overpass, pedestrian crossing, non-motor vehicle lane, bus lane, landscape road, highway toll area, service area, entrance ramp, etc.
The color ceramic aggregate particles in the current market are divided into two types, one type is that ores are crushed into particles and the surfaces of the particles are painted. The colored aggregate is easy to fade due to friction in daily use, so that the service life of the granule is greatly shortened. The other method is to use waste glass powder as a main body, add pigment to prepare green body particles, and sinter the green body particles at low temperature. But the temperature is too low, so that the Mohs strength of the finished product is not up to standard. Under the rolling of heavy-duty vehicles such as vehicles, the situation of particle crushing is easy to occur, and the service life is greatly shortened.
In view of the above, the present invention is particularly proposed.
Disclosure of Invention
The first purpose of the invention is to provide a colored ceramic aggregate which is mainly prepared from kaolin, coal ash waste, white clay and pigment, wherein the aluminum content is increased under the condition that the content of the oxide is ensured, and the obtained colored ceramic aggregate has bright color and high strength.
The second purpose of the invention is to provide the preparation method of the color ceramic aggregate, which is to fully mix the raw materials including the pigment and then calcine the mixture at high temperature, and has the advantages of simple preparation method, high production efficiency and low energy consumption; the prepared color ceramic aggregate not only has high strength, but also is not easy to fade after being used, and the service life is prolonged.
The third purpose of the invention is to provide the application of the color ceramic aggregate or the color ceramic aggregate obtained by adopting the preparation method of the color ceramic aggregate in pavement paving.
In order to achieve the above purpose of the present invention, the following technical solutions are adopted:
in a first aspect, a color ceramic aggregate is provided, which is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-49% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-55% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment.
Preferably, on the basis of the technical scheme of the invention, the color ceramic aggregate is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-40% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-50% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment.
Preferably, on the basis of the technical scheme of the invention, the color ceramic aggregate is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-40% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 35-50% of white clay and 1-2% of pigment.
Preferably, on the basis of the technical scheme of the invention, the colorant comprises one or a combination of at least two of green, blue, red, yellow or black.
In a second aspect, the invention provides a preparation method of the color ceramic aggregate, which comprises the following steps:
uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount, calcining at the temperature of 1150-plus-1300 ℃, and cooling to obtain the colored ceramic aggregate.
Preferably, on the basis of the technical scheme of the invention, the calcining temperature is 1200-1300 ℃; and/or the calcination time is 8-20 h;
preferably, the calcination temperature is 1200-1250 ℃; and/or the calcination time is 8-16 h.
Preferably, on the basis of the technical scheme of the invention, the method further comprises the step of uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay, then ageing and homogenizing, and then calcining at the temperature of 1150-1300 ℃;
preferably, the staling homogenization time is from 48 to 72 hours, preferably from 48 to 60 hours, further preferably from 50 to 60 hours;
preferably, the water content of the material is kept between 10 and 18 percent during aging and homogenization.
Preferably, on the basis of the technical scheme of the invention, the method further comprises the steps of uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay, then grinding, and then aging and homogenizing;
preferably, the grinding is carried out to the fineness of 400-600 meshes, and further preferably to the fineness of 400-500 meshes.
Preferably, a preparation method of a typical color ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(a) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(b) uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(c) grinding the material A to the fineness of 400-500 meshes, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 10-18% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48-72h, so as to obtain a material B;
(d) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 0.5-5mm, calcining at the temperature of 1200-1250 ℃ for 8-16h, and cooling;
(e) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the color ceramic aggregate.
In a third aspect, the color ceramic aggregate or the color ceramic aggregate obtained by the preparation method of the color ceramic aggregate is applied to pavement paving.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects that:
(1) the color ceramic aggregate is mainly prepared from kaolin, coal ash waste, white clay and pigment, the content of aluminum is increased under the condition that the content of oxide is ensured by the raw materials, and through the mutual matching of the kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay raw materials, a crystal phase generated by the material in a high-temperature reaction stage not only has a glass phase, but also has a partial mullite phase and a trace corundum phase, so that the strength of the ceramic aggregate is favorably improved, the obtained color ceramic aggregate is bright in color and high in strength, the Mohs hardness can reach 7.6, meanwhile, the comprehensive performance is good, the water absorption rate is less than or equal to 1%, and the porosity is less than or equal to 5%.
(2) According to the preparation method of the colored ceramic aggregate, the raw materials including the pigment are fully mixed and then are calcined at high temperature, so that the preparation method is simple, the production efficiency is high, and the energy consumption is low;
the prepared colorful ceramic aggregate has high strength and good comprehensive performance, is not easy to fade after being used, and prolongs the service life of the ceramic aggregate.
Detailed Description
Embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail below with reference to examples, but it will be understood by those skilled in the art that the following examples are only illustrative of the present invention and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the present invention. The examples, in which specific conditions are not specified, were conducted under conventional conditions or conditions recommended by the manufacturer.
According to a first aspect of the invention, a colored ceramic aggregate is provided, which is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-49% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-55% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment.
The color ceramic aggregate is calculated as a reference, and comprises 20-49% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-55% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment by weight percentage.
Kaolin is a clay mineral which is common and very important in the natural world, is formed by the weathering action of feldspar or other silicate minerals in igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks in an acid medium which is short of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, and is a clay and claystone which takes the kaolinite group clay mineral as the main component.
Typical but non-limiting weight percentages of kaolin are, for example, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 28%, 30%, 32%, 34%, 36%, 38%, 40%, 42%, 44%, 46%, 48%, or 49%.
The coal ash wastes, namely fly ash, fly ash and soot, refer to substances discharged and collected from a flue after pulverized coal in a coal-fired power plant is combusted in a boiler, and are fine ash captured from flue gas generated after coal combustion, and the fly ash is main solid waste discharged from the coal-fired power plant.
Typical but non-limiting weight percentages of coal ash waste are, for example, 20%, 21%, 22%, 23%, 24%, 25%, 26%, 28%, 29%, or 30%.
The white clay is a quaternary bauxite of Handan local, but has higher viscosity than high-quality bauxite. Compared with the components with the content of alumina, the kaolin is between kaolin and high-quality bauxite.
The percent by weight of the white-wrong soil is typically, but not limited to, 30%, 32%, 34%, 36%, 38%, 40%, 42%, 44%, 46%, 48%, 49%, 50%, 51%, 52%, 53%, 54%, or 55%, for example.
The pigment provides color to the ceramic aggregate, and is typically, but not limited to, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, or 2.5% by weight, for example.
According to the color ceramic aggregate, the aluminum content is increased by adopting the raw materials such as kaolin, coal ash waste, white clay and pigment under the condition of ensuring the content of oxides, crystal phases generated by all the components in a high-temperature reaction stage not only have a glass phase, but also have a partial mullite phase and a trace corundum phase, so that the strength of the ceramic aggregate is favorably improved, and the obtained color ceramic aggregate is bright in color and luster, high in strength, good in comprehensive performance, and excellent in Mohs hardness, water absorption and porosity.
In a preferred embodiment, the colored ceramic aggregate is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-40% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-50% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment.
In a preferred embodiment, the colored ceramic aggregate is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-40% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 35-50% of white clay and 1-2% of pigment.
By optimizing the proportion of the raw materials, the color ceramic aggregate with higher strength and better comprehensive performance can be obtained.
In a preferred embodiment, the colorant comprises one or a combination of at least two of green, blue, red, yellow or black.
By selecting the pigment, a plurality of different single colors or colorful ceramic aggregates consisting of a plurality of colors can be obtained so as to meet different requirements.
According to a second aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method for preparing the above-mentioned colored ceramic aggregate, comprising the steps of:
uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount, calcining at the temperature of 1150-plus-1300 ℃, and cooling to obtain the colored ceramic aggregate.
Calcination is an important process for preparing materials, and the calcination process directly influences microstructures such as grain size and distribution, pore size and distribution, grain boundary volume fraction and the like in a calcined compact body. Calcination is the general term for the densification process and phenomenon of the material at high temperature, and as the temperature rises and the time is prolonged, solid particles are bonded with each other, grains grow up, and gaps (air holes) and grain boundaries gradually decrease. During the calcination process, the overall volume shrinks and the density increases through mass transfer, resulting in a hard polycrystalline sintered body.
The calcination temperature is typically, but not limited to, 1150 ℃, 1200 ℃, 1250 ℃ or 1300 ℃, for example.
The crystal phase generated by the raw materials in the high-temperature reaction stage is mainly glass phase, part of mullite phase and trace corundum phase, and the product has high comprehensive strength.
The preparation method of the color ceramic aggregate of the invention fully mixes the raw materials including the pigment to fully homogenize the pigment and the raw materials, and then calcinates the mixture at 1150-1300 ℃, the calcination temperature is high, the prepared color ceramic aggregate not only has high strength, but also can fully immerse the pigment into the aggregate, the color ceramic aggregate is not easy to fade after friction, and the service life of the aggregate is prolonged. The preparation method has the advantages of simple process, high production efficiency and low energy consumption.
In a preferred embodiment, the calcination temperature is 1200-1300 ℃; and/or the calcination time is 8-20 h; preferably, the calcination temperature is 1200-1250 ℃; and/or the calcination time is 8-16 h.
Calcination times are typically, but not limited to, for example, 8h, 9h, 10h, 11h, 12h, 13h, 14h, 15h, 16h, 17h, 18h, 19h, or 20 h.
The ceramic aggregate after calcination has excellent strength by controlling reasonable calcination time.
In a preferred embodiment, the method further comprises the step of mixing the pigment with the pulverized kaolin, the coal ash waste and the bentonite uniformly, then aging and homogenizing, and then calcining at the temperature of 1150-1300 ℃.
The aging homogenization refers to a process in which ceramic powder or granules are placed in a ceramic powder bin or container for a period of time such that the level of the ceramic powder or granules becomes more uniform.
Preferably, the staling homogenization time is from 48 to 72 hours, preferably from 48 to 60 hours, further preferably from 50 to 60 hours.
The staling homogenization time is typically, but not limited to, for example, 48h, 49h, 50h, 51h, 52h, 53h, 54h, 55h, 56h, 57h, 58h, 59h, 60h, 64h, 70h, or 72 h.
Preferably, the water content of the material is kept between 10 and 18 percent during aging and homogenization.
The water content is the weight percentage of the water content in the material in the total material, and the water content of the material is kept to be 10%, 12%, 14%, 16% or 18% when the material is aged and homogenized.
By controlling the ageing and homogenizing time and parameters, the mixed raw materials can be better fused, the interaction between different substances is more obvious, and the calcining effect is more favorably improved.
In a preferred embodiment, the method further comprises the step of uniformly mixing the pigment with the pulverized kaolin clay, the coal ash waste and the kaolin clay, grinding the mixture, and then aging and homogenizing the mixture.
After the raw material particles and the pigment are ground together, the pigment and the raw material are fully homogenized, so that the color of the aggregate is not easy to fade after the aggregate is worn.
Preferably to 400-600 mesh fineness, and further preferably to 400-500 mesh fineness, such as 400-mesh fineness, 450-mesh fineness or 500-mesh fineness.
By grinding to a certain fineness, the pigment and the raw materials can be homogenized more sufficiently, the pigment fully permeates into the aggregate, and the color is not easy to fade.
In a preferred embodiment, a method for preparing a typical colored ceramic aggregate comprises the steps of:
(a) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(b) uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(c) grinding the material A to the fineness of 400-500 meshes, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 10-18% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48-72h, so as to obtain a material B;
(d) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 0.5-5mm, calcining at the temperature of 1200-1250 ℃ for 8-16h, and cooling;
(e) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the color ceramic aggregate.
The typical preparation method comprises the steps of crushing, mixing, homogenizing, ageing, homogenizing, preparing a blank, crushing, and calcining at a high temperature to obtain the colorful ceramic aggregate which is bright in color, not easy to fade after use, high in strength, good in comprehensive performance, and capable of reaching key indexes such as Mohs strength, water absorption rate and porosity.
According to a third aspect of the invention, the invention provides an application of the colored ceramic aggregate or the colored ceramic aggregate obtained by the preparation method of the colored ceramic aggregate in pavement paving.
The colored ceramic aggregate provided by the invention has the advantages of high strength, bright color, difficult fading, good performance and low preparation cost, can be widely applied as a pavement paving material, can be used in places such as highway deceleration strips, underground garage ramps, pedestrian overpasses, pedestrian crossings, non-motor vehicle lanes, bus special lanes, landscape lanes, highway toll collection areas, service areas, entrance ramps and the like, and has wide application prospect.
The invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples and comparative examples, but it should be understood that these examples are for purposes of illustration only and are not to be construed as limiting the invention in any way.
Example 1
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20% of kaolin, 30% of coal ash waste, 49.5% of white clay and 0.5% of green pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the green pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 400 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 16% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 5mm, calcining at 1200 ℃ for 16h, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the green ceramic aggregate.
Example 2
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 49% of kaolin, 20% of coal ash waste, 28.5% of white clay and 2.5% of blue pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the blue pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 400 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 14% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 72h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 4mm, calcining at 1250 ℃ for 10 hours, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the blue ceramic aggregate.
Example 3
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 30% of kaolin, 25% of coal ash waste, 44% of white clay and 1% of yellow pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the yellow pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 400 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 12% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 3mm, calcining for 8 hours at the temperature of 1300 ℃, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the yellow ceramic aggregate.
Example 4
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 25% of kaolin, 30% of coal ash waste, 43% of white clay and 2% of red pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the red pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 500 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 15% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 72h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 2mm, calcining at 1200 ℃ for 12h, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the red ceramic aggregate.
Example 5
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 40% of kaolin, 20% of coal ash waste, 38.5% of white clay and 1.5% of green pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the green pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 500 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 10% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 72h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 1mm, calcining for 14h at the temperature of 1230 ℃, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the green ceramic aggregate.
Example 6
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 35% of kaolin, 25% of coal ash waste, 37.5% of white clay and 2.5% of blue pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the blue pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 500 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 18% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 0.5mm, calcining at the temperature of 1225 ℃ for 12 hours, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the blue ceramic aggregate.
Example 7
This example is different from example 6 in that the preparation method of the colored ceramic aggregate omits the aging homogenization in the step (3), then the material A is made into a green body, and then the subsequent steps are carried out, and the rest of the components and steps are the same as example 6.
Comparative example 1
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 40% of coal ash waste, 59.5% of white clay and 0.5% of green pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing the coal ash waste and the white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the green pigment with the crushed coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 400 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 16% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 5mm, calcining at 1200 ℃ for 16h, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the green ceramic aggregate.
Unlike example 1, the colored ceramic aggregate raw material of this comparative example did not contain kaolin.
Comparative example 2
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 64% of kaolin, 33.5% of coal ash waste and 2.5% of blue pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin and coal ash wastes;
(2) uniformly mixing the blue pigment with the crushed kaolin and the coal ash waste according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 400 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 14% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 72h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 4mm, calcining at 1250 ℃ for 10 hours, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the blue ceramic aggregate.
Unlike example 2, the colored ceramic aggregate raw material of this comparative example did not contain the mischmetal.
Comparative example 3
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 45% of kaolin, 54% of white clay and 1% of yellow pigment.
The preparation method of the ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps:
(1) crushing kaolin and white clay;
(2) uniformly mixing the yellow pigment with the crushed kaolin and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(3) grinding the material A to 400 meshes of fineness, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 12% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48h, so as to obtain a material B;
(4) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 3mm, calcining for 8 hours at the temperature of 1300 ℃, and cooling;
(5) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the yellow ceramic aggregate.
Unlike example 3, the colored ceramic aggregate raw material of this comparative example does not contain coal ash waste.
Comparative example 4
The color ceramic aggregate is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 70% of kaolin, 10% of coal ash waste, 20% of white clay and 2% of red pigment.
Example 4 except that the contents of kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay in the colored ceramic aggregate raw material of this comparative example were out of the range of the present invention, the preparation method was the same as example 4.
Comparative example 5
This comparative example is different from example 5 in that the calcination temperature in step (4) was 1000 ℃ and the same as example 5 was used.
Comparative example 6
The preparation of ceramic aggregate by using the components and method in patent CN 102910896A example 1 specifically comprises:
(1) the formula comprises the following raw materials in percentage by weight:
55.9 percent of kaolin, and the particle size is less than or equal to 150 um; 27.6 percent of feldspar powder, and the grain diameter is less than or equal to 58 um; 15.0 percent of glass powder and the grain diameter of less than or equal to 80 um; 1.5 percent of high-temperature inorganic chromophore and less than or equal to 45um of particle size;
(2) weighing the raw materials into a ball mill according to the weight percentage, taking water as a medium, adding water accounting for 30% of the total weight of the raw materials, mixing and ball milling for 10 hours, pouring slurry into a pool after ball milling is finished, aging for 12 hours, dehydrating the slurry by using a mud press or a high-speed centrifuge to obtain mud blocks, putting the mud blocks into a drying room for drying, taking out mud blanks after the mud blanks are completely dried, rolling by using a ceramic double-roll machine, finely grinding and granulating the mud blocks, adjusting the gap of the double-roll machine according to the particle size of a product, and setting the adjustment range to be 4-8 mm according to the product requirement.
(3) And (3) filling the qualified granules formed in the step (2) into a sagger electric pushed slab kiln, slowly burning for 5 hours at the low temperature of 500 ℃, then quickly burning at the high temperature, keeping the temperature of the kiln at the high temperature of not more than 1200 ℃ for 2.5 hours, naturally cooling in the kiln for fourteen hours, and taking out the granules from the kiln to form the colored ceramic pavement material product.
Test examples
The colored ceramic aggregates prepared in examples 1 to 7 and comparative examples 1 to 6 were subjected to the appearance, mohs hardness, water absorption and porosity property tests and the abrasion test in the following specific methods:
mohs hardness is measured by a Mohs hardness tester;
water absorption and porosity measurements: weighing the sample suspension weight, and recording; placing the particles on wiping cloth, wiping the surfaces of the particles by using four corners of the first layer of cloth respectively, wringing out a towel, wiping again until the surfaces of the particles have no obvious water, shaking the cloth surface, and weighing the water absorption weight and recording;
and (3) calculating: water absorption rate ═ water absorption weight-sample weight/sample weight ] × 100%, and porosity ═ water absorption weight-sample weight/water absorption weight-suspended weight) × 100%.
Abrasion test: and (3) carrying out abrasion test on the surface of the aggregate by adopting an los Angeles abrasion tester, wherein the abrasion time is the same, and observing the color change of the aggregate after abrasion.
The results are shown in Table 1.
TABLE 1
As can be seen from Table 1, the color ceramic aggregate obtained by the invention has bright color and high strength, the color is not easy to fade after a friction test, the ceramic aggregate has good performance, the Mohs hardness can reach 7.5-7.7, the water absorption rate is less than or equal to 1 percent, and the porosity is less than or equal to 5 percent.
Example 7 the color retention of example 6 was found to be better without the aging homogenization step compared to example 6, due to the stronger interaction between the aggregate components after aging homogenization and the resulting better aggregate properties.
Compared with the example 1, the aggregate raw material does not contain kaolin, compared with the example 2, the aggregate raw material does not contain white clay, compared with the example 3, the aggregate raw material does not contain coal ash waste, the hardness of the obtained aggregate is obviously reduced, and the strength and the performance of the aggregate obtained by the kaolin, the white clay and the coal ash waste are high. Comparative example 4 compared with example 4, the ratio of the raw materials kaolin, mischmetal and coal ash waste was different from that of the present invention, and the obtained aggregate was also degraded, so that it was found that only by using the kaolin, mischmetal and coal ash waste in a specific range in combination, a ceramic aggregate having excellent properties could be obtained. Comparative example 5 compared with example 5, the calcination temperature in the preparation method was lower, and the hardness of the obtained ceramic aggregate was decreased, and it can be seen that the use of higher calcination temperature is advantageous for obtaining a ceramic aggregate with higher hardness. Comparative example 6 is a ceramic aggregate prepared from conventional glass powder, kaolin and feldspar powder, and the hardness and porosity of the aggregate are not as good as those of the aggregate of the present invention.
Therefore, the aluminum content is increased by the kaolin, the white clay and the coal ash waste which are used as raw materials in the invention under the condition of ensuring the content of the oxide, and the aluminum content is increased by the high-temperature calcination after the kaolin, the white clay and the coal ash waste are mixed and homogenized with the pigment, so that the obtained colored ceramic aggregate has bright color and high strength, is not easy to fade after friction use, and has prolonged service life.
While particular embodiments of the present invention have been illustrated and described, it would be obvious that various other changes and modifications can be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. It is therefore intended to cover in the appended claims all such changes and modifications that are within the scope of this invention.

Claims (14)

1. The color ceramic aggregate is characterized by being prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-49% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-55% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment;
the preparation method of the color ceramic aggregate comprises the following steps: uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount, then ageing and homogenizing, calcining for 8-16h at the temperature of 1200-1250 ℃, and cooling to obtain the colored ceramic aggregate.
2. The colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 1, which is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-40% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 30-50% of white clay and 0.5-2.5% of pigment.
3. The colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 1, which is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by weight: 20-40% of kaolin, 20-30% of coal ash waste, 35-50% of white clay and 1-2% of pigment.
4. The colored ceramic aggregate according to any one of claims 1 to 3, wherein the colorant comprises one or a combination of at least two of green, blue, red, yellow or black.
5. A method for preparing a coloured ceramic aggregate according to any of claims 1 to 4, comprising the following steps:
uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount, then ageing and homogenizing, calcining for 8-16h at the temperature of 1200-1250 ℃, and cooling to obtain the colored ceramic aggregate.
6. The method for preparing a colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 5, wherein the aging homogenization time is 48 to 72 hours.
7. The method for preparing a colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 6, wherein the aging homogenization time is 48 to 60 hours.
8. The method for preparing a colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 7, wherein the aging homogenization time is 50 to 60 hours.
9. The method for preparing a colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 5, wherein the moisture content of the material is maintained at 10-18% during aging and homogenization.
10. The method for preparing colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 5, further comprising the step of uniformly mixing a pigment with the pulverized kaolin, the coal ash waste and the mischmetal, grinding, and then aging and homogenizing.
11. The method for preparing colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 10, wherein the aggregate is ground to a fineness of 400-600 mesh.
12. The method for preparing colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 11, wherein the grinding is carried out to a fineness of 400-500 meshes.
13. The method for preparing a colored ceramic aggregate according to claim 5, comprising the steps of:
(a) crushing kaolin, coal ash waste and white clay;
(b) uniformly mixing the pigment with the crushed kaolin, the coal ash waste and the white clay according to the formula amount to obtain a material A;
(c) grinding the material A to the fineness of 400-500 meshes, and then carrying out ageing homogenization, wherein the water content of the material is kept at 10-18% during ageing homogenization, and the ageing homogenization time is 48-72h, so as to obtain a material B;
(d) preparing the material B into a blank, drying, crushing into particles with the particle size of 0.5-5mm, calcining at the temperature of 1200-1250 ℃ for 8-16h, and cooling;
(e) and screening the cooled material to the required granularity to obtain the color ceramic aggregate.
14. Use of a coloured ceramic aggregate according to any one of claims 1 to 4 in road surfacing.
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