CN108445088B - Axial force loading device for elastic wave detection and elastic wave detection system - Google Patents

Axial force loading device for elastic wave detection and elastic wave detection system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108445088B
CN108445088B CN201810137095.XA CN201810137095A CN108445088B CN 108445088 B CN108445088 B CN 108445088B CN 201810137095 A CN201810137095 A CN 201810137095A CN 108445088 B CN108445088 B CN 108445088B
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rod
elastic wave
adjusting
shock
axial force
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CN108445088A (en
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魏义敏
赵志伟
石轩
陈文华
潘骏
刘琪
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Zhejiang University of Technology ZJUT
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Zhejiang University of Technology ZJUT
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N29/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object
    • G01N29/34Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves, e.g. electronic circuits specially adapted therefor
    • G01N29/346Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves, e.g. electronic circuits specially adapted therefor with amplitude characteristics, e.g. modulated signal
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N29/00Investigating or analysing materials by the use of ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves; Visualisation of the interior of objects by transmitting ultrasonic or sonic waves through the object
    • G01N29/34Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves, e.g. electronic circuits specially adapted therefor
    • G01N29/348Generating the ultrasonic, sonic or infrasonic waves, e.g. electronic circuits specially adapted therefor with frequency characteristics, e.g. single frequency signals, chirp signals
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2291/00Indexing codes associated with group G01N29/00
    • G01N2291/02Indexing codes associated with the analysed material
    • G01N2291/028Material parameters
    • G01N2291/0289Internal structure, e.g. defects, grain size, texture

Abstract

The invention relates to the field of nondestructive testing, and particularly discloses an axial force loading device for elastic wave detection and an elastic wave detection system. The axial force loading device comprises a mounting plate, a guide rail and a feeding device, wherein the guide rail and the feeding device are arranged on the mounting plate; still include one-level guiding mechanism, one-level guiding mechanism including setting up on the mounting panel and for the guide bar of midblock bilateral symmetry distribution, the guide bar be parallel to each other and be on a parallel with the length direction of guide rail, the guide bar on sliding connection have the adjusting plate to be equipped with first spring between adjusting plate and guide bar. The axial force loading device ensures that the axial force is accurately and uniformly applied to the end face of the rotating shaft through the adjusting mechanism, improves the working stability and safety of the elastic wave detection system, and effectively ensures the accuracy of elastic wave detection data.

Description

Axial force loading device for elastic wave detection and elastic wave detection system
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of nondestructive testing, in particular to an axial force loading device for elastic wave detection and an elastic wave detection system.
Background
In engineering practice, rotating shafts are common moving parts used for transmitting energy, and particularly in the fields of power generation, automobiles, aerospace, modern manufacturing and the like, research on rotating non-uniform shafts has not been interrupted. The detection of defects such as cracks in the rotating shaft is also an important research direction, and particularly, in some equipment which is inconvenient for halt detection, the nondestructive detection of the defects in the rotating shaft is required in a rotating state.
The elastic wave detection is a new method for detecting cracks of a rotating shaft, vibration propagates in the rotating shaft in the form of elastic waves, and the propagation characteristics of the elastic waves are influenced by the physical properties of materials, the geometric shape of a detected object, internal defects and other factors, so that whether the crack defects exist in the rotating shaft or not can be known by analyzing the propagation condition of the elastic waves in the rotating shaft. Compared with other existing detection methods, the elastic wave detection method has the advantages that the propagation condition of the elastic wave in the rotating shaft is analyzed by analyzing the change of the elastic wave during excitation and after passing through the rotating shaft, the signal source of the elastic wave is controllable, and the detection accuracy is better.
The axial load is widely existed in various structural vibrations, and the research on the vibration characteristics and the dynamic behavior of the structural member under the axial load not only has important research value in theory, but also has wide engineering background and has important engineering practical significance. For example, large axial loads on the rotor can be a significant problem in compressor reliability, particularly in high temperature heat pump systems. For example, in the flying process of rocket missiles, large axial compression load exists, and the axial compression load can influence the transverse vibration characteristics of the missiles to different degrees. Therefore, in the process of carrying out the online detection on the rotating shaft by the elastic waves, the loading problem of the axial force needs to be considered.
The existing axial force loading usually adopts screw feeding, the end part of the screw is directly contacted with a sliding mounting seat of a rotating shaft, and the mode of loading the axial force by screw feeding is simple in structure and can be manually adjusted. Due to the structural characteristics of the screw, the axial line of the rotating shaft is difficult to be parallel all the time in the feeding process, so that a certain included angle exists between the force finally acting on the end face of the rotating shaft and the axial line of the rotating shaft; in addition, once a plurality of axial lines are not parallel to the rotating shaft, the screw and the sliding installation seat are necessarily in point contact, and at the moment, as long as the action point of force deviates from the central line of the stressed part, the axial force acted on each part of the end surface of the rotating shaft is not uniform.
If the axial force cannot be uniformly loaded on the end face of the rotating shaft along the axial direction, the rotor and the rotating shaft can receive periodically-changed bending stress, so that the fatigue damage and the fracture bending of the rotor are caused, and meanwhile, the rotating shaft, the bearing and the bearing seat generate great friction noise at a stress concentration point, so that the accuracy of the measured elastic wave signal is seriously influenced; in addition, in practical engineering, most of the axial force borne by the rotating shaft is along the axial direction of the rotating shaft, so that the method is in accordance with the engineering practice; secondly, under the condition of high-speed rotation of the rotating shaft, if the axial force applied to the rotating shaft is not uniformly distributed along the axial direction of the rotating shaft, the rotating shaft can be bent due to unbalanced axial force, and under the condition of high-speed rotation, the rotor imbalance caused by the bending is dangerous, so that the damage to the bearing, the rotating shaft and the bearing seat can be easily caused, the safety of experimental instruments and experimental personnel can be threatened, and therefore, the direction of axial force loading needs to be ensured.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide an axial force loading device for elastic wave detection and an elastic wave detection system, wherein the axial force loading device ensures that an axial force is accurately and uniformly applied to the end face of a rotating shaft through an adjusting mechanism, the working stability and safety of the elastic wave detection system are improved, and the accuracy of elastic wave detection data is effectively ensured.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows: an axial force loading device for elastic wave detection comprises a mounting plate, a guide rail and a feeding device, wherein the guide rail and the feeding device are arranged on the mounting plate; the guide rail device is characterized by further comprising a primary adjusting mechanism, wherein the primary adjusting mechanism comprises guide rods which are arranged on the mounting plate and distributed in bilateral symmetry relative to the middle block, the guide rods are parallel to each other and parallel to the length direction of the guide rail, an adjusting plate is connected onto the guide rods in a sliding mode, and a first spring is arranged between the adjusting plate and the guide rods; the adjusting plate is positioned on one side of the middle block, which is far away from the feeding device, and the corresponding surface of the adjusting plate and the middle block is vertical to the axis of the guide rod.
When axial force loading is carried out, the feeding device drives the middle block to slide along the guide rail, and further pushes the adjusting plate to move along the guide rod, and as the contact surface of the adjusting plate and the middle block is perpendicular to the axis of the guide rod, only the guide rod is required to be parallel to the rotating shaft when the adjusting plate is installed, even if the acting force of the feeding device on the middle block deviates from the axis direction of the rotating shaft, the first spring and the adjusting plate can correct the direction of the acting force to a certain extent, and the acting force finally applied to the end face of the rotating shaft is ensured to be parallel to the axis of the rotating shaft, so that the purpose of improving the accuracy of an elastic wave.
Preferably, the feeding device further comprises a second-stage adjusting mechanism, the second-stage adjusting mechanism comprises a first force applying rod and a second force applying rod which are arranged in a split mode, and the first force applying rod is connected with one end, far away from the feeding device, of the middle block; the first force application rod is provided with a guide groove matched with the second force application rod; the second-stage adjusting system further comprises a second spring sleeved on the second force application rod, one side of the second spring corresponding to the first force application rod is connected with a balance check ring, and the balance check ring is slidably sleeved on the second force application rod. When the middle block slides towards the rotating shaft direction along the guide rail under the action of the feeding device, the edge of the guide groove of the first force application rod is firstly contacted with the balance check ring of the second force application rod, and after the balance check ring compresses the second spring, the second force application rod extends into the guide groove of the first force application rod. The acting force is applied to the rotating shaft through the second force application rod, the direction of the acting force can be further ensured, the acting force is applied in a surface mode at the moment, the problem that an acting point deviates from a central line is avoided, and the uniformity of the acting force is improved.
Preferably, the length of the first force application rod is adjustable. The first force application rod comprises a first thrust rod and a second thrust rod, an insertion inner hole at one end of the second thrust rod is inserted into the insertion inner hole of the second thrust rod, and a clamping device is arranged at the insertion inner hole. The distance between adjacent mounting holes of the axial force loading module fixing plate on the mounting plate is large, the stroke range of the thrust sliding block cannot be accurately adjusted, the position of the thrust rod mounted on the digital display thrustor relative to the rotating shaft sliding support frame is close or far, and the axial force loading requirement cannot be met. And the length adjusting device between the first thrust rod and the second thrust rod can well solve the problem, the position of the thrust rod is adjusted after the digital display thrust meter has stress display, and the first thrust rod and the second thrust rod are fixedly connected by utilizing the clamping device
Preferably, the device also comprises a sliding installation seat which is connected with the guide rail in a sliding way; the second force application rod is connected with the sliding installation seat, and the axis of the second force application rod is coplanar with the bilateral symmetry plane of the sliding installation seat. The acting force of the second force application rod acts on the center line of the sliding installation seat and indirectly acts on the end part of the rotating shaft, and the acting force is uniformly distributed.
Preferably, the primary adjusting mechanism further comprises a guide rod mounting frame, and the guide rod mounting frame comprises mounting plates arranged in parallel and fixed side plates connected with the mounting plates; the guide rod is arranged between the two mounting plates.
Preferably, the feeding device comprises an adjusting screw in threaded connection with the mounting plate, the intermediate block is detachably connected with a transition block, and the transition block corresponds to the output end of the adjusting screw. The transition block is convenient to replace, plays a certain protection role for the middle block, can also shorten the distance between the middle block and the feeding device, and reduces the required thread length on the adjusting screw and the feeding distance during loading.
An elastic wave detection system comprises a rotating shaft fixing module, an elastic wave excitation module, a driving module and the axial force loading device, wherein the rotating shaft fixing module comprises a fixing installation seat which is fixedly connected with an installation plate and corresponds to a sliding installation seat; the driving module is positioned at one end of the mounting plate, which is far away from the axial force loading device, and corresponds to the fixed mounting seat; the elastic wave excitation module is positioned on one side of the mounting plate.
Preferably, the elastic wave excitation module comprises a shock wave device, a shock wave rod and a shock wave head, wherein one end of the shock wave rod is connected with the shock wave device, and the other end of the shock wave rod is connected with the shock wave head; the shock head is provided with a shaft sleeve hole, the central line of which is vertical to the axial direction of the shock rod and is parallel to the length direction of the mounting plate; the shaft sleeve hole is rotatably and movably connected with a shaft sleeve; the shaft sleeve is provided with a shaft hole with a center line coincident with that of the shaft sleeve hole. The shaft hole is passed to the pivot that awaits measuring, and the axle sleeve rotates along with the pivot synchronization that awaits measuring, for transition fit between axle sleeve and the pivot, and the power of vibration exciter is finally acted on the pivot through the axle sleeve. Compared with the existing manual knocking mode, the shock wave device effectively avoids the safety risk possibly existing in manual knocking, and through the connection of the shock wave head and the shaft sleeve, the shock force size and the position of each shock excitation are effectively guaranteed to be consistent, the shock force can be uniformly applied to the rotating shaft to be tested, and controllable, stable and continuous elastic wave signals are guaranteed to be excited.
In addition, when an elastic wave signal generated on the shock wave device is transmitted to the rotating shaft through the shock wave rod, the vibration frequency of the elastic wave can be changed, and if the elastic wave directly acts on the rotating shaft, the frequency of the elastic wave acting on the rotating shaft is uncertain, and the final detection result is influenced; and the shaft sleeve is arranged between the shock wave head and the rotating shaft, the shaft sleeve is in transition fit with the rotating shaft, when the elastic wave passes through the shaft sleeve, the vibration frequency is changed, the finally output vibration frequency is related to the material, the shape and the like of the shaft sleeve, and the final output frequency is kept in a certain range no matter how large the input vibration frequency is, namely, the natural frequency of the shaft sleeve is nearby. The amplitude of the elastic wave excited by the elastic wave excitation device is determined by the excitation force of the shock wave device, the vibration frequency depends on the parameters such as the material and the shape of the shaft sleeve, and the parameters such as the amplitude and the frequency of the elastic wave finally acting on the rotating shaft are well ensured to be accurate and controllable, so that the detection precision is improved.
Preferably, the elastic wave excitation module further comprises a shock rod fixing frame, the mounting plate is provided with adjusting holes, the length direction of the adjusting holes is perpendicular to the length direction of the shock rod, and the shock rod fixing frame is connected with the mounting plate through the adjusting holes. The shock wave rod fixing frame has the functions of preventing the shock wave rod from swinging in the axial direction of the shaft to be measured and improving the excitation frequency and the action position accuracy of elastic waves. In order to improve the integral installation precision of the elastic wave excitation module, the shock wave rod fixing frame adopts a split design, after the shock wave rod is installed and debugged, the shock wave rod fixing frame is installed from two sides, and the shock wave rod fixing frame is convenient to adjust left and right by setting the adjusting holes.
Preferably, the driving module comprises a driving motor, the output end of the driving motor is connected with at least two groups of couplers, and a speed increaser is arranged between the two groups of couplers. In engineering practice, the rotating speed of the rotating shaft can reach tens of thousands of revolutions per minute, even hundreds of thousands of revolutions per minute. When the propagation characteristic of elastic waves in the rotating shaft is researched or crack detection is carried out by using the elastic waves, the rotating shaft needs to reach the rotating speed so as to improve the authenticity of data. In engineering, the rotation speed is usually adjusted by adopting a mode of adding an alternating current motor and a frequency converter, but the cost for accurately adjusting tens of thousands of rotation speeds by adopting the mode is very high; the servo motor also has a good speed regulation function, but the mainstream servo motor in the market can only realize stable speed regulation on the premise of low rotating speed. The speed increaser can effectively overcome the defect of low rotating speed of the servo motor, and realizes high rotating speed accurate adjustment on the premise of low cost.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of an elastic wave detection system according to the present embodiment;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged view of a portion of FIG. 1 at A;
FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram of an axial force loading device for elastic wave detection according to the present embodiment;
FIG. 4 is an enlarged view of a portion of FIG. 1 at B;
fig. 5 is a schematic structural diagram of an elastic wave excitation module in the elastic wave excitation device in the elastic wave detection system according to this embodiment.
Detailed Description
In order to make the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention more apparent, the present invention is described in further detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings and embodiments. It should be understood that the specific embodiments described herein are merely illustrative of the invention and are not intended to limit the invention.
Examples
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, an axial force loading device 5 for elastic wave detection comprises a mounting plate 1, a guide rail arranged on the mounting plate 1, and a feeding device 55, wherein an intermediate block 57 is slidably connected to the guide rail, and the feeding device 55 drives the intermediate block 57 to slide relative to the guide rail. The adjustable guide rail device is characterized by further comprising a primary adjusting mechanism, wherein the primary adjusting mechanism comprises guide rods 56 which are arranged on the mounting plate 1 and distributed symmetrically left and right relative to the middle block 57, the guide rods 56 are parallel to each other and parallel to the length direction of the guide rail, an adjusting plate 51 is connected onto the guide rods 56 in a sliding mode, and a first spring 561 is arranged between the adjusting plate 51 and the guide rods 56. The adjusting plate 51 is located on the side of the middle block 57 away from the feeding device 55, and the surface of the adjusting plate 51 corresponding to the middle block 57 is perpendicular to the axis of the guide rod 56.
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, the primary adjustment mechanism further includes a guide bar mounting bracket 54, and the guide bar mounting bracket 54 includes a connecting plate 5421 disposed in parallel with each other and a fixing side plate 541 connected to the connecting plate 5421. The guide bar 56 is disposed between the two connecting plates 5421. The feeding device 55 comprises an adjusting screw rod in threaded connection with the connecting plate 5421, the intermediate block 57 is detachably connected with a transition block 571, and the transition block 571 corresponds to the output end of the adjusting screw rod. The transition block 571 is not only easy to replace and provides some protection for the intermediate block 57, but also reduces the distance between the intermediate block 57 and the feeding device 55, and reduces the length of the thread required on the adjusting screw, and the feeding distance during loading.
When axial force loading is carried out, the feeding device 55 drives the intermediate block 57 to slide along the guide rail, and further pushes the adjusting plate 51 to move along the guide rod 56, and because the contact surface of the adjusting plate 51 and the intermediate block 57 is perpendicular to the axis of the guide rod 56, only the guide rod 56 is required to be ensured to be parallel to the rotating shaft 4 during installation, even if the acting force of the feeding device 55 on the intermediate block 57 deviates from the axis direction of the rotating shaft 4, the first spring 561 and the adjusting plate 51 can also correct the acting force direction to a certain extent, and the acting force finally applied to the end face of the rotating shaft 4 is ensured to be parallel to the axis of the rotating shaft 4, so that the purpose of improving the accuracy of the elastic wave detection result.
Further, as shown in fig. 2 and 3, the device further comprises a two-stage adjusting mechanism, the two-stage adjusting mechanism comprises a first force applying rod 53 and a second force applying rod 52 which are separately arranged, and the first force applying rod 53 is connected with one end of the middle block 57 away from the feeding device 55; the first force application rod 53 is provided with a guide groove 532 matched with the second force application rod 52. The secondary adjustment system further comprises a second spring 521 sleeved on the second force application rod 52, one side of the second spring 521, corresponding to the first force application rod 53, is connected with a balance check ring 531, and the balance check ring 531 is slidably sleeved on the second force application rod 52. And the device also comprises a sliding installation seat 7 which is connected with the guide rail in a sliding way. The second force application rod 52 is connected with the sliding installation seat 7, and the axis of the second force application rod 52 is coplanar with the left-right symmetrical plane of the sliding installation seat 7. The acting force of the second force application rod 52 acts on the center line of the sliding installation seat 7 and indirectly acts on the end part of the rotating shaft 4, and the distribution of the acting force is uniform
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, when the intermediate block 57 slides along the guide rail in the direction of the rotation shaft 4 by the feeding device 55, the edge of the guide groove 532 of the first force application rod 53 first contacts the balance stopper 531 of the second force application rod 52, and after the balance stopper 531 compresses the second spring 521, the second force application rod 52 extends into the guide groove 532 of the first force application rod 53. Acting force is applied to the rotating shaft 4 through the second force applying rod 52, so that the direction of the acting force can be further ensured, the acting force is applied in a surface mode at the moment, the problem that an acting point deviates from a central line is avoided, and the uniformity of the acting force is improved.
As shown in fig. 2 and 3, the first force application rod 53 is adjustable in length. The first force application rod 53 comprises a first thrust rod and a second thrust rod, an insertion inner hole at one end of the second thrust rod, the first thrust rod is inserted into the insertion inner hole of the second thrust rod, and a clamping device 322 is arranged at the insertion inner hole. (the mode that the first thrust rod is arranged in the inserting inner hole can also be selected). because the clearance between the adjacent mounting holes of the axial force loading module fixing plate on the mounting plate 1 is large, the stroke range of the thrust sliding block can not be accurately adjusted, the position of the thrust rod mounted on the digital display thrustor relative to the sliding support frame of the rotating shaft 4 is close or far, and the requirement of axial force loading can not be met. And the length adjusting device between the first thrust rod and the second thrust rod can solve the problem well, the position of the thrust rod is adjusted after the digital display thrust meter has stress display, and the first thrust rod and the second thrust rod are fixedly connected by utilizing the clamping device 322
As shown in fig. 1 and 4, an elastic wave detection system includes a rotating shaft 4 fixing module, an elastic wave excitation module 3, a driving module 2, and the axial force loading device 5, where the rotating shaft 4 fixing module includes a fixing mount that is fixedly connected to a mounting plate 1 and corresponds to a sliding mount 7. The driving module 2 is positioned at one end of the mounting plate 1, which is far away from the axial force loading device 5, and corresponds to the fixed mounting seat; the elastic wave excitation module 3 is positioned on one side of the mounting plate 1.
As shown in fig. 1 and 4, the driving module 2 includes a driving motor 22, at least two groups of couplings 23 are connected to an output end of the driving motor 22, and a speed increaser 21 is disposed between the two groups of couplings 23. In engineering practice, the rotating speed of the rotating shaft 4 can be up to tens of thousands of revolutions per minute, even hundreds of thousands of revolutions per minute. When the propagation characteristic of the elastic wave in the rotating shaft 4 is researched or crack detection is carried out by using the elastic wave, the rotating shaft 4 needs to reach the rotating speed so as to improve the authenticity of data. In engineering, the rotation speed is usually adjusted by adopting a mode of adding an alternating current motor and a frequency converter, but the cost for accurately adjusting tens of thousands of rotation speeds by adopting the mode is very high; the servo motor also has a good speed regulation function, but the mainstream servo motor in the market can only realize stable speed regulation on the premise of low rotating speed. The speed increaser 21 can effectively overcome the defect of low rotating speed of the servo motor, and realizes high rotating speed accurate adjustment on the premise of low cost.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the elastic wave excitation device includes a shock wave device, a shock wave rod 32 and a shock wave head 33, wherein one end of the shock wave rod 32 is connected with the shock wave device, and the other end is connected with the shock wave head 33; the shock wave head 33 is provided with a shaft sleeve 35 hole, the central line of which is vertical to the axial direction of the shock wave rod 32, and the shaft sleeve 35 is rotatably and movably connected in the shaft sleeve 35 hole; the shaft sleeve 35 is provided with a shaft hole 36 with a central line coinciding with that of the shaft sleeve 35 hole.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the elastic wave excitation device for detecting cracks of the rotating spindle comprises a shock wave device, a shock wave rod 32 and a shock wave head 33, wherein the shock wave device generates elastic waves and transmits the elastic waves to a rotating shaft to be measured through the shock wave rod 32 and the shock wave head 33; the shock wave head 33 is provided with a shaft sleeve 35 hole, the central line of which is vertical to the axial direction of the shock wave rod 32, and the shaft sleeve 35 is rotatably and movably connected in the shaft sleeve 35 hole; the shaft sleeve 35 is provided with a shaft hole 36 the center line of which is superposed with the center line of the shaft sleeve 35 hole; the rotation axis that awaits measuring passes shaft hole 36, and axle sleeve 35 rotates along with the rotation axis synchronous of awaiting measuring, for transition fit between axle sleeve 35 and the rotation axis, and the power of vibration exciter passes through axle sleeve 35 and finally acts on the rotation axis. Compared with the existing manual knocking mode, the shock wave device 31 effectively avoids the safety risk possibly existing in manual knocking, the shock wave head 33 is connected with the shaft sleeve 35, the size and the position of the shock force of each time of shock excitation are effectively guaranteed to be consistent, the shock force can be uniformly applied to the rotating shaft to be tested, and therefore controllable, stable and continuous elastic wave signals are guaranteed to be excited. In addition, because the vibration frequency of the elastic wave changes when the elastic wave signal generated on the shock wave is transmitted to the rotating shaft through the shock wave rod 32, if the elastic wave directly acts on the rotating shaft, the frequency of the elastic wave acting on the rotating shaft is uncertain, and the final detection result is influenced; and a sleeve 35 is arranged between the laser head 33 and the rotating shaft, the sleeve 35 is in transition fit with the rotating shaft, when the elastic wave passes through the sleeve 35, the vibration frequency is changed, the finally output vibration frequency is related to the material, the shape and the like of the sleeve 35, and the finally output frequency is kept in a certain range no matter how large the input vibration frequency is, namely, the natural frequency of the sleeve 35 is nearby. The amplitude of the elastic wave excited by the elastic wave excitation device is determined by the excitation force of the shock wave device, and the vibration frequency depends on the parameters such as the material and the shape of the shaft sleeve 35, so that the accuracy and the controllability of the parameters such as the amplitude and the frequency of the elastic wave finally acting on the rotating shaft are well ensured, and the detection precision is improved.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the outer surface of the sleeve 35 is provided with a lubricating groove 351, and the laser head 33 is provided with an oil hole 331 communicating the outer surface of the laser head 33 and the lubricating groove 351; during operation, lubricating oil enters the lubricating groove 351 through the oil hole 331 and is further distributed between the shock head 33 and the shaft sleeve 35, sliding resistance between the shock head 33 and the shaft sleeve 35 is reduced, and the detection effect and the service life of the device are improved.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the sleeve 35 is made of copper alloy, aluminum alloy, steel or rubber; the copper sleeve made of different materials can obtain elastic waves in different frequency ranges, so that the detection device is suitable for detection of different rotating shafts 4 or different actual requirements.
The shock rod 32 comprises a first shock rod 321 and a second shock rod 323, and a length adjusting device is arranged between the first shock rod 321 and the second shock rod 323; when different types of vibration exciters output the same force, the vibration exciters have different initial positions due to different specific hysteresis effects; when the same vibration exciter outputs exciting forces with different frequencies, different initial positions are also provided. The length adjusting device can meet the effective connection of different frequencies and the shock wave device, and ensures the smooth transmission of the shock force.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the length adjusting device includes a plug-in hole 325 axially disposed at one end of the first shock rod 321, and a connection post 324 disposed on the second shock rod 323 and corresponding to the plug-in hole 325; the first shock rod 321 and the second shock rod 323 are connected with the connecting column 324 through the inserting hole 325, and a clamping device 322 is arranged at the connection position.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the shock-wave generator further comprises a control module for controlling the operation of the shock-wave generator, and a force sensor 34 electrically connected with the control module; the force sensor 34 is arranged between the shock rod 32 and the shock head 33 or connected in series on the shock rod 32. When crack detection is carried out, the condition that the exciting force is not output according to a program exists in the vibration exciter; the force sensor 34 is used for measuring the force transmitted on the shock rod 32 and feeding back the force to the control module; the control module compares the measured value with a preset value, sends a corresponding control signal to the shock wave device according to the difference between the measured value and the preset value, adjusts the output force until the preset value is equal, and ensures that the elastic wave excited by the elastic wave excitation device is the same as the preset value; the signal of the force sensor 34 is also used as a trigger signal for elastic wave signal measurement, and when the output value of the force sensor 34 is equal to a preset value, the elastic wave signal is collected. When the shock rod 32 is adjusted in length during installation, when the force sensor 34 outputs a signal, namely the signal represents that the length is proper, the shock rod 32 is stopped from being adjusted in length, and the clamping device 322 is locked.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the elastic wave excitation module 3 further includes a shock rod 32 fixing frame, the mounting plate 1 is provided with an adjusting hole with a length direction perpendicular to the length direction of the shock rod 32, and the shock rod 32 fixing frame is connected with the mounting plate 1 through the adjusting hole. The shock rod 32 fixing frame has the function of preventing the shock rod 32 from swinging in the axial direction of the shaft to be measured, and improving the excitation frequency of elastic waves and the accuracy of the action position. In order to improve the overall installation accuracy of the elastic wave excitation module 3, the shock rod 32 fixing frame adopts a split design, after the shock rod 32 is installed and debugged, the shock rod 32 fixing frame is installed from two sides, and the shock rod 32 fixing frame is convenient to adjust left and right by setting the adjusting holes.
As shown in fig. 4 and 5, the fixed mounting seat and the sliding mounting seat 7 are provided with thrust ball bearing mounting holes, one side of the rotating shaft 4 is mounted on the fixed mounting seat through the thrust ball bearing, and the other side of the rotating shaft 4 is mounted on the sliding mounting seat 7 through the thrust ball bearing, so as to fix the rotating shaft 4. The fixed mounting seat and the sliding mounting seat 7 are respectively provided with sensor mounting holes 6 in at least three directions for mounting sensors to test elastic wave signals of the excitation end and the receiving end, and further collection of transmission signals of the elastic wave signals is achieved. And the sliding installation seat 7 is also provided with an installation hole for installing a thrust rod in the driving module 2. The fixed mounting seat is connected with the mounting plate 1 through a transition plate, the transition plate is provided with at least four sensor mounting holes 6 for measuring the absolute vibration of the rotating shaft 4, and the influence of the relative vibration on a detection result can be analyzed when elastic wave signal data are processed. The distribution of the four sensor mounting holes 6 ensures that at least one hole position cannot interfere with the mounting seat when the mounting seat moves on the corresponding mounting plate 1, so that the mounting positions of the sensors on the corresponding mounting plate 1 at the two ends of the rotating shaft 4 can be selected, and the consistency of the mounting positions of the sensors at the two ends of the rotating shaft 4 is ensured.
The axial force loading device for elastic wave detection and the elastic wave detection system have the advantages that the axial force loading device ensures that the axial force is accurately and uniformly applied to the end face of the rotating shaft through the adjusting mechanism, the working stability and safety of the elastic wave detection system are improved, and the accuracy of elastic wave detection data is effectively ensured.
In conclusion, the above description is only for the preferred embodiment of the present invention and should not be construed as limiting the present invention, and any modification, equivalent replacement, and improvement made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (10)

1. An axial force loading device for elastic wave detection, characterized in that: the feeding device drives the middle block to slide relative to the guide rail; the guide rail device is characterized by further comprising a primary adjusting mechanism, wherein the primary adjusting mechanism comprises guide rods which are arranged on the mounting plate and distributed in bilateral symmetry relative to the middle block, the guide rods are parallel to each other and parallel to the length direction of the guide rail, an adjusting plate is connected onto the guide rods in a sliding mode, and a first spring is arranged between the adjusting plate and the guide rods; the adjusting plate is positioned on one side of the middle block, which is far away from the feeding device, and the corresponding surface of the adjusting plate and the middle block is vertical to the axis of the guide rod.
2. The axial force loading device of claim 1, wherein: the feeding device also comprises a secondary adjusting mechanism, wherein the secondary adjusting mechanism comprises a first force applying rod and a second force applying rod which are arranged in a split mode, and the first force applying rod is connected with one end, far away from the feeding device, of the middle block; the first force application rod is provided with a guide groove matched with the second force application rod; the second-stage adjusting system further comprises a second spring sleeved on the second force application rod, one side of the second spring corresponding to the first force application rod is connected with a balance check ring, and the balance check ring is slidably sleeved on the second force application rod.
3. The axial force loading device of claim 2, wherein: the length of the first force application rod is adjustable.
4. The axial force loading device according to claim 2 or 3, wherein: the sliding installation seat is connected with the guide rail in a sliding manner; the second force application rod is connected with the sliding installation seat, and the axis of the second force application rod is coplanar with the bilateral symmetry plane of the sliding installation seat.
5. The axial force loading device of claim 4, wherein: the primary adjusting mechanism also comprises a guide rod mounting frame, and the guide rod mounting frame comprises connecting plates arranged in parallel and fixed side plates connected with the mounting plates; the guide rod is arranged between the two connecting plates.
6. The axial force loading device of claim 5, wherein: the feeding device comprises an adjusting screw connected with the mounting plate in a threaded manner, a transition block is detachably connected to the middle block, and the transition block corresponds to the output end of the adjusting screw.
7. An elastic wave detection system characterized by: the device comprises a rotating shaft fixing module, an elastic wave excitation module, a driving module and the axial force loading device as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 6, wherein the rotating shaft fixing module comprises a fixing installation seat which is fixedly connected with an installation plate and corresponds to a sliding installation seat; the driving module is positioned at one end of the mounting plate, which is far away from the axial force loading device, and corresponds to the fixed mounting seat; the elastic wave excitation module is positioned on one side of the mounting plate.
8. The elastic wave detection system according to claim 7, characterized in that: the elastic wave excitation module comprises a shock wave device, a shock wave rod and a shock wave head, wherein one end of the shock wave rod is connected with the shock wave device, and the other end of the shock wave rod is connected with the shock wave head; the shock head is provided with a shaft sleeve hole, the central line of which is vertical to the axial direction of the shock rod and is parallel to the length direction of the mounting plate; the shaft sleeve hole is rotatably and movably connected with a shaft sleeve; the shaft sleeve is provided with a shaft hole with a center line coincident with that of the shaft sleeve hole.
9. The elastic wave detection system according to claim 8, characterized in that: the elastic wave excitation module further comprises a shock wave rod fixing frame, the mounting plate is provided with adjusting holes, the length direction of the adjusting holes is perpendicular to the length direction of the shock wave rod, and the shock wave rod mounting frame is connected with the mounting plate through the adjusting holes.
10. The elastic wave detection system according to any one of claims 7 to 9, characterized in that: the driving module comprises a driving motor, the output end of the driving motor is connected with at least two groups of couplers, and a speed increaser is arranged between the two groups of couplers.
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CN100582727C (en) * 2008-05-09 2010-01-20 清华大学 Torsional moment and force loading unit for shield excavation simulation
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