CN108444432B - Existing railway line control network and track line shape synchronous measurement method - Google Patents

Existing railway line control network and track line shape synchronous measurement method Download PDF

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CN108444432B
CN108444432B CN201810511537.2A CN201810511537A CN108444432B CN 108444432 B CN108444432 B CN 108444432B CN 201810511537 A CN201810511537 A CN 201810511537A CN 108444432 B CN108444432 B CN 108444432B
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line
track
station
measuring
measurement
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CN108444432A (en
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白洪林
杨松林
汪小庆
王凯
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Beijing Li Tie Transit Equipment Co Ltd
Beijing Jiaotong University
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Beijing Li Tie Transit Equipment Co Ltd
Beijing Jiaotong University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B21/00Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups
    • G01B21/20Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups for measuring contours or curvatures, e.g. determining profile
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C15/00Surveying instruments or accessories not provided for in groups G01C1/00 - G01C13/00
    • G01C15/002Active optical surveying means

Abstract

The invention discloses a railway existing line control network and a track line shape synchronous measurement method, and solves the problem that the prior art is not suitable for existing line network construction and track accurate measurement. The technical key points comprise that a control point is arranged on a contact net column of a circuit; and (4) carrying out mileage positioning at the measurement starting point of the section of the line to be measured, and measuring the coordinates of the control point and the coordinates of the track center by the measuring trolley to establish absolute control for the line for guiding track maintenance. The system and the method can synchronously complete network establishment and line accurate measurement of the control network, greatly improve the operating efficiency, have simple and quick network establishment, do not need line crossing in the network establishment process, and ensure the operation safety of operating personnel and lines. The control point coordinates obtained by the system and the method and the line coordinates obtained by the track accurate measurement can effectively meet the maintenance requirements of the existing railway.

Description

Existing railway line control network and track line shape synchronous measurement method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of engineering measurement, in particular to a control network building and track fine measurement method for an existing railway line.
Background
The total operating mileage of the railway is 12.4 kilometers by 2016 years, wherein the total operating mileage of the high-speed railway is 2.2 kilometers. Control networks and track fine measurement technologies have been widely used on high-speed railways. In order to improve the maintenance and repair level of the existing line and improve the line quality, the railway general company proposes to popularize and use a control network and a track precision measurement technology on the existing line. The work is arranged by the railway head office, and the work is gradually carried out by each railway office on the line in the railway head office.
1. Current situation of existing railway line
1) High operation interference
Existing lines are not vertical skylights, i.e. if the left line is closed for maintenance, the right line is still in operation. Therefore, the existing line has large transportation pressure and short skylight time, the line-crossing operation cannot be carried out in the skylight time, and the adjacent line frequently comes and needs to be frequently interrupted in the operation process. The traditional method of "wire control net" or "CP 3 control net" has to work across wires when building the net, which is inefficient and dangerous.
2) Limited fund budget
The maintenance budget of the existing line is low, and the network is difficult to be built according to the technical standard of high-speed rails and the track precision measurement is carried out. The running speed of the existing line is lower than 160km/h, the technical requirement on the smoothness of the line is low due to the low running speed, and the requirement on the accuracy of the point position of the control network is low. High-speed railway operation speed is high, and the linear nature of circuit needs to have high ride comfort, and then control net point position precision just needs very high. Therefore, the existing line networking and track accurate measurement are not necessary to be carried out according to the technical standard of high-speed rails, and a technical scheme suitable for the existing line networking and track accurate measurement is developed.
2. Existing net distribution and track accurate measurement method
In the prior art, the net distribution and the track accurate measurement are carried out in two steps, namely, the net distribution is firstly carried out and then the accurate measurement is carried out. The method comprises the following steps:
1) and burying control point piles on the ground around the line or the electric pole to establish a control network.
2) And observing the control network points by using a total station and a level according to a certain technical standard, and performing adjustment to obtain the three-dimensional absolute coordinates of the control network points.
3) And measuring the three-dimensional absolute coordinates of the line by using the three-dimensional coordinates of the control points and using instruments such as a measuring trolley and the like. The existing various measuring trolleys are mainly divided into two types:
(1) a general static measuring trolley with a total station as a main measuring module.
(2) The vehicle is based on an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS).
When the conventional static measurement trolley works, the total station is placed on the tripod, the distance between the total station and the trolley is about 70m, a certain number of control points are viewed from the rear, and after the coordinate position of the total station is determined, the coordinate of the reflecting prism on the trolley is measured to determine the track coordinate. Data exchange is generally carried out between the total station and the measuring trolley through a wireless communication module. The device has mature technology and high measurement precision, but has low integration level and low efficiency.
In the prior art, a measuring trolley based on a combination of an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a total station exists, which can realize rapid measurement of a track, but cannot simultaneously measure a control network.
4) The measured three-dimensional absolute coordinates (generally 5m) at certain intervals are derived, and the line shape and the track deviation (track lifting and track shifting amount) are obtained by performing line shape fitting by software.
The existing measuring method is low in efficiency and very large in investment, particularly, when a control network is measured, a control point needs to be erected firstly, then a total station and a level gauge are used for observing the control network, and then adjustment is carried out, so that time is consumed, and the existing measuring method is like a four-equal-wire network measuring method. The existing track accurate measurement system accurately measures the track line shape on the premise of building a control network, and cannot realize the synchronous measurement of the control network and the track.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects in the prior art, the invention aims to provide a measuring system capable of synchronously measuring the existing railway line control network and the track line shape, which can obtain the absolute coordinate position of each control point in the control network while measuring the track line shape without laying the control network in advance.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
a linear synchronous measurement system for a control network and a track of an existing railway line comprises control points, a measurement trolley, two GNSS global positioning system receivers, an inertial navigation system, a total station and a control computer, wherein the control points, the measurement trolley, the two GNSS receivers, the inertial navigation system, the total station and the control computer are arranged along at least one side of a line section to be measured; the GNSS global positioning system receiver is used as a reference station and arranged within 10km of a line section to be measured, the GNSS global positioning system receiver is used as a mobile station and arranged on the measuring trolley, and the mobile station and the reference station are in communication connection and data transmission through a radio station.
Preferably, the control points are arranged on the contact net columns along the line of the line section to be tested, and one control point is arranged at intervals of 2-3 contact net columns.
Preferably, for a single-track railway, control points are installed on the contact net posts on either side of the track; for a double-track railway, control points are arranged on contact net columns on two sides of the railway.
Preferably, each control point comprises a reflecting prism mounted on the contact net post by a clip.
Preferably, the layout position of the reference station is equal to the distance between the starting point and the end point of the line section to be measured, and the offset error of the layout position of the reference station is +/-300 m.
Preferably, the distance between the contact net columns is 55-65m, and one control point is arranged every 2 contact net columns.
In this further preferred embodiment, the distance between adjacent control points varies with the distance between adjacent contact net columns, and when laying the contact net columns, construction is required to erect one contact net column at a distance of 60m, but the distance inevitably varies due to terrain restrictions, construction errors, and the like.
The invention also aims to provide a railway existing line control network and a railway line shape synchronous measurement method based on the measurement system.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention provides the following technical scheme:
a control network of an existing railway line and a method for synchronously measuring the track line shape comprise the following steps:
s1, mounting a control point on a contact net column of the circuit;
s2, erecting a GNSS receiver as a reference station on an earth control point within 10km around the line section to be measured; a GNSS global positioning system receiver is arranged on the measuring trolley and is used as a mobile station; the mobile station and the reference station realize wireless communication through a radio station;
s3, performing mileage positioning by referring to a railway mile marker nearby, and calculating the measurement starting point position of the line section to be measured;
s4, driving the measuring trolley to the measuring starting point position, receiving the signals of the reference station and the satellite by the mobile station on the measuring trolley at the same time, and obtaining the absolute coordinates of the mobile station by a differential positioning mode;
s5, converting the track center coordinates by combining the internal calibration parameters of the measuring trolley according to the self absolute coordinates obtained by the rover;
s6, driving the measuring trolley to run on the line until the measuring trolley runs to the measuring end position of the line section to be measured, wherein an absolute coordinate is collected by the rover at an interval of 180m-220m in the process, and the total station measures the horizontal distance and the vertical distance from each control point to the center of the line; in the running process of the measuring trolley, the relative coordinates of the line in the running process are continuously acquired by an inertial navigation system;
and S7, comprehensively calculating all the data obtained in the steps S3-S6 to obtain the line coordinates and the control point coordinates in the same absolute coordinate system, and synchronously completing the network establishment and the track precision measurement of the control network.
In this scheme, the accuracy is of the order of 10m for single point positioning when only the rover station is set in step S2; simultaneously setting a reference station and a rover station, and simultaneously receiving signals of a satellite and the reference station by the rover station to carry out GPS differential positioning with the precision of centimeter level; in addition, the line shape obtained by line center absolute coordinate fitting is influenced by too large or too small sampling intervals of the rover. And acquiring absolute coordinates once by the mobile station at intervals of about 200m aiming at the existing railway line, wherein the linear precision obtained by fitting meets the precision specification requirement of the existing railway line.
Preferably, when the rover station acquires absolute coordinates and the horizontal distance and the vertical distance between the total station measurement control point and the center of the off-line, the measuring trolley is in a static state relative to the line.
Preferably, in step S6, the inertial navigation system has a sampling frequency of 10-100 Hz. In this further preferred solution, the sampling frequency of the inertial navigation system can be adjusted according to actual requirements.
Preferably, all data obtained in steps S3-S7 includes coordinate data received by the rover on the survey cart, relative coordinate data of the inertial navigation system, and horizontal and vertical distances to the center of the line for each control point acquired by the total station.
In conclusion, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
according to the system and the method for controlling the existing railway line and synchronously measuring the railway line shape, the control network building and the track accurate measurement are completed synchronously at one time, so that the investment is greatly saved and the efficiency is improved compared with the traditional method of building the network firstly and then accurately measuring the railway line; and the whole operation process is simple and quick, and no line crossing is needed in the whole operation process, so that the safety of personnel and line operation is ensured. The control point coordinates obtained by the method and the line coordinates obtained by track accurate measurement can effectively meet the maintenance requirements of the existing railway line, and are suitable for application and popularization on the existing line.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic diagram of an embodiment of the present invention of a control network for existing railway lines and a system and method for synchronously measuring the linear shape of the railway lines.
FIG. 2 is a schematic structural diagram of a measuring trolley of the present invention for controlling the existing railway line and the linear synchronous measuring system and method of the railway;
FIG. 3 is a comparison chart of repeatability obtained by subtracting a reference value from the horizontal distance of adjacent control points calculated by the coordinates of the control points obtained by measuring a certain line section three times by the linear synchronous measurement system and method of the existing railway line control network and the track;
FIG. 4 is a comparison diagram of the repeatability of the difference between the adjacent control points obtained by calculating the coordinates of the control points obtained by measuring a certain line section three times by the linear synchronous measurement system and method of the existing railway line control network and the track, and subtracting the reference;
FIG. 5 is a comparison diagram of repeatability of a reference value subtracted from a plane deviation of a track obtained by three-time measurement of a certain line section by using the existing railway line control network and the track linear synchronous measurement system and method;
FIG. 6 is a comparison chart of repeatability obtained by subtracting a reference value from a track elevation deviation obtained by three times of measurement on a certain line section through the existing railway line control network and the track linear synchronous measurement system and method.
Reference numerals: 1-measuring the trolley; 2-total station, 3-GNSS global positioning system receiver; 4-an inertial navigation system; 5-a line section to be tested; 6-a reference station; 7-control point; 8-contact net post.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings.
A railway existing line control network and track linear synchronous measurement system comprises a control point 7, a measurement trolley 1, two GNSS global positioning system receivers, an inertial navigation system 4 and a total station 2, wherein the control point 7, the measurement trolley 1, the two GNSS global positioning system receivers, the inertial navigation system 4 and the total station 2 are arranged along at least one side of a line section 5 to be measured, the inertial navigation system 4 and the total station 2 are both arranged on the measurement trolley 1, and one GNSS global positioning system receiver is used as a reference station 6 and is arranged on a ground control point within a certain range of the line section 5 to be measured, and the ground control point is generally within 10 km. A GNSS global positioning system receiver is arranged on the measuring trolley 1 as a mobile station 3, and the mobile station 3 and the reference station 6 are in communication connection and data transmission through a radio station.
The control points 7 are arranged on the contact net columns 8 along the line of the line section 5 to be tested, and one control point 7 is arranged at intervals of 2-3 contact net columns 8.
For a single-track railway, a control point 7 is arranged on a contact net column 8 positioned on any side of the track; for a double-track railway, control points 7 are arranged on contact net columns 8 on two sides of the railway.
Each control point 7 comprises a reflecting prism which is mounted on the contact net post 8 by means of a clip.
The arrangement position of the reference station 6 is equal to the distance between the starting point and the end point of the line section 5 to be measured, and the offset error of the arrangement position of the reference station 6 is +/-300 m.
The distance between the contact net columns 8 is 55-65m, and one control point 7 is arranged every two contact net columns 8.
According to strict construction requirements, the distance between two adjacent contact net columns 8 is 60m, and the distance between two adjacent control points 7 is generally 180m, so that the reflecting prisms of the control points 7 can be directly installed on the contact net columns 8, one control point 7 is installed at every two contact net columns 8, and the arrangement process of reflecting prism supports is reduced. During actual line construction, the distance between the contact net columns 8 is larger or smaller, and the distance between the corresponding adjacent control points 7 is also changed along with the distance between the contact net columns 8.
The arrangement position of the reference station 6 is equal to the distance between the starting point and the end point of the line section 5 to be measured, and the offset error of the arrangement position of the reference station 6 is +/-300 m.
A method for laying an existing line control network and accurately measuring a track comprises the following steps:
s1, mounting a control point 7 on the contact net post 8 of the circuit;
s2, erecting a GNSS receiver as a reference station 6 on an earth control point within 10km around the line section 5 to be measured; a GNSS global positioning system receiver is arranged on the measuring trolley 1 and is used as a rover station 3; the mobile station 3 and the reference station 6 realize wireless communication and data transmission through a radio station;
s3, performing mileage positioning by referring to a railway mile marker nearby, and calculating the position of a measurement starting point of the line section 5 to be measured;
s4, driving the measuring trolley 1 to the measuring starting point position, receiving the reference station 6 and the satellite signal by the mobile station 3 on the measuring trolley 1 at the same time, and obtaining the absolute coordinate of the mobile station by a differential positioning mode;
s5, converting the track center coordinates by combining the calibration parameters in the measuring trolley 1 according to the self absolute coordinates obtained by the rover station 3;
s6, driving the measuring trolley 1 to run on the line until the measuring trolley 1 runs to the measuring end position of the line section 5 to be measured, wherein an absolute coordinate is collected by the rover station 3 at an interval of 180m-220m in the process, and the total station 2 measures the horizontal distance and the vertical distance from each control point to the center of the line; in the running process of the measuring trolley 1, the inertial navigation system 4 continuously collects the relative coordinates of the line in the running process;
and S7, comprehensively calculating all the data obtained in the steps S3-S6 to obtain the line coordinates and the coordinates of the control points 7 in the same absolute coordinate system, and synchronously finishing the layout and track accurate measurement of the control network.
In this scheme, the accuracy is of the order of 10m for single point positioning when only the rover station 3 is set in step S2; the base station 6 and the rover station 3 are arranged at the same time, and the rover station 3 receives signals of the satellite and the base station 6 at the same time to conduct GPS differential positioning with the accuracy of centimeter level.
And when the mobile station 3 acquires absolute coordinates and the horizontal distance and the vertical distance between the measuring control point of the total station 2 and the center of the off-line, the measuring trolley 1 is in a static state relative to the line. In addition, the line shape obtained by fitting the absolute coordinates of the line center is influenced by too large or too small sampling intervals of the rover station 3. Aiming at the existing railway line, the linear precision obtained by fitting the absolute coordinates acquired by the rover station 3 once at an interval of about 200m meets the precision specification requirement of the existing railway line.
In step S6, the inertial navigation system 4 has a sampling frequency of 10-100 Hz. The inertial navigation system 4 acquires a large amount of data, and the data is generally stored and processed on site by a control computer (not shown in the figure) on the measurement trolley 1.
In this further preferred solution, the sampling frequency of the inertial navigation system 4 can be adjusted within the above range according to the actual needs.
All the data obtained in steps S3-S6 include the coordinate data received by the rover station 3 on the survey cart 1, the relative coordinate data of the inertial navigation system 4, and the horizontal and vertical distances to the center of the line of each control point 7 acquired by the total station 2.
Coordinate acquisition: acquiring the absolute coordinates of the current position of the mobile station 3, and converting the calibration parameters of the mobile station 3 in the measuring trolley 1 to obtain the absolute coordinates of the total station 2 and the line center; the vertical distance and the horizontal distance between the control point 7 and the total station 2 are acquired through the total station 2, so that the relative coordinate of the control point 7 relative to the center of the line is obtained, and the absolute coordinate of the control point 7 is obtained through calculation of the absolute coordinate of the center of the line.
Acquiring the relative coordinates of the central point of the track: and a navigation coordinate system is established through a gyroscope of the inertial navigation system 4, the speed and the position of the measuring trolley 1 in the navigation coordinate system are calculated according to the output of the accelerometer, a line track is further obtained, and the relative coordinate of the track center point is calculated.
In order to verify the measurement accuracy and reliability of the synchronous measurement method, experiments are carried out on the Jingu high-speed rail passenger dedicated line (the verification on the high-speed rail dedicated line mainly comprises the steps that the absolute coordinates and the track linear deviation of the control points on the high-speed rail dedicated line are known quantities, so that the known quantities can be used as reference values to verify the accuracy and reliability of the system and the method), and the control points on the same section of track and the right side of the line are measured for three times in the experiments. The measured track length is 3.4km, the total number of the control points is 19, and the evaluation analysis is carried out on the test result from the two aspects of external coincidence precision and internal coincidence precision.
Because the control point coordinate data are large in numerical value and inconvenient to compare, and the control point accuracy is evaluated mainly through the horizontal distance and the height difference measurement accuracy of adjacent control points, the designed control point coordinates and the measured control point coordinates are converted into the horizontal distance value and the height difference value between the adjacent control point coordinates for comparison and analysis.
Fig. 3 is a repetitive comparison diagram obtained by calculating coordinates of control points obtained by measuring a certain line section three times through the existing railway line control network and track linear synchronous measurement system and method of the invention, and subtracting a reference value from a horizontal distance of adjacent control points.
Fig. 4 is a repetitive comparison diagram obtained by calculating coordinates of control points obtained by measuring a certain line section three times by the method of the present invention for the existing railway line control network and the track linear synchronous measurement system, and subtracting a reference value from a difference between adjacent control points.
As can be seen from fig. 3 and 4, the distance and height difference calculated by obtaining the plane coordinates of the control points through three measurements have very good repeatability, and the mutual difference value of the three measurements is less than 5 mm.
The evaluation method of the external coincidence precision comprises the following steps: the designed distance value and the height difference value of the adjacent control points are calculated, the actual measured distance value and the height difference value are calculated and obtained by the system and the method of the invention and the coordinates of the control points, and then the actual measured distance value and the height difference value are compared. As can be seen from the deviation curves in fig. 3 and 4, the maximum deviation from the known data is within 8 mm. And referring to the railway engineering measurement specification, the measurement precision of the control point meets the requirement of the laying precision of the existing line control network.
Track linear measurement accuracy:
FIG. 5 is a comparison diagram of repeatability of a reference value subtracted from a plane deviation of a track obtained by three-time measurement of a certain line section by using the existing railway line control network and the track linear synchronous measurement system and method;
FIG. 6 is a comparison chart of repeatability obtained by subtracting a reference value from a track elevation deviation obtained by three times of measurement on a certain line section through the existing railway line control network and the track linear synchronous measurement system and method.
And comparing the measurement data of about 500 meters of the railway management department with the track deviation data obtained by linear fitting of the track coordinate data measured by the system and the method.
As shown in fig. 5 and 6, the repeatability of the three-time measurement indicates that the internal coincidence accuracy is good, the three-time difference is within 5mm, the smoothness of the three-time measurement after a certain fixed error value is subtracted is good, and the surface linear measurement accuracy is high.
The external coincidence precision is as follows: as can be seen from the deviation curves in FIGS. 5 and 6, the deviation in the plane is within 15mm and the deviation in the elevation is within 20mm, which is related to the systematic difference between the two systems (which must be present when the measuring tools are different).
The system difference of the two measurement systems and the fixed error (caused by different erection positions of the reference station, initialization of an inertial navigation system and other factors) between two measurement data of the same measurement system have no direct influence on the smoothness evaluation of the line. The measurement precision can meet the requirement of the smoothness measurement precision of the existing railway line.
The present embodiment is only for explaining the present invention, and it is not limited to the present invention, and those skilled in the art can make modifications of the present embodiment without inventive contribution as needed after reading the present specification, but all of them are protected by patent law within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. A control network of an existing railway line and a method for synchronously measuring the track line shape comprise the following steps:
s1, mounting a control point (7) on a contact net column (8) of the line;
s2, erecting a GNSS receiver as a reference station (6) within 10km around the line section (5) to be tested; a GNSS global positioning system receiver is arranged on the measuring trolley (1) and is used as a mobile station (3); the mobile station (3) and the reference station (6) realize wireless communication through a radio station;
s3, performing mileage positioning by referring to a railway mile marker nearby, and calculating the measurement starting point position of the line section (5) to be measured;
s4, the measuring trolley (1) is driven to a measuring starting point position, the rover station (3) on the measuring trolley (1) receives the reference station (6) and the satellite signals at the same time, and absolute coordinates of the rover station are obtained in a differential positioning mode;
s5, converting the track center coordinate by combining the internal calibration parameters of the measuring trolley (1) according to the self absolute coordinate obtained by the rover station (3);
s6, driving the measuring trolley (1) to run on the line until the measuring trolley (1) runs to the measuring end position of the line section (5) to be measured, wherein an absolute coordinate is collected by the rover (3) at an interval of 180m-220m in the process, and the total station (2) measures the horizontal distance and the vertical distance from each control point to the center of the line; in the running process of the measuring trolley (1), the relative coordinates of the line in the running process are continuously acquired by the inertial navigation system (4);
and S7, comprehensively calculating all the data obtained in the steps S3-S6 to obtain the line coordinates and the control point coordinates in the same absolute coordinate system, and synchronously completing the network establishment and the track precision measurement of the control network.
2. The existing railway line control network and the synchronous track line measuring method according to claim 1, wherein the measuring trolley (1) is in a static state relative to the line when the rover station (3) acquires absolute coordinates and the total station (2) measures the horizontal distance and the vertical distance from the control point to the center of the off-line.
3. The existing railway line control network and track line shape synchronous measurement method according to claim 1, wherein the sampling frequency of the inertial navigation system (4) is 10-100 Hz.
4. The existing railway line control network and the track line shape synchronous measurement method according to claim 1, wherein all the data obtained in the steps S3-S7 include coordinate data received by the rover station (3) on the measurement car (1), relative coordinate data of the inertial navigation system (4), and horizontal and vertical distances from the line center to the control points (7) acquired by the total station (2).
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