CN108418314A - Tunable radio source framework - Google Patents

Tunable radio source framework Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108418314A
CN108418314A CN201810061003.4A CN201810061003A CN108418314A CN 108418314 A CN108418314 A CN 108418314A CN 201810061003 A CN201810061003 A CN 201810061003A CN 108418314 A CN108418314 A CN 108418314A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
power
source
amplifier
rectifier
resonator
Prior art date
Application number
CN201810061003.4A
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
A·卡拉里斯
M·P·凯斯勒
K·L·霍尔
N·A·帕洛
Original Assignee
韦特里西提公司
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Priority to US201161515324P priority Critical
Priority to US61/515,324 priority
Application filed by 韦特里西提公司 filed Critical 韦特里西提公司
Priority to CN201280048893.6A priority patent/CN103843229B/en
Publication of CN108418314A publication Critical patent/CN108418314A/en

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Classifications

    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/10Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling
    • H02J50/12Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using inductive coupling of the resonant type
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L53/00Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles
    • B60L53/10Methods of charging batteries, specially adapted for electric vehicles; Charging stations or on-board charging equipment therefor; Exchange of energy storage elements in electric vehicles characterised by the energy transfer between the charging station and the vehicle
    • B60L53/12Inductive energy transfer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F38/00Adaptations of transformers or inductances for specific applications or functions
    • H01F38/14Inductive couplings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J5/00Circuit arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks and dc networks
    • H02J5/005Circuit arrangements for transfer of electric power between ac networks and dc networks with inductive power transfer
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/50Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power using additional energy repeaters between transmitting devices and receiving devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/60Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power responsive to the presence of foreign objects, e.g. detection of living beings
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/70Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving the reduction of electric, magnetic or electromagnetic leakage fields
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/80Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving the exchange of data, concerning supply or distribution of electric power, between transmitting devices and receiving devices
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J50/00Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power
    • H02J50/90Circuit arrangements or systems for wireless supply or distribution of electric power involving detection or optimisation of position, e.g. alignment
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H02GENERATION; CONVERSION OR DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC POWER
    • H02JCIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS OR SYSTEMS FOR SUPPLYING OR DISTRIBUTING ELECTRIC POWER; SYSTEMS FOR STORING ELECTRIC ENERGY
    • H02J7/00Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries
    • H02J7/02Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters
    • H02J7/022Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter
    • H02J7/025Circuit arrangements for charging or depolarising batteries or for supplying loads from batteries for charging batteries from ac mains by converters characterised by the type of converter using non-contact coupling, e.g. inductive, capacitive
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L2240/00Control parameters of input or output; Target parameters
    • B60L2240/10Vehicle control parameters
    • B60L2240/36Temperature of vehicle components or parts
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01FMAGNETS; INDUCTANCES; TRANSFORMERS; SELECTION OF MATERIALS FOR THEIR MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
    • H01F3/00Cores, Yokes, or armatures
    • H01F2003/005Magnetic cores for receiving several windings with perpendicular axes, e.g. for antennae or inductive power transfer
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7005Batteries
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T10/00Road transport of goods or passengers
    • Y02T10/60Other road transportation technologies with climate change mitigation effect
    • Y02T10/70Energy storage for electromobility
    • Y02T10/7072Electromobility specific charging systems or methods for batteries, ultracapacitors, supercapacitors or double-layer capacitors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/12Electric charging stations
    • Y02T90/122Electric charging stations by inductive energy transmission
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02TCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION
    • Y02T90/00Enabling technologies or technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02T90/10Technologies related to electric vehicle charging
    • Y02T90/14Plug-in electric vehicles

Abstract

Present document relates to tunable radio source framework, explanation is the improved configuration transmitted for wireless power.The parameter for adjusting the component of wireless energy transfer system is transmitted to the power in the load of equipment with control.The power output for controlling source amplifier, to keep substantially 50% duty ratio on the rectifier of equipment.

Description

Tunable radio source framework

The application is application No. is 201280048893.6 (PCT/US2012/049777), and the applying date is August 6 in 2012 Day, the divisional application of the Chinese patent application of entitled " tunable radio source framework ".

The cross reference of related application

This application claims the priority for the U.S. Provisional Patent Application 61/515,324 submitted for 4th in August in 2011.

Technical field

This disclosure relates to wireless energy transfers, to complete the mthods, systems and devices of this transmission, Yi Jiying With.

Background technology

Energy or work(can be wirelessly transmitted using various well known radiation or far field and non-radiative or near field technique Rate, such as jointly owned entitled " the Wireless of US 2010/010909445 is published as on May 6th, 2010 The U.S. Patent application 12/613,686 of Energy Transfer System " was published as 2010/ on December 9th, 2010 The U.S. Patent application 12/860,375 of 0308939 entitled " Integrated Resonator-Shield Structure ", It is published as on March 15th, 2,012 2012/0062345 entitled " Low Resistance Electrical Conductor " U.S. Patent application 13/222,915, entitled " Multi-Resonator Wireless Energy Transfer for It is described in detail in the U.S. Patent application 13/283,811 of Lighting ", incorporates its content by reference.It is existing There is the wireless energy transfer system of technology to be limited by various factors, including to user security, low energy transmission efficiency and / the misgivings of alignment-tolerance are physically adjacent to the restricted of energy supply (power supply) and receiver parts.

A specific challenge is the control and tuning of resonator structure and power supply in wireless energy transfer, thus to negative It carries and transmits controlled power supply.In wireless energy transfer system, source and equipment can move or change position.With system member The relative positioning of part changes, and the characteristic of wireless energy transfer also changes.Coupling between source and equipment can change, such as Reduce the efficiency of energy transmission.Variation in wireless energy transfer characteristic can change the power for sending load to, or lead It causes to send the undesired fluctuation in the power of the load of equipment to.It needs for tunable wireless with tunable component The method and design of energy delivery system transmit to remain to effective and constant energy of load of equipment regardless of being How is the variation of positioning, coupling, the orientation of system component etc..

Invention content

In various embodiments, multiple systems and process provide wireless energy transfer using the resonator of coupling.Certain In embodiment, wireless energy transfer system can require or have benefited from verification and the source of certification wireless energy and the energy of receiver Power.These embodiments are characterized in generality, and can be applied to resonator in extensive range, but regardless of as described herein How is specific example.

In embodiment, magnetic resonators may include certain combinations of inductor and capacitor.Such as capacitor, inductance The other circuit element of device, resistor, switch etc. be inserted between magnetic resonators and power supply, and/or magnetic resonators with Between power termination.In this disclosure, including the conductive coil of the high Q inductive loops of resonator is properly termed as inductor And/or inductive load.When its wireless coupling (passing through mutual inductance) arrives other systems or foreign object, inductive load can also refer to For inductor.In this disclosure, the circuit element other than inductive load is referred to as being impedance matching network Or the component of IMN.It should be appreciated that all, certain elements of the component for impedance matching network of being known as can be or not It is the component of magnetic resonators.Which element is a part for resonator, and which detached with resonator will be humorous depending on specific magnetic Shake device and wireless energy transfer system design.

Unless otherwise specified, term wireless energy transfer is interchangeably used in present disclosure, wireless power transmits, nothing Linear heat generation rate transmission etc..It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that wireless system design and work(in extensive range described herein It can support various system architectures.

In wireless energy transfer system as described herein, work(can be wirelessly exchanged between at least two of the resonators Rate.Resonator can provide, receive, keep, transmit and distribute energy.The source of wireless power is properly termed as source or power supply, wirelessly The recipient of power is properly termed as equipment, receiver and power termination.Resonator can be source, equipment or both be simultaneously, or Person can change into another from a function in a controlled manner.Without with power supply or bite can device (power drain) Wired connection, be configured as keep or distribute energy resonator be properly termed as transponder.

The resonator of the wireless energy transfer system of the present invention can with resonator own dimensions compared at a distance from larger Upper transmission power.That is if resonator dimensions are characterized with the radius that can surround the smallest sphere of resonator structure, So wireless energy transfer system of the invention can transmit power by the distance of the characteristic size more than resonator.System System can between resonator positive energy exchange, wherein resonator has different characteristic sizes, and wherein, the sense of resonator Property element have different sizes, different shape, be made of different materials.

Can transmit energy between the resonant object being separated from each other by explanation and can be by wireless energy of the invention Transmission system is described as with coupling regime, energization area or volume, the resonant object can with variable distance apart and It can be moved relative to each other.In certain embodiments, energy transmission by region or refer to and be properly termed as effective place Domain refers to.In addition, wireless energy transfer system may include more than two resonator, they each is may be coupled to Power supply, power termination are either coupled to both power supply and power termination or are not coupled to the arbitrary of power supply or power termination One.

The energy wirelessly provided can be used for being powered electrically or electronically equipment, be recharged to battery or right Energy-storage units charge.Can be that multiple equipment charges or powers, or can be gone here and there to the power transmission of multiple equipment simultaneously Rowization, so that one or more equipment middle reception power during a period of time, hereafter power transmission can be switched to other Equipment.In various embodiments, multiple equipment can simultaneously or in a time multiplexed manner or in a manner of frequency division multiplexing, Or in a manner of space division multiplexing or in such a way that direction is multiplexed or with any group of the multiplexing of time-division, frequency division, space division and direction It closes, shares the power from one or more sources with one or more other equipments.Multiple equipment can share power each other, At least one equipment continuously, discontinuously, periodically, occasionally or temporarily reconstructs, to be carried out as wireless power source Operation.Equipment is supplied suitable for the techniques described herein and application it should be understood by one skilled in the art that existing Electricity and/or the various modes of charging.

Present disclosure is with reference to specific single circuit block and such as capacitor, inductor, resistor, diode, change The element of depressor, switch or the like;The combination of these elements as network, topological structure, circuit etc.;With with inherent special The object of property, such as with the capacitance or electricity for being distributed (or local distribution, opposite with complete lump) throughout entire object " self-resonance " object of sense.It should be understood by one skilled in the art that units of variance is adjusted and controlled in circuit or network The performance of the circuit or network can be adjusted, these adjustment can be generally described as tuning, adjustment, matching, correction etc..It can The tunable component of combination to be used alone, or in addition to adjustment such as inductor and capacitor or inductor and capacitor In addition also using the other methods for the operating point for tuning or adjusting wireless power transmission system.Those skilled in the art should manage Solution, the special topological structure described in present disclosure can be implemented in a manner of various other.

Unless otherwise defined, all technical and scientific terms used herein has general with present disclosure fields The identical meaning that logical technical staff is generally understood.With herein by reference refer to or combined disclosure, patent application, Patent and other with reference to there are in the case of contradictory, including this specification of definition is dominant.

Do not depart from scope of the present disclosure in the case of, above-mentioned any feature can be used alone or in combination.This The other features, purposes and advantages of system and method disclosed in text will be apparent according to detailed description and accompanying drawings below 's.

Description of the drawings

The system block diagram of Fig. 1 wireless energy transfers configuration.

Fig. 2A -2F are the example arrangement and schematic diagram of simple harmonic device structure.

Fig. 3 is the block diagram of the radio sources with single-ended amplifier.

Fig. 4 is the block diagram of the radio sources with difference amplifier.

Fig. 5 A and 5B are the block diagrams of sensing circuit.

Fig. 6 A, 6B and 6C are the block diagrams of radio sources.

Fig. 7 is the curve graph for showing influence of the duty ratio to the parameter of amplifier.

Fig. 8 is the simplified electrical circuit diagram of the wireless power source with switching amplifier.

Fig. 9 shows the curve graph of the influence of the Parameters variation of wireless power source.

Figure 10 shows the curve graph of the influence of the Parameters variation of wireless power source.

Figure 11 A, 11B and 11C are the curve graphs of the influence for the Parameters variation for showing wireless power source.

Figure 12 shows the curve graph of the influence of the Parameters variation of wireless power source.

Figure 13 is the simplified electrical circuit diagram of wireless energy transfer system, which includes that there is switch to put The wireless power source and wireless power apparatus of big device.

Figure 14 shows the curve graph of the influence of the Parameters variation of wireless power source.

Figure 15 is to show possible non-uniform magnetic field caused by irregular spacing between the brick in magnetic material The figure of the resonator of distribution.

Figure 16 is can to reduce magnetic material heat in the block with the resonator of the tiled arrangements in piece of magnetic material Point.

Figure 17 A are the resonators with the piece of magnetic material for including smaller monolithic brick, and Figure 17 B and 17C are that have to be used for The resonator of the additional heat conduction material material strip of heat management.

Figure 18 is the block diagram of the wireless energy transfer system with band and out-of-band communication channel.

Figure 19A and Figure 19B can be used for using out-of-band communication channel come the step of verifying energy transmission channel.

Figure 20 A and Figure 20 B are the block diagrams of wireless energy transfer system electronics.

Figure 21 A and Figure 21 B are the block diagrams of the wireless energy transfer system with tunable electronic device.

Figure 22 A and Figure 22 B are the rough schematic view of the wireless energy transfer system with tunable electronic device, Figure 22 C It is the specific embodiment of switch element.

Figure 23 A-23D are the figures for the operation for showing amplifier.

Figure 24 is the block diagram of the embodiment of tunable wireless energy transfer system.

Figure 25 is the schematic diagram of the embodiment of tunable wireless energy transfer system.

Figure 26 is the schematic diagram of the embodiment in the source of the impedance matching network with balance.

Specific implementation mode

As described above, this disclosure relates to use the wireless energy transfer of the electromagnetic resonator of coupling.But this energy Transmission is not limited to electromagnetic resonator, and wireless energy transfer system as described herein is more universal, and can be wide with use scope General resonator and resonant object is implemented.

It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that including resonator for the important consideration of the power transfer based on resonator Efficiency resonator couples.Such as it is published as within 23rd entitled " the RESONATOR of US 20100237709 in September in 2010 U.S. Patent application on July 22nd, 12/789,611 and 2010 of ARRAYS FOR WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER " It is published as entitled " the WIRELESS ENERGY TRANSFER FOR REFRIGERATOR of US 20100181843 The extensive discussions of problems, such as coupled mode reason are provided in the U.S. Patent application 12/722,050 of APPLICATION " By (CMT), the coefficient of coup and the factor, quality factor (also referred to as Q factor) and impedance matching, and simultaneously from there through reference entirety Enter herein, as fully illustrating herein.

Resonator can be defined as that the resonance structure of energy can be stored at least two different forms, and wherein store up The energy deposited vibrates between two kinds of forms.Resonance structure has specific oscillation mode, has resonance (mode) frequency f harmonious Shake (mode) field.Angle resonance frequency omega can be defined as the π f of ω=2, and harmonic period T can be defined as T=1/f=2 π/ω, humorous Wavelength X of shaking can be defined as λ=c/f, wherein c is the speed of related field wave (being light for electromagnetic resonator).Lacking damage In the case of consumption mechanism, coupling mechanism or external energy offer or consumption mechanism, by the total amount W of the energy of resonator storage It can be kept fixed, but the form of energy will vibrate between the two kinds of forms supported by resonator, wherein in a kind of shape Another kind form is maximum when formula minimum, and vice versa.

For example, can resonator be constructed so that the energy of two kinds of forms of storage is magnetic energy and electric energy.Furthermore, it is possible to Resonator is constructed, so that by the electric energy major limitation of electric field storage in structure, and the magnetic energy stored by magnetic field is mainly enclosing In the region of resonator.In other words, total electric energy and magnetic energy can be equal, but their positioning is different.Using this structure, Energy exchange between at least two structures can be adjusted by the resonance magnetic near field of at least two resonators.These types Resonator be properly termed as magnetic resonators.

The important parameter of resonator for wireless power transmission system is the quality factor or the Q factors or Q of resonator, It is inversely proportional which characterizes energy attenuation and with the energy loss of resonator.It can be defined as Q=ω * W/P, wherein P be The time average power consumption of stable state.That is the resonator with high Q is with relatively low intrinsic loss, it can be relatively long Storage energy in time.Since resonator is with its 2 Γ off-energy of intrinsic attenuation rate, Q, also referred to as its intrinsic Q, by Q= ω * W/2 Γ are provided.Quality factor is also represented by the quantity of cycle of oscillation T, it be in resonator energy with factor e-2πDecaying institute It spends.Note that the quality factor or the intrinsic quality factor or Q of resonator are only due to intrinsic loss mechanism.It is connected to Or it is coupled to generator g or loads the Q of resonator of l and be properly termed as " having load quality factor " or " having load Q ".In the presence of not purport In the case of the external object as the component of energy delivery system, the Q of resonator be properly termed as " the disturbance quality factor " or " disturbance Q ".

It can be interacted and positive energy exchange by the resonator that the arbitrary portion in its near field couples.If resonator With substantially the same resonant frequency, the efficiency of this energy transmission will significantly improve.It is exemplary but non-limiting , it is contemplated that there is QsSource resonator and have QdEquipment resonator.High Q wireless energy transfers system can utilize high Q's Resonator.The Q of each resonator can be height.The geometric average of resonator QCan also or as being replaced by It is high.

Coupling factor k be 1≤| k | the number between≤1, it is placed on wavelet length apart from upper in source and equipment resonator When, it can be unrelated with the resonant frequency in source and equipment resonator (or almost unrelated).On the contrary, coupling factor k can be mainly by source Opposite geometry between equipment resonator and apart from determining, it considers the physics for the field for adjusting its coupling to decline Subtract law.For the coefficient of coup in MTCan be resonant frequency and other characteristics of resonator structure Majorant.In the application using the wireless energy transfer in the near field of resonator, it is desirable to so that the size ratio resonance of resonator Wavelength is much smaller, to reduce the power attenuation due to radiation.In certain embodiments, high Q resonator is sub-wavelength structure. In certain electromagnetic embodiments, high Q resonator structure design is with the resonant frequency higher than 100kHz.In other embodiment In, resonant frequency can be less than 1GHz.

In the exemplary embodiment, being radiated the power in far field by these wavelet length resonators can be humorous by reducing The resonant frequency of device of shaking and the working frequency of system further decrease.It in other embodiments, can be by being arranged for far field Two or more resonators in far field destructive interference reduce far-field radiation.

In wireless energy transfer system, resonator may be used as wireless energy source, wireless energy capture device, forwarding Device or combinations thereof.In embodiment, resonator can transmit energy, receive between energy or relay forwarding energy alternately. In wireless energy transfer system, one or more magnetic resonators may be coupled to energy source, and it is close to be energized to generation oscillating magnetic flux .Other resonators in oscillating magnetic flux near field can capture these, and convert energy into electric energy, can be used for for Load supplying or charging, to realize the wireless transmission of useful energy.

So-called " useful " energy in useful energy exchange is that must be transferred to equipment to be with acceptable rate It is powered or the energy or power of charging.Can be that system or application are relevant corresponding to the transmission efficiency that useful energy exchanges. For example, the high power Vehicular charging application for transmitting several kw of power needs at least 80% effectively, in order to provide useful power Amount, causes useful energy to exchange, and is enough in the case where not making all parts of transmission system significantly generate heat, is vehicle electrical It charges in pond.In certain consumer-electronics applications, it may include more than 10% or any energy of any other amount that useful energy, which exchanges, Transmission efficiency is measured, it is acceptable to keep rechargeable battery " completion " and long-term operation.In transplantation medicine equipment application, have Can be injure patient but not extend battery life, or wake up any of sensor or monitor or driver with energy exchange It exchanges.In this applications, 100mW or smaller power is useful.In distributed sensing application, the power of milliwatt passes It can be useful to pass, and transmission efficiency can be more much lower than 1%.

Power or charge application in for wireless energy transfer useful energy exchange can effectively, extremely effectively or Enough effectively, as long as waste energy levels, heat dissipation and related field strength are in admissible limit, and it is appropriate with correlative factor Ground balances, such as cost, weight, size etc..

Resonator is properly termed as source resonator, equipment resonator, the first resonator, the second resonator, transponder resonator May include three (3) or more resonator Deng, realization method.For example, single source resonator can transfer energy to Multiple equipment resonator or multiple equipment.Energy can be transmitted to the second equipment from the first equipment, then from the second equipment to Three equipment, etc..Multiple sources can transfer energy to individual equipment or be connected to the multiple equipment of individual equipment resonator, Or it is connected to the multiple equipment of multiple equipment resonator.Resonator can alternately or simultaneously serve as source, equipment, and/or They can be used for power from the source relay forwarding a position to the equipment in another position.Intermediate EMR electromagnetic resonance Device can be used for extending the distance range of wireless energy transfer system, and/or generate the magnetic near-field region concentrated.Multiple resonance Device can be linked together in the form of daisy chain, pass through extended distance and source in extensive range and devices exchange energy.Example Such as, source resonator can transmit power via several transponder resonators to equipment resonator.Energy from source can transmit To the first transponder resonator, the first transponder resonator can arrive power transfer to the second transponder resonator, second Third, etc., until final transponder resonator gives its energy transmission to equipment resonator.In this regard, increasing can be passed through Add transponder resonator to extend and/or adjust the range or distance of wireless energy transfer.Height can be divided between multiple sources Power stage is transmitted to multiple equipment and is recombinated in remote location.

Resonator can be designed using coupled-mode-theory model, circuit model, electromagnetic field model etc..Resonator can To be configured to have tunable characteristic size.Resonator can be designed as processing different capacity grade.In exemplary embodiment In, high power resonator can need the conductor and more high rated current or voltage component of bigger with relatively low power resonator.

Fig. 1 shows the example arrangement of wireless energy transfer system and the figure of arrangement.Wireless energy transfer system can be with Including at least one source resonator (R1) 104 (optionally R6,112), it is coupled to energy source 102 and optional sensor With control unit 108.Energy source can be any kind of energy source that can be converted into electric energy, and electric energy can be used for driving Dynamic source resonator 104.Energy source can be battery, solar panels, feeder cable, wind-force or water turbine, EMR electromagnetic resonance Device, generator etc..It will be for driving the electric energy of magnetic resonators to be converted to oscillating magnetic field by resonator.Oscillating magnetic field can be by it He captures resonator, they can be equipment resonator (R2) 106, (R3) 116, may be optionally coupled to energy usage dress Set 110.Oscillating field may be optionally coupled to transponder resonator (R4, R5), be configured to extend or adjust wireless energy biography Pass region.Equipment resonator can capture the magnetic field near source resonator, transponder resonator and other equipment resonator, And electric energy is converted them to, it can be used by energy usage device.Energy usage device 110 can be electricity, electronics, machine Tool or chemical device etc. are configured as receiving electric energy.Transponder resonator can be captured in source, equipment and transponder resonator Neighbouring magnetic field, and other resonators can be transferred the energy to.

Wireless energy transfer system may include being coupled to the single source resonator 104 of energy source 102 and being coupled to energy Consume the individual equipment resonator 106 of device 110.In embodiment, wireless energy transfer system may include being coupled to one Or multiple source resonators of multiple energy sources, and may include the multiple equipment for being coupled to one or more energy usage devices Resonator.

In embodiment, energy can directly be transmitted between source resonator 104 and equipment resonator 106.In other realities It applies in example, energy can be transmitted to one from one or more source resonators 104,112 via any number of intermediate resonator Or multiple equipment resonator 106,116, intermediate resonator can be equipment resonator, source resonator, transponder resonator etc.. Energy can be transmitted via the device of network or resonator 114, may include sub-network 118,120, with such as token The arbitrary of the topological structure of ring, grid, ad hoc etc. combines to arrange.

In embodiment, wireless energy transfer system may include concentrating sensing and control system 108.In embodiment, Resonator, energy source, energy usage device, network topology structure, operating parameter etc. can be monitored and adjusted by control processor Parameter, to meet the certain operational parameters of system.Central control processor can adjust the parameter of the single component of system, To optimize gross energy transmission efficiency, optimize the quantity of power etc. of transmission.Other embodiment can be designed as having substantially distributed Sensing and control system.Sensing and control may be embodied in each resonator or resonator group, energy source, energy usage In device etc., the parameter of single component in adjustment group is can be configured as, so that the power of transmission is maximum or minimum so that Energy transfer efficiency maximum in the group etc..

In embodiment, the component of wireless energy transfer system, which can have, arrives such as equipment, source, transponder, power The wirelessly or non-wirelessly data link of the other component in source, resonator or the like, and data can be sent or receive, it can For realizing distributed or centralization sensing and control.Radio communication channel can be detached with wireless energy transfer channel, or Person it can be identical.In one embodiment, it can be used for exchanging information for the resonator of Power Exchange.At certain , can be by the component that is modulated in source or circuitry in the case of a little, and sensed with port parameter or other monitoring devices The variation exchanges information.Resonator can by tuning, the resonators parameter such as variation, change, shiver come logical with signal each other Know, resonator parameter is, for example, resonator impedance, can in influence system other resonators reflected umpedance.It is described herein System and method may be implemented to transmit while power and communication signal between resonator in wireless power transmission system, or Person may be implemented using during identical magnetic field is during different time with during wireless energy transfer or with the work(of different frequency The transmission of rate and signal of communication.In other embodiments, it can be wirelessly communicated with individual radio communication channel to realize, example Such as WiFi, bluetooth, infrared, NFC.

In embodiment, wireless energy transfer system may include multiple resonators, and total systems performance can be by system The control of middle multiple element improves.For example, can be by its resonant frequency from higher with the equipment that lower-wattage requires The resonant frequency distancing for the high-powered sources of power requirement powered to equipment.For another example, setting for less power is needed It is standby to adjust its rectifier circuit, so that they extract less power from source.In such ways, low and high power is set It is standby safely to operate, or charge from single high-powered sources.In addition, the multiple equipment in charging zone can find it Available power, adjusted according to arbitrary various consumption control algolithms, first obtain, do one's best, protecting for example, arriving first Demonstrate,prove power etc..Power consumption algorithm substantially can be classification, give certain user or certain class priority facility or it Can the power as obtained by comparably sharing in source support any number of user.It can be by present disclosure institute Any multiplexing technology for stating shares power.

In embodiment, electromagnetic resonator can be effected or carried out using the combination of shape, structure and configuration.Electromagnetism Resonator may include inductive element, distributed inductance or the inductor combination with total inductance L and capacitive element, distribution The combination of capacitance or capacitance with total capacitance C.The minimum circuit model of electromagnetic resonator includes capacitance, inductance and resistance, It is shown in Fig. 2 F.Resonator may include inductive element 238 and capacitive element 240.In the case where providing primary power, example The electric field energy being such as stored in capacitor 240, system will be transferred energy to capacitor discharge and are stored in inductor Energy is passed back to the electric field energy being stored in capacitor 240 and vibrated by the magnetic field energy in 138, inductor again.At these Intrinsic loss in electromagnetic resonator includes being lost caused by the resistance and radiation loss in perception and capacitive element, by Resistance R 242 in Fig. 2 F is indicated.

Fig. 2A shows the simplification figure of exemplary magnetic resonator structure.Magnetic resonators may include conductor circuit, serve as The inductive element 202 and capacitive element 204 of conductor circuit end.The inductor 202 and capacitor 204 of electromagnetic resonator can be with Body circuit element or inductance and capacitance can be distributed, and can by conductor constituting in the structure, shape or The mode of positioning and generate.

For example, inductor 202 can be obtained to surround surface region by formed conductor, as shown in Fig. 2A.It is such humorous The device that shakes is properly termed as the loop inductor of capacitive load.Note that we can be come generally using term " circuit " or " coil " It indicates conductive structure (conducting wire, pipe, band etc.), surrounds the surface of arbitrary shape and size, there is any number of bending.Scheming In 2A, the surface region of encirclement is round, but surface can be arbitrary various other shape and size, and can be designed as reality Existing particular system performance specification.In embodiment, inductor element, distributed inductance, network, array, inductance can be used Inductance is realized in the series connection of device and inductance and parallel combination etc..What inductance can be fixed or can be changed, and can be used for changing Impedance matches and resonant frequency operating condition.

There are various modes to obtain the capacitance needed for the desired resonant frequency for realizing resonator structure.It can be such as Fig. 2A It is shown to be formed and the use of condenser armature 204 or capacitance be distributed, and can be in the adjacent of multiloop conductor It is realized between winding.Capacitor element, distributed capacitor, network, array, the series connection of capacitance and parallel combination etc. can be used To realize capacitance.What capacitance can be fixed or can be changed, and can be used for changing impedance matching and resonant frequency operation Condition.

Can include more than one circuit for the inductive element in magnetic resonators, and can outwardly or inwardly or upwards Or it closes downwards or at certain groups of direction and spirals.In general, magnetic resonators can have it is variously-shaped, size and number curved Song, they can be made of various conductive materials.For example, conductor 210 can be conducting wire, twisted wire, band, pipe, by conductive ink The trace of the formation such as water, coating, gelinite, or the trace that is formed by printing single on circuit boards or a plurality of trace.Figure The exemplary embodiment of the trace patterns on the bottom plate 208 for constituting galvanic circle is shown in 2B.

In embodiment, the magnetic material of any size, shape, thickness etc. can be used or by in extensive range The material of permeability and loss value forms inductive element.These magnetic materials can be solid block, they can surround hollow Volume, they can be made of many smaller magnetic material bricks for tiling and/or being stacked, they can with by Conductive foil or shell made of high conductive material are integrated.Conductor can be made to be wrapped in around magnetic material to generate magnetic field.This One or more than one axis that a little conductors can surround structure is wound.Multiple conductors can surround magnetic material and wind, it is in parallel or Series connection or via switch combination, to constitute the dipole moment of the near-field pattern and/or oriented structure that especially adjust.Including magnetic material The example of the resonator of material is shown in Fig. 2 C, 2D, 2E.In figure 2d, resonator includes the circuit of conductor 224, is wrapped in magnetic Property material 222 magnetic core around, produce be parallel to conductor 224 circuit axis dipole moment 228 structure.It takes May include certainly multiple circuits of conductor 216,212 in how to drive conductor, resonator, around magnetic material 214 in orthogonal side Winding upwards constitutes the resonator with the dipole moment 218,220 oriented in more than one directions, as shown in Figure 2 C.

Electromagnetic resonator can have feature, inherent characteristic or the resonant frequency determined by its physical characteristic.This resonance Frequency is the energy W of the energy that is stored by resonator in the electric field storage by resonatorE(WE=q2/ 2C, wherein q is capacitor C On charge) with by magnetic field store energy WB(WB=Li2/ 2, wherein i is the electric current by inductor L) it is vibrated between Frequency.It is properly termed as the characteristic frequency, intrinsic frequency or resonant frequency of resonator in the frequency of its positive energy exchange, is provided by ω,

The resonant frequency of resonator can be changed by the inductance L and/or capacitance C of tuned resonator.Implement at one In example, systematic parameter dynamic is adjustable or tunable, and optimized operation condition is as closely as possible to realize.But more than being based on It discusses, it is immutable or when component is not adapted dynamically realizes that energy effective enough is handed over even if in certain systematic parameters It changes.

In embodiment, resonator may include inductive element, be coupled to be arranged in it is more than one in capacitor network Capacitor and circuit element.In embodiment, the coupling network of capacitor and circuit element can be used for defining the more of resonator In one resonant frequency.In embodiment, resonator can be in more than one frequency resonance or partly resonance.

In embodiment, wireless power source may include being coupled at least one resonator coil of power supply, can be Switching amplifier, such as class-D amplifier or E class A amplifier As or combinations thereof.In the case, resonator is actually power supply Power termination.In embodiment, wireless power apparatus may include at least one resonator coil, be coupled to power termination, Can be switching rectifier, such as D classes rectifier or E class rectifiers or combinations thereof.In the case, resonator coil is practical On be power supply for power termination, the impedance of load is also directly related to work-exclusion of the load from resonator coil Rate.Power transmission efficiency can be by the input impedance of the output impedance and load of power source between power supply and power termination Match the influence of level of intimate.It, can be to the greatest extent may be used when the input impedance of load is equal to the conjugate complex number of the internal driving of power supply The big efficiency of energy sends power to load.Power supply or power termination impedance are designed to obtain maximum power transfer efficiency usually Referred to as " impedance matching " is referred to as the ratio of useful-wasted power in optimization system.Impedance matching can pass through increasing Network or the group of the elements such as capacitor, inductor, transformer, switch, resistor is added to execute, in power supply and power Impedance matching network is formed between load.In embodiment, the machinery adjustment in element positioning and change can be used to implement resistance Anti- matching.For the load of variation, impedance matching network may include units of variance, dynamic-tuning with ensure even if Under dynamic environment and operating conditions, that are also substantially maintained as towards the impedance of load and the characteristic impedance of power supply in power end This conjugate complex number.

In embodiment, impedance matching can by tune power supply drive signal duty ratio and/or phase and/or Frequency, or completed by tuning the physical unit in power supply, such as capacitor.This mechanical tuning device is advantageous, because It can without using tunable impedance matching networks, or by simplified tunable impedance matching networks, such as Network with less tunable component, allows the impedance matching between power supply and load.In embodiment, be tuned to electricity The duty ratio and/or frequency and/or phase of the drive signal in source can generate dynamic impedance matching system, have the tune of extension Humorous range or precision are controlled electronically with higher power, voltage and or current performance, with faster, have less External component etc..

In certain wireless energy transfer systems, the resonator parameter of such as inductance can be influenced by environmental condition, example Such as surroundings, temperature, direction, the quantity of other resonators and position.Variation in the operating parameter of resonator can be with Change certain systematic parameters, such as transmits the efficiency of power in wireless energy transfer.For example, positioned at the height of resonator attachment Conductive material can deviate the resonant frequency of resonator, and make itself and other resonant object detunings.In certain embodiments, Resonator feedback mechanism is used, it corrects its frequency by changing reactance component (such as inductive element or capacitive element) Rate.In order to realize that acceptable matching condition, at least some of systematic parameter need dynamic adjustable or tunable.All systems Parameter can dynamically can adjust or tunable, the operating condition generally optimized with realization.However, even if all or portion Subsystem parameter is immutable, can also realize energy exchange effective enough.In some instances, at least some of equipment can be with It is not that dynamic is adjustable.In some instances, it is adjustable to can not be dynamic at least some of source.In some instances, until It is adjustable that few certain intermediate resonators can not be dynamic.In some instances, can be without any systematic parameter State is adjustable.

In certain embodiments, the variation in the parameter of component can be mitigated by alternative pack, the characteristic of the component It is when by difference in operating environment or operating point, in a manner of complementary (complimentary) or opposite or direction Change.In embodiment, system can be designed by the component of such as capacitor, depend on temperature, power level, frequency Rate etc. has opposite correlation or parameter variations.In certain embodiments, component values can be stored in as the function of temperature In look-up table in system microcontroller, the reading from temperature sensor can be used in system control backfeed loop, to adjust Whole other parameters are carried out component values caused by compensation temperature and are changed.

In certain embodiments, the variation in parameters of operating part value can tune electricity by the active including tunable component Road compensates.The circuit of the operating environment and operating point of monitoring part and system is desirably integrated into design.Monitoring circuit can be with Signal necessary to changing in Active Compensation parameters of operating part is provided.For example, temperature reading can be used for computing system capacitance mid-term The variation of prestige, or be used to indicate the system capacitance value measured in the past, by accessing other capacitors or tuning capacitor, with Desired capacitance is kept in temperature range and allows to compensate.In embodiment, RF amplifier switch waveforms can be adjusted, to mend Repay the component values in system or load variation.In certain embodiments, the variation in parameters of operating part can by active cooling, Heating, active environment, which are adjusted etc., to be compensated.

Parameter measurement circuit can measure or monitoring system in certain power, voltage and current, signal, processor or control Circuit processed can adjust specific settings or operating parameter based on these measurement results.Furthermore it is possible to obtain electric in whole system The magnitude of the magnitude and phase, power signal of pressure and current signal, with measurement or monitor system performance.Present disclosure is in the whole text In the measuring signal that refers to can be port parameter signal and voltage signal, current signal, power signal, temperature signal etc. Arbitrary combination.These parameters can be measured using analog or digital technology, it can be sampled and is handled, can used Well known analog- and digital- treatment technology is digitized or converts to it.In embodiment, the preset value of certain measurement amounts can To be loaded into system controller or storage unit, and in multiple feedbacks and control loop.In embodiment, measurement, The arbitrary combination of monitoring and/or preset signal can be used in feedback circuit or system, to control resonator and/or be The operation of system.

Adjustment algorithm can be used for adjusting frequency, Q and/or the impedance of magnetic resonators.Algorithm can be used as input to be joined Signal is examined, the degree of deviation with the expectation operating point of system is relevant to, and can be exported and the related correction of the deviation or control Signal, the variable or tunable element of control system, desired operating point or multiple expectation operating points are taken back by system. Resonator exchanged in wireless power transmission system power or they in system operation procedure from circuitry cuts when, can be with Obtain the reference signal for magnetic resonators.To the correction of system can continuously, periodically, based on across threshold value, number Word formula, using analogy method etc. apply or execute.

In embodiment, it damages exterior material and object can be by the resonator of absorption wireless power transmission system Magnetically and/or electrically energy, and introducing potential efficiency reduces.In various embodiments by positioned resonator, so that damaging outer The influence of portion's material and object is minimum, and by setting structure field forming element (for example, conductive structure, plate and piece, magnetic material Expect structure, plate and piece, combination thereof) so that it influences minimum to mitigate these influences.

Reduce damage influence of the material to resonator a mode be using high conductivity material, magnetic material or its It combines to shape resonator field, so that they avoid damaging object.In the exemplary embodiment, high conductivity material and magnetic The layered structure of property material such as can adjust, shape, being directed toward, redirecting at the electromagnetic field of resonators, so that they are by making field Deflection avoids the lossy object near them.Fig. 2 D show the top view of resonator, have below magnetic material Conductor sheet 226 can be used for adjusting the field of resonator, so that they avoid damaging below conductor sheet 226 Object.Good conductor layer or thin slice 226 may include any high conductivity material, such as copper, silver, aluminium, according to for given application It is optimal.In certain embodiments, the layer of good conductor or thin slice than conductor resonator works frequency skin depth more It is thick.Conductor sheet can be preferably more than the size of resonator, extend beyond the physical extent of resonator.

The environment and system of safety hazard are brought to swarming into the human or animal in effective field volume in the quantity of power of transmission In, may include safety measure in systems.In the embodiment for the safety measure that power stage needs to become privileged, resonator Packaging, structure, material etc. can be designed as providing and the interval of galvanic circle in magnetic resonators or " strick precaution " area.In order to provide High Q resonator and power and control circuit can be arranged in further protection inside the shell, by high voltage or current limit Inside the shell, protect resonator and electric component from weather, humidity, sand and dust, dust and other external factor, Yi Jichong It hits, vibrate, scraping, exploding and other kinds of mechanical shock.This shell has paid close attention to the Multiple factors of such as heat dissipation, with Just it is that electric component resonator keeps acceptable operating temperature range.In embodiment, shell can have nondestructive material structure It makes, such as composite material, plastics, wood, concrete etc., and may be used to provide from damaging object to resonator elements most Small distance.Nothing can be improved from may include the minimum separation distances for damaging object or environment of metal object, brine, oil etc. The efficiency that heat input transmits.In embodiment, " strick precaution " area can be used for increasing the disturbance of the system of resonator or resonator Q.In two kinds of embodiment, minimum separation distances can provide more reliable or more constant resonator operation parameter.

In embodiment, resonator and its respective sensor and control circuit can be with other electronics and control systems And subsystem has multiple degree of integration.In certain embodiments, power and control circuit are completely separate with equipment resonator Module or shell, have integrated with existing system minimum degree, provide power output and control and diagnosis interface, at certain In a little embodiments, equipment is configured as intracavitary in the shell and accommodates resonator and circuit block, or is integrated into the casing of equipment Or in shell.

Exemplary resonators circuit

Fig. 3 and 4 shows high level block diagram, shows power generation, the monitoring of the exemplary source for wireless energy transfer system And control unit.Fig. 3 is the block diagram in source, including half-bridge switch power amplifier and certain measurement of correlations, tuning and control electricity Road.Fig. 4 is the block diagram in source, including full-bridge switch power amplifier and certain measurement of correlations, tuning and control circuit.

Half bridge system topological structure shown in Fig. 3 may include processing unit, execute control algolithm 328.Execute control The processing unit of algorithm 328 processed can be microcontroller, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, processor, number Signal processor etc..Processing unit can be individual equipment or it can be equipment network.Control algolithm can be run In any part of processing unit.Algorithm can be specific application customization, and may include analogy and digital circuit and signal Combination.Main algorithm can measure and adjust voltage signal and level, current signal and level, signal phase, digital counting Setting etc..

System may include optional source/equipment and/or source/other resonator communication controlers 332, be coupled to Radio communication circuit 312.Optional source/equipment and/or source/other resonator communication controlers 332 can be and execute master The component of the identical processing unit of control algolithm, can be component or circuit in microcontroller 302, can be in wireless power The outside of transmission module, it can with it is substantially similar for the communication controler in wired power supply or battery powered application, But adjustment is adapted to including certain new or different functions, to enhance or support wireless power transfer.

System may include PWM generator 306, be coupled at least two transistor gate drivers 334, and can be by controlling Algorithm control processed.Two transistor gate drivers 334 can be coupled to two power crystals directly or via door driving transformer Pipe 336 passes through 342 driving source resonator coil 344 of impedance matching network component.Power transistor 336 can with it is adjustable DC power supply 304 is coupled and is powered by it, and adjustable DC power supply 304 can be controlled by variable bus voltage Vbus.Vbus controllers It can be controlled by control algolithm 328, and can be the component of microcontroller 302 or other integrated circuits or be integrated into. Vbus controllers 326 can control the voltage output of adjustable DC power supply 304, and the power that can be used for controlling amplifier is defeated Go out and be transmitted to the power of resonator coil 344.

System may include sensing and measuring circuit, including signal filtering and buffer circuit 318,320, can believe It number is input to before processor and/or such as converter of analog-digital converter (ADC) 314,316, forming, modification, filtering, place The signals such as reason, buffering.The converter of processor and such as ADC 314,316 are desirably integrated into microcontroller 302, Huo Zheke To be split circuit, it may be coupled to processing core 330.Signal based on measurement, control algolithm 328 can be generated, be limited System, startup, end, control, adjustment or modification PWM generator 306, communication controler 332, Vbus control 326, source impedance Any one in matching controller 338, filter/buffer element 318,320, converter 314,316, resonator coil 344 Operation, and can be the component of microcontroller 302 or be integrated into, or separation circuit.Impedance matching network 342 resonator coils 344 may include electrically controllable, variable or tunable component, such as capacitor, switch, inductor etc., As described herein, these components can have according to from its portion that 338 received signal of source impedance matching controller adjusts Part value or operating point.Operation and the characteristic of resonator can be adjusted with tuning part, including send the power of resonator to, and The power of resonator transmission, the resonant frequency of resonator, the impedance of resonator.The Q of resonator and any other coupling be System etc..Resonator can be the resonator of any types or structure as described herein, including capacitive load loop resonator, packet Include planar resonator or its arbitrary combination of magnetic material.

Full-bridge system topology shown in Fig. 4 may include processing unit, execute main control algorithm 328.It executes The processing unit of control algolithm 328 can be microcontroller, application-specific integrated circuit, field programmable gate array, processor, number Word signal processor etc..System may include source/equipment and/or source/other resonator communication controlers 332, be coupled to nothing Line telecommunication circuit 312.Source/equipment and/or source/other resonator communication controlers 332 can be and execute main control algorithm phase The component of same processing unit, can be the component or circuit in microcontroller 302, can be in wireless power transfer module Outside, it can with it is substantially similar for the communication controler in wired power supply or battery powered application, but adjust adapt to With including certain new or different functions, to enhance or support wireless power transfer.

System may include PWM generator 410, have at least two outputs, be coupled to the driving of at least four transistor gates Device 334, and can be controlled by the signal generated in main control algorithm.Four transistor gate drivers 334 can directly or warp Four power transistors 336 are coupled to by door driving transformer, pass through 342 driving source resonator of impedance matching network component Coil 344.Power transistor 336 can be coupled with adjustable DC power supply 304 and be powered by it, and can adjust DC power supply 304 can be with It is controlled, can be controlled by main control algorithm by Vbus controllers 306.Vbus controllers 326 can control adjustable DC electricity The voltage output in source 304 can be used for controlling the power output of amplifier and be transmitted to the power of resonator coil 344.

System may include sensing and measuring circuit, including signal filtering and buffer circuit 318,320 and differential/single-ended Conversion circuit 402,404 can be input to turn of processor and/or such as analog-digital converter (ADC) 314,316 in signal Before parallel operation, the signals such as forming, modification, filtering, processing, buffering.The converter of processor and such as ADC 314,316 can be with It is integrated into microcontroller 302, or can be split circuit, may be coupled to processing core 330.

Signal based on measurement, main control algorithm can generate, limit, start, terminate, control, adjust or change PWM Generator 410, communication controler 332, Vbus controllers 326, source impedance matching controller 338, filter/buffer element 318,320, the behaviour of any one in differential/single-ended conversion circuit 402,404, converter 314,316, resonator coil 344 Make, and can be the component of microcontroller 302 or be integrated into, or separation circuit.

342 resonator coil 344 of impedance matching network may include electrically controllable, variable or tunable component, such as electricity Container, switch, inductor etc., as described herein, these components can have to be connect according to from source impedance matching controller 338 Its component values of the signal adjustment of receipts or operating point.It can be wrapped with tuning part to realize the operation of resonator and the tuning of characteristic Include the power for sending resonator to, the power of resonator transmission, the resonant frequency of resonator, the impedance of resonator.Resonator Q and any other coupling system etc..Resonator can be the resonator of any types or structure as described herein, packet Include planar resonator or its arbitrary combination of capacitive load loop resonator including magnetic material.

Impedance matching network may include fixed value component, such as capacitor, multi-functional and component as described herein Network.Part impedance matching network A, B and C may include the series connection and simultaneously of inductor, capacitor, transformer and these components Connection combination, as described herein.In certain embodiments, part impedance matching network A, B and C can be empty (short circuit).At certain In a little embodiments, part B includes the tandem compound of inductor and capacitor, and part C is sky.

Full-bridge topologies can allow using DC bus voltages identical with equivalent half-bridge amplifier with compared with height output work( Rate level operation.The half-bridge exemplary topology of Fig. 3 can provide single-ended drive signal, and the exemplary full-bridge of Fig. 4 is topological Structure can provide Differential Driving to source resonator 308.Impedance matching topological structure and component and resonator structure are for two System can be different, as described herein.

Exemplary system shown in Fig. 3 and 4 may further include fault detection circuit 340, can be used for triggering The shutdown of microcontroller in source amplifier, or change or interrupt the operation of amplifier.This protection circuit may include height Fast comparator, it is amplifier bus voltage (Vbus) from DC power supplys 304, humorous across source to monitoring amplifier return current The voltage or any other voltage or current signal for device 308 and/or the optional tuning plates of shaking, can cause to system The damage of middle component, or unexpected operating condition can be generated.Preferred embodiment can depend on and different application phase The potential unexpected operation mode closed.In anisotropic embodiment, it can not realize and protect circuit or do not assemble circuit onboard. In certain embodiments, system and component protection can be implemented as part main control algorithm and other system monitorings and control electricity Road.In embodiment, special faulty circuit 340 may include output (not shown), be coupled to main control algorithm 328, can be with Trigger system closedown, the reduction (such as reduction of Vbus) of output power, in the variation of PWM generator, operating frequency Change, to the variation of tuned cell or any other reasonable operation, is realized by control algolithm 328 to adjust operating point mould Formula improves system performance and/or provides protection.

As described herein, the source in wireless power transmission system can use the input impedance of impedance matching network 342 Measurement, as the system control loop to a main control algorithm part error or control signal carry out driving source resonator line Circle 344.In the exemplary embodiment, the variation in the arbitrary combination of three parameters can be used for tuning wireless power source, to mend The variation in environmental condition is repaid, the variation in coupling, the variation in plant capacity requirement, module, circuit, component or subsystem Variation in performance, source in system, equipment or transponder quantity increase or reduce, and Client-initiated changes etc..In example In property embodiment, to the component values and DC of the variable electrical component of amplifier duty ratio, such as variable condenser and inductor The variation of bus voltage can be used for changing operating point or the working range of radio sources, and improve certain system operatio values.For The detail of the control algolithm of different application can change depending on desirable system performance and state.

Impedance measuring circuit that is all as described herein and showing in figures 3 and 4 can use binary channels sampling ADC simultaneously It realizes, these ADC are desirably integrated into order in controller chip, or can be the components of split circuit.To source resonance Sampling can generate electric current and electricity while the voltage and current signals of the input of device impedance matching network and/or source resonator The phase and magnitude information of signal are pressed, and can be handled using well known signal processing technology, to generate complex impedance ginseng Number.In certain embodiments, only monitoring voltage signal or only monitor current signal is sufficient.

Impedance measurement as described herein can use the direct method of sampling, than other certain well known method of sampling phases To simple.In embodiment, measure voltage and current signals and can be adjusted by filtering/buffer circuit before being input to ADC, Filtering and bi-directional scaling.In embodiment, filtering/buffer circuit can be adjusted to be operated in multiple signal levels and frequency, Such as filter shape and width can manually, electronically, automatically be adjusted by main control algorithm etc. in response to controlling signal Circuit parameter.The exemplary embodiment of filtering/buffer circuit is shown in figures 3,4 and 5.

Fig. 5 shows exemplary electrical circuit unit more detailed view, can be used in filtering/buffer circuit.Implementing In example, depend on for the ADC types in system design, single-ended amplifier topological structure can be by eliminating to from difference Turn changes to the needs of the hardware of single-ended signal format, to reduce for characterizing system, subsystem, module and/or component capabilities Analog signal measuring route complexity.In other realization methods, differential wave format can be preferred.Institute in Fig. 5 The realization method shown is exemplary, and should not necessarily be construed to the only possible mode for realizing function described herein.On the contrary, answering Understand, analog signal path can use the component with different input requirements, and therefore there can be unlike signal path frame Structure.

In single-ended and differential amplifier topological structure, to the impedance matching network 342 for driving resonator coil 344 Input current can be obtained by measuring the voltage across capacitor 324, or via certain form of current sensor. It, can be in the ground connection return path for carrying out impedance matching network 342 for the exemplary single-ended amplifier topological structure in Fig. 3 Upper sensing electric current.For exemplary differential power amplifier shown in Fig. 4, to the impedance matching of driving resonator coil 344 The input current of network 342 can use the differential amplifier across 324 terminal of capacitor, or via certain form of electricity Flow sensor measures.In the differential topology structure of Fig. 4, the negative output terminal of source power amplifier can be with duplicated capacitor 324。

In two topological structures, the input voltage and electric current indicated to source resonator and impedance matching network is obtained Single-ended signal after, 502 can be filtered to signal, to obtain the signal waveform of expectations section.It in embodiment, can be with Signal is filtered to obtain the fundametal compoment of signal.In embodiment, the type of the filtering of execution, for example, low pass, band logical, fall into Wave etc., and the filter circuit topology structure that uses, for example, ellipse, Chebyshev, Bart it is wet this etc., can depend on be The particular requirement of system.It is not necessarily to filtering in certain embodiments.

Voltage and current signals can be amplified by optional amplifier 504.Optional amplifier 504 can be It is fixed or variable.The gain of amplifier can manually, electronically, be automatically controlled in response to control signal etc..Response In control algolithm, the gain etc. of amplifier can be adjusted in the feedback loop by main control algorithm.In embodiment, for putting The required specification of big device can depend on signal strength and desired measurement accuracy, and for different application situation and control Algorithm processed can be different.

The analog signal of measurement can have the DC offsets 506 for increasing to them, it is needed to bring signal into ADC defeated Enter in voltage range, can be 0 to 0.33V for certain systems.In some systems, depend on all specific ADC's Specification may not need this stage.

As described above, the efficiency of the power transmission between generator and power termination can be hindered by the output of generator The anti-influence with the matched level of intimate of load input impedance.In exemplary system as shown in Figure 6A, when load 604 The input impedance internal driving that is equal to generator or power amplifier 602 conjugate complex number when, can be with effect as big as possible Rate sends power to load.Design generator or load impedance are properly termed as with obtaining high and/or maximum power transfer efficiency " impedance matching ".Impedance matching can pass through the element of insertion capacitor, resistor, inductor, transformer, switch etc. Appropriate network or group execute, between generator 602 and power termination 604 to form impedance matching shown in fig. 6b Network 606.In other embodiments, the machinery adjustment in element positioning and change can be used to implement impedance matching.Needle as above Described in varying duty, impedance matching network 606 may include units of variance, and dynamic is adjustable to ensure even if dynamic Under state environment and operating conditions, also it is substantially maintained as towards the impedance of load and the characteristic impedance of generator in generator end Mutual conjugate complex number.In embodiment, dynamic impedance matching can pass through the duty ratio of the drive signal of tuning generator And/or phase and/or frequency, or completed by tuning the physical unit in generator, such as capacitor, such as Fig. 6 C institutes Show.This mechanical tuning device is advantageous because it can without using tunable impedance matching networks, or by Simplified tunable impedance matching networks 606, such as the network with less tunable component, allow in generator 608 and bear Impedance matching between load.In embodiment, be tuned to generator drive signal duty ratio and/or frequency and/or phase Dynamic impedance matching system can be generated, have extension tuning range or precision, have higher power, voltage and/or Current capability has electronic control faster, has less external component etc..Following impedance matching methods, framework, calculation Method, agreement, circuit, measurement, control etc. are in the system of the high Q magnetic resonators of generator drive, or as described herein high It is useful in Q wireless power transmission systems.In wireless power transmission system, generator can be the work(for driving resonator Rate amplifier, sometimes referred to as source resonator, it can be the load to power amplifier.In wireless power application, preferably Control impedance matching between power amplifier and resonator load, is passed with controlling the power from power amplifier to resonator The efficiency sent.Can by tune or adjust driving resonator power amplifier drive signal duty ratio and/or phase And/or impedance matching is completed or be partially completed to frequency.

The efficiency of switching amplifier

When on the switch element in amplifier almost without dissipated power, switching amplifier, such as the amplification of D, E, F class Device etc. or its it is arbitrary combine, with maximum efficiency to load delivering power.It can be by design system, so that across opening When closing the voltage of element and being almost 0 by any one or the two of the electric current of switch element, most critical switch behaviour is carried out Make (i.e. those most likely result in switching loss) to realize this operating condition.These conditions may be respectively referred to as zero electricity It compresses switch (ZVS) and Zero Current Switch (ZCS) condition.When amplifier operation is in ZVS and/or ZCS, across switch element Voltage or the electric current for passing through switch element are zero, in the switch without dissipated power.Since switching amplifier can incite somebody to action DC (or extremely low frequency AC) power is converted to the AC power of specific frequency or frequency range, and filter can be introduced into load Before, it is reached to avoid undesired harmonic wave and loads and dissipate there, wherein harmonic wave is caused by switching process. In embodiment, switching amplifier can be designed as when being connected to quality factor (such as Q>And specified impedance 5)Resonant load when, cause at the same ZVS and ZCS, with maximum power conversion efficiency run.We By zo=Ro-jXoIt is defined as the characteristic impedance of amplifier, so that realizing maximum power transfer efficiency equivalence in by resonant load It is impedance-matched to the characteristic impedance of amplifier.

In switching amplifier, the switching frequency f of switch elementswitch, wherein fswitchThe π of=ω/2 and switch element are led The duty ratio dc of logical state duration is identical for all switch elements of amplifier.In the present specification, we will make D classes and DE class A amplifier As are indicated with term " D classes ", that is, there is dc<=50% switching amplifier.

The value of the characteristic impedance of amplifier can depend on opening for operating frequency, amplifier topology and switch element Pass sequence.In certain embodiments, switching amplifier can be half-bridge topology, be full-bridge topology in certain embodiments Structure.In certain embodiments, switching amplifier can be D classes, be E classes in certain embodiments.In any above example In, it is assumed that the characteristic impedance of the element symmetry of electric bridge, switching amplifier has form

RO=FR(dc)/ωCa,XO=FX(dc)/ωCa, (1)

Wherein, dc is the duty ratio of the conducting state of switch element, function FR(dc) and FX(dc) it draws in the figure 7 (all It is for D classes and E classes), ω is the frequency of switching element switch, Ca=naCswitc, wherein CswitcEach is across to open The capacitance of pass, including transistor output capacitance and it is also possible that external capacitor with switch in parallel setting, and for full-bridge na=1, for half-bridge na=2.For D classes, it is also possible to write analysis expression formulas

FR(dc)=sin2U/ π, FX(dc)=(u-sinu*cosu)/π, (2)

Wherein, u=π (1-2*dc), indicate the characteristic impedance grade of class-D amplifier as duty ratio dc increases to 50% and Reduce.For the class-D amplifier operation with dc=50%, only output capacitance (C is practically without in switch elementa= 0), and actually resonance (X is loadedO=0), ROIn the case of being arbitrary, it is possible to realize that ZVS and ZCS is only.

Impedance matching network

In the application, driven dynamic load can have the characteristic impedance for the external drive circuit being connect with it extremely not Same impedance.Moreover, driven dynamic load can not be resonant network.Impedance matching network (IMN) is circuit network, such as Fig. 6 B It is shown, it can be connected to before load, to adjust seen by the input for the network being made of IMN circuits and load Impedance.IMN circuits usually can realize this adjusting by generating the resonance close to driving frequency.Due to this IMN electricity Road has reached power transmission efficiency maximum required all conditions (resonance and impedance matching-so that from generator to load For the ZVS and ZCS of switching amplifier), in embodiment, IMN circuits can be used between driving circuit and load.

For being arranged shown in Fig. 6 B so that by impedance matching network (IMN) circuit and load the network formed (since then Be collectively referred to as IMN+ load) input impedance be Zl=Rl(ω)+jXl(ω).This network is to characteristic impedance zo= Ro-jXoExternal circuit impedance matching condition then just be Rl(ω)=RO, Xl(ω)=XO

The method of tunable impedance matching for variable load

In the variable embodiment of load, in load and such as linear or switch power amplifier external drive circuit Between impedance matching can be realized by using adjustable/tuning part in IMN circuits, it can be adjusted will become The load of change and the fixed character impedance Z of external circuitoIt matches (Fig. 6 B).For the real and imaginary parts of matching impedance, in IMN Circuit needs two tunable/variable elements.

In embodiment, load can be perceptual (such as resonator coil), have impedance R+j ω L, so IMN is electric Two tunable elements can be that two tunable capacitance networks or a tunable capacitance network and one are tunable in road Mutual-inductance network.

In the variable embodiment of load, in load between such as linear or driving circuit of switch power amplifier Impedance matching can by using in amplifier circuit adjustable/tuning part or parameter realize, can adjust its with By the characteristic impedance Z of amplifieroNetwork input impedance matches with (since load changes) of variation, network by IMN circuits and Load composition (IMN+ loads), wherein IMN circuits are also tunable (Fig. 6 C).For the real and imaginary parts of matching impedance, Two tunable/variable elements or parameter in total are needed in amplifier and IMN circuits.Disclosed impedance matching methods can subtract The quantity of tunable/variable element needed for small IMN circuits, or even completely be not necessarily to IMN circuits in it is tunable/can Dependent element.In some instances, it can use a tunable element in power amplifier can with one in IMN circuits Tune element.In some instances, two tunable elements in power amplifier can be used, without the use of in IMN circuits Tunable element.

In embodiment, the tunable element in power amplifier or parameter can be applied to transistor, switch, two Driving signal frequency, amplitude, phase, waveform, duty ratio of pole pipe etc. etc..

In embodiment, the power amplifier with tunable characteristic impedance can be the tunable switch amplification of D, E, F class Device or any combination thereof.Merge equation (1) and (2), the impedance matching condition for the network is:

Rl(ω)=FR(dc)/ωCa, Xl(ω)=FX(dc)/ωCa, (3)

In certain examples of tunable switching amplifier, a tunable element can be capacitance Ca, can pass through The external capacitor that is arranged in parallel with switch element is tuned to tune.

In certain examples of tunable switching amplifier, a tunable element can be the switch element of amplifier Conducting state duty ratio dc.It has been used in switching amplifier, comes to adjust duty ratio dc by pulsewidth modulation (PWM) Realize output power.In the present specification, it we discloses PWM to can be also used for realizing impedance matching, that is, is used to meet Equation (3), so that efficiency of amplitude is maximum.

In certain examples of tunable switching amplifier, a tunable element can be switching frequency, it can also It is the driving frequency of IMN+ laod networks, and can be designed as may be substantially close to the resonant frequency of IMN+ laod networks.Tuning Switching frequency can change the impedance of the characteristic impedance and IMN+ laod networks of amplifier.It can be tunable with one or more The parameter suitably switching frequency of tuned amplifier together, to meet equation (3).

For dynamic impedance matching, have an advantage that can be with electronics for the duty ratio and/or driving frequency of tuned amplifier Ground promptly, in wide scope tunes these parameters.On the contrary, for example, big voltage can be born and with sufficiently large adjustable The tunable capacitor of humorous range and quality factor is expensive, slow or is that can not obtain for necessary component specification It arrives.

The example of the method for tunable impedance matching for variable load

Simplified electrical circuit diagram is shown in FIG. 8, it illustrates D-type power amplifier 802, impedance matching network 804 and senses Property load 806 circuit level structure.Circuit shows the basic element of character of system, has switching amplifier 804, including power supply 810, switch element 808 and capacitor.Impedance matching network 804 including inductor and capacitor is modeled as with load 806 Inductor and resistor.

The exemplary embodiment of the tuning scheme of inventive includes half bridge class D amplifier, is operated in switching frequency f, and Low-loss inductive element R+j ω L are driven via IMN, as shown in Figure 8.

In certain embodiments, L ' is tunable.Can by inductor variable tapping point or by by tunable electricity Container is connected in series or in parallel with inductor to tune L '.In certain embodiments, CaIt is tunable.For half-bridge topology, It can be by changing one or two capacitor CswitcTo tune Ca, because being only summation in parallel and the amplification of these capacitors Device operation has relationship.For full-bridge topologies, can by change any one, two, three or whole capacitor Cswitc To tune Ca, because only combination thereof (with the summation of connecting of relevant two summations in parallel of two half-bridges of electric bridge) with put Big device operation has relationship.

In some embodiments of tunable impedance matching, two components of IMN are tunable.In certain embodiments, L ' And C2It is tunable.Then, Fig. 9 shows the function of the R and L of the variation as inductive element, realizes two needed for impedance matching The associated change of the value of a tunable component and the output power (in given DC bus voltages) of amplifier, wherein f= 250kHz, dc=40%, Ca=640pF, C1=10nF.Since IMN is adjusted to always the fixed character impedance of amplifier, with Inductive element changes, and output power is constant always.

In some embodiments of tunable impedance matching, the element of switching amplifier is also tunable.In some embodiments In, it can be together with IMN capacitors C2Tuning capacitance C togethera.Then, Figure 10 shows the R and L of the variation as inductive element Function, realize impedance matching needed for two tunable components value and amplifier output power (in given DC buses Voltage) associated change, wherein f=250kHz, dc=40%, C1=10nF, ω L '=1000 Ω.It may infer that from Figure 10 Go out, mainly needs to tune C in response to the variation in L2, and as R increases, output power reduces.

It, can be together with IMN capacitors C in some embodiments of tunable impedance matching2Tuning duty ratio dc together. Then, Figure 11 shows the function of the R and L of the variation as inductive element, realizes two tunable ginsengs needed for impedance matching The associated change of the output power (in given DC bus voltages) of several values and amplifier, wherein f=250kHz, Ca= 640pF, C1=10nF, ω L '=1000 Ω.From Figure 11 it can be concluded that mainly needing to tune C in response to the variation in L2, and As R increases, output power reduces.

It, can be together with IMN inductor L ' tuning capacitances C in some embodiments of tunable impedance matchinga.In It is that Figure 11 A show the function of the R of the variation as inductive element, realizes two tunable components needed for impedance matching The associated change of the output power (in given DC bus voltages) of value and amplifier, wherein f=250kHz, dc=40%, C1 =10nF, C2=7.5nF.From Figure 11 A it can be concluded that as R increases, output power reduces.

It, can be together with IMN inductors L ' tuning duty ratios dc in some embodiments of tunable impedance matching. Then, Figure 11 B show the function of the R of the variation as inductive element, realize two tunable parameters needed for impedance matching Value and amplifier output power (in given DC bus voltages) associated change, wherein variation as inductive element The function of R, f=250kHz, Ca=640pF, C1=10nF, C2=7.5nF.From Figure 11 B it can be concluded that and as R increases, Output power reduces.

In some embodiments of tunable impedance matching, only it is that the element of switching amplifier is tunable, does not have in IMN Element is tunable.In some embodiments it is possible to together with capacitance CaTuning duty ratio dc together.Then, Figure 11 C show work For the function of the R of the variation of inductive element, realize two tunable parameters needed for impedance matching value and amplifier it is defeated Go out the associated change of power (in given DC bus voltages), wherein f=250kHz, C1=10nF, C2=7.5nF, ω L '= 1000Ω.From Figure 11 C it can be concluded that output power is the Non-monotonic function of R.When in L variation (and therefore resonance frequency Rate) appropriateness when, these embodiments can realize dynamic impedance matching.

In certain embodiments, as explained than before, when L changes very greatly, it can pass through and changing foreign frequency f's Driving frequency (such as switching frequency of switching amplifier) so that its follow the variation resonant frequency of resonator realize with The dynamic impedance matching of fixed factors in IMN.Using switching frequency f and duty cycle of switching dc as two variable elements, nothing Any units of variance is needed, as R and L changes, complete impedance matching may be implemented.Then, Figure 12 is shown as inductive element Variation R and L function, realize impedance matching needed for two tunable parameters value and amplifier output power The associated change of (in given DC bus voltages), wherein Ca=640pF, C1=10nF, C2The μ of=7.5nF, L '=637 H.From figure 12 in response to the variation in L it can be concluded that mainly need tuned frequency f, as explained earlier.

The tunable impedance matching of system for wireless power transfer

In the application that wireless power transmits, low-loss inductive element can be the coil of source resonator, source resonator coupling Close one or more equipment resonators or other resonators, such as transponder resonator.The impedance R+j ω L of inductive element can To include reflected umpedance of other resonators on the coil of source resonator.Due near the resonator of source external disturbance and/or The thermal drift of other resonators or component, the R and L of inductive element can change.Since equipment is opposite with other resonators The change of the R and L of inductive element can also occur during the normal use of wireless power transmission system for the relative motion in source Change.Relative motion or position of these equipment with relative motion or other sources of other resonators relative to source can be led It causes to change coupling (and therefore change reflected umpedance) of the equipment to source.Moreover, because the variation in other coupled resonators, example Such as the variation of the power extraction of its load, inductive element can also occur during the normal use of wireless power transmission system R and L variation.All methods disclosed so far and embodiment are equally applicable to this situation, to realize this sense Property element to drive its external circuit dynamic impedance matching.

In order to illustrate the presently disclosed dynamic impedance matching method for wireless power transmission system, source resonance is considered Device includes low-loss source coil, is inductively coupled to the equipment coil of the equipment resonator of driving ohmic load.

In some embodiments it is possible to realize dynamic impedance matching in source circuit.It in certain embodiments, can also be Circuitry realizes dynamic impedance matching.When obtaining complete impedance matching (in source and equipment), effective electricity of source inductive element Hinder (the i.e. resistance R of source coilsIn addition the reflected umpedance from equipment) be(similarly, equipment perception member The effective resistance of part isWherein, RdIt is the resistance of equipment coil).Due to the mutual between coil of movement Caused by the dynamic change of senseDynamic change.Therefore, when dynamic tuning source simultaneously and when equipment, The variation being considered as the variation of mutual inductance from source circuit side in the inductive element resistance R of source.Note that in such variation, resonator Resonant frequency not substantially change because L can not change.Therefore, all methods for proposing for dynamic impedance matching and Example can be used for the source circuit of wireless power transmission system.

It should be noted that due to resistance R indicate source coil and equipment coil to source coil reflected umpedance, in Fig. 9-12 In, with the R increases due to increase U, related wireless power transfer efficiency increases.In certain embodiments, by circuitry The power of constant can be needed at the load of driving.In order to realize the constant power stage for being transferred to equipment, required source The output power of circuit needs to reduce as U increases.If realizing motional impedance by certain amplifier parameters are tuned Match, the output power of amplifier can correspondingly change.In certain embodiments, automatic change of output power is preferably Reduce with R dullnesses, so that it matches invariant apparatus power requirement.Reach by adjusting the DC driving voltages of generator In the embodiment of output power stage, meaned only by the suitable of DC driving voltages using the impedance matching combination of tunable parameter The power that degree adjustment can be kept constant in the power termination of equipment, wherein the impedance matching combination of tunable parameter causes The dull of output power vs.R reduces.It is switching amplifier or impedance matching network at " knob " of adjustment output power stage In the duty ratio dc of interior component or the embodiment of phase, using the impedance matching set of tunable parameter mean only by The power that the appropriateness adjustment of this power " knob (knob) " can be kept constant in the power termination of equipment, wherein adjustable The impedance matching combination of humorous parameter causes the dull of output power vs.R to reduce.

In the example of Fig. 9-12, if Rs=0.19 Ω, then range R=0.2-2 Ω just correspond roughly to Usd= 0.3-10.5.For these values, in fig. 14, we show in phantom when source and equipment dynamic impedance matchings, negative Carry the output power (being standardized by D/C voltage square) kept constant needed for power stage.Phase between solid line and dotted line The reason that this one group of tunable parameter changed with output power is preferred is explained like trend.

In some embodiments it is possible to realize dynamic impedance matching in source circuit, and can not realize in circuitry or Only impedance matching is realized in part.With the mutual inductance variation between source and equipment coil, the reflected umpedance of the variation of equipment to source It can lead to the variation of the effective resistance R and effective inductance L of source inductive element.What is proposed so far is used for motional impedance The method matched is applicable, and can be used for the tunable source circuit of wireless power transmission system.

For example, it is contemplated that the circuit of Figure 14, wherein f=250kHz, Ca=640pF, Rs=0.19 Ω, Ls=100 μ H, C1s= 10nF, ω L '=1000 Ω, Rd=0.3 Ω, Ld=40 μ H, C1d=87.5nF, C2d=13nF, ω L 'd=400 Ω, Zl=50 Ω, wherein s and d indicates source and equipment resonator respectively, and system is in Usd=3 matchings.The duty ratio dc of tuning switch amplifier With capacitor C2sThe dynamic impedance matching source that can be used for because non-dimmable humorous equipment relative to source move, change source with Mutual inductance M between equipment.In fig. 14, the desirable value for we illustrating tuner parameters, together with each D/C voltage of amplifier Output power.Dotted line again indicates that the output power of amplifier, needs it so that being steady state value in the power of load.

In certain embodiments, for the system of the wireless power transfer between source and one or more equipment, tuning The driving frequency f of source driving circuit still can be used to implement the dynamic impedance matching in source.As explained earlier, this method The complete dynamic impedance matching in source is realized, even if working as source inductance LsFeelings that are middle to there is variation, also changing to source resonant frequency Under condition.For the effective power transmission from source to equipment, it is necessary to which tuner resonant frequency is humorous to follow matched driving and source The variation of vibration frequency.When there is variation in the resonant frequency of source or equipment resonator, tuner capacitance is (for example, scheming In 13 embodiment, C1dOr C2d) it is required.In fact, in the wireless power transmission system with multiple sources and equipment, Tune drive frequency alleviates the needs to only tuning a source-object resonant frequency, but remaining all objects need to adjust Its humorous resonant frequency is to match the mechanism (such as tunable capacitance) of driving frequency.

Resonator heat management

In wireless energy transfer system, part energy loss during ineffective transmission dissipates as heat.Energy Amount can dissipate in resonator elements itself.Such as even high Q conductors and component also have certain losses or resistance, this A little conductors and component can heating when electric current and/or electromagnetic field flow through them.Energy can be in material around resonator and right As middle dissipation.For example, can to heat these right for vortex of the consumption around resonator or in neighbouring non-conductor or dielectric As.Other than the material property for influencing these objects, this heat can be transmitted to by conduction, radiation or convection process Resonator elements.Any of these heating effects can influence resonator Q, impedance, frequency etc., and therefore influence wireless energy The performance of transmission system.

In the resonator of block or magnetic core including magnetic material, magnetic hystersis loss caused by the vortex due to induction and Resistance loss can generate heat in magnetic material.Two effects both depend on magnetic density in the material, all may be used To generate a considerable amount of heat, especially in the region that magnetic density or vortex are concentrated or localize.In addition to magnetic flux is close Degree, frequency, magnetic material composition and the loss of oscillating magnetic field, the environment of magnetic material or operation temperature can influence magnetic hysteresis With resistance loss how heating material.

In embodiment, can be the magnetic of specific operation power stage and environmental selection material type, size of block etc. Property material characteristic and magnetic field parameter so that the fever of magnetic material is minimum.In certain embodiments, the block of magnetic material In variation, crackle or defect can increase wireless power transfer application in magnetic material loss and fever.

It is defective for having, or brick and piece group by being arranged in the magnetic material of the reduced size in larger unit At magnetic block, loss in the block can be uneven, and can there are inhomogeneities between the adjacent bricks or piece of magnetic material Or it is concentrated in the region in relatively narrow gap.For example, if irregular gap is present in the magnetic block of material, pass through Effective magnetic resistance of multiple magnetic flux paths of material is just substantially irregular, and magnetic field can be in the portion of the minimum block of magnetic resistance It is more concentrated in point.In some cases, the position that gap of effective magnetic resistance between brick or piece is most narrow or density of defect is minimum Setting can be minimum.Because magnetic material guides magnetic field, magnetic density is not substantially uniform on block, is providing phase To being concentrated in the region of relatively low magnetic resistance.Irregular concentration of the magnetic field in piece of magnetic material is undesirable, because they It can lead to non-uniform loss and heat dissipation in material.

For example, it is contemplated that including the magnetic resonators of conductor 1506, conductor is wrapped in around the block of magnetic material, magnetic material Block is made of two monolithic bricks 1502,1504 of the magnetic material engaged, so that they constitute seam 1508, perpendicular to The axis in 1506 circuit of conductor, as shown in figure 15.Irregular gap in seam 1508 between magnetic material brick 1502 and 1504 The magnetic field 1512 (being schematically shown by empty magnetic field line) in resonator can be forced to concentrate on the son of the cross section of magnetic material In region 1510.Since magnetic field can follow the path of minimum reluctance, it is included in the path of the air gap between two panels magnetic material It can be contacted in magnetic material sheets being or the point with more small air gap, the path for generating the width than crossing magnetic material are practical The path of upper higher magnetic resistance.Therefore magnetic density preferably flows through the relatively small intersecting area of magnetic material, cause small at this The high concentration of magnetic flux in region 1510.

In many interested magnetic materials, more uneven flux density is distributed higher total losses.In addition, More uneven flux density distribution can cause material to be saturated, and make the local pyrexia in the region of flux concentration.Office Portion, which generates heat, can change the characteristic of magnetic material, exacerbate loss in some cases.For example, in the correlation behaviour of certain materials Make in situation, magnetic hystersis loss and resistance loss increase with temperature.If heating material increases spillage of material, cause more Fever, material temperature can continuously enlarge, if not taking correction operation even can be out of control.In some instances, temperature The performance degradation that 100 DEG C or higher can be reached, and the characteristic of magnetic material and wireless power can be made to transmit.Certain In example, magnetic material can be damaged or the electronic unit of surrounding, packaging and/or shell can be damaged due to overheat.

In embodiment, the variation between the brick of piece of magnetic material or piece or irregularly can by matching, polishing, The edge of the bricks such as grinding or piece, is realized with ensuring the tight fit between magnetic material brick, provides and pass through magnetic material The magnetic resistance substantially evenly of the entire cross section of block.In embodiment, piece of magnetic material can be needed among the bricks Gap is not present to ensure brick being pressed together in the module for providing pressure.In embodiment, it can use among the bricks viscous Mixture, to ensure that they keep being in close contact.

In embodiment, magnetic can be reduced by increasing the gap thought between the adjacent bricks of magnetic material The irregular spacing of the adjacent bricks of property material.In embodiment, the gap thought over may be used as spacer, to ensure Uniform or regular segmentation between magnetic material brick or piece.The gap of the flexible material thought over can also reduce due to brick It is irregular in mobile or vibration interval.In embodiment, the edge of the adjacent bricks of magnetic material can be tied with electrical insulator Bundle, immersion, coating etc., to avoid the block transverse cross-sectional area of reduction is flowed through, to reduce the eddy-current loss in material. In embodiment, separator is desirably integrated into resonator packaging.Spacer can provide the intervals 1mm or smaller.

In embodiment, the mechanical property that spacer among the bricks can be selected, to improve overall structure to machinery The tolerance of effect, such as due to intrinsic effect (such as magnetostriction thermally expand etc.) and external impact and vibration Variation in the size and/or shape of brick.For example, spacer can accommodate monolithic brick with the mechanical elasticity of desired amount Expansion and/or contraction, and can contribute to reduce the stress on brick when brick is by mechanical oscillation, to help to reduce magnetic The appearance of crackle and other defect in property material.

In embodiment, preferably arrangement include piece of magnetic material monolithic brick so that among the bricks perpendicular to resonance The seam of the dipole moment of device or the minimum number in gap.In embodiment, preferably arrangement and oriented magnetic material brick, so that It obtains among the bricks perpendicular to the gap of the axis formed by the conductor circuit including resonator minimum.

For example, it is contemplated that resonator structure shown in Figure 16.The resonator includes conductor 1604, is wrapped in magnetic material Around comprising the monolithic brick 1602 of 6 separation is arranged in 3 and multiplies in 2 arrays.This arrangement of brick causes in one direction Unique one when crossing two brick seams 1606,1608 when piece of magnetic material, and crossing piece of magnetic material in vertical direction Brick seam 1610.In embodiment, preferably about piece of magnetic material coiled conductor line 1604, so that the idol of resonator Brick seam of the polar moment perpendicular to minimum number.Inventor observe the dipole moment for being parallel to resonator seam 1606, Relatively little of heat is caused around 1608.It is referred to as critical connect perpendicular to the seam of the dipole moment of resonator and gap Seam or critical seaming zone.But it also wants to so that being parallel to gap (such as the 1606,1608) electricity of the dipole moment of resonator absolutely Edge, to reduce eddy-current loss.Uneven contact between the brick divided by this parallel clearance can cause to flow through narrow connect The vortex of contact causes big loss in such point.

In embodiment, can irregularly allow by the appropriate cooling of critical seaming zone in interval, to avoid magnetic Property material it is heated when material property local degradation.By the temperature of magnetic material be maintained at critical-temperature or less can to avoid by Runaway effect caused by sufficiently high temperature.By the appropriate cooling of critical seaming zone, no matter due to irregular between brick How are the added losses or heating effect at interval, crackle or gap, and wireless energy transfer performance is all satisfactory.

Several problems are caused with effective heat dissipation of the resonator structure to avoid magnetic material hot-spot.Usually use Can be contacted for the magnetic field of wireless energy transfer with by resonator in the metal material of radiator and heat transfer, and influence be The performance of system.Their position should be designed, size, direction and used, so as to when there are these heat sink materials, but be less than The disturbance Q of resonator.In addition, due to the opposite thermal conductivity reported to the leadship after accomplishing a task of such as ferritic magnetic material, in radiator and magnetism It may require that relatively large contact zone between material, to provide cooling appropriate, this may require that places greatly close to magnetic resonators Amount damages material.

In embodiment, the appropriate cooling of resonator can be by Heat Conduction Material be strategically placed, with to wireless energy The influence minimum of transfer performance is realized.In embodiment, heat conduction material material strip can be placed between the circuit of conductor lines, and It is thermally contacted with piece of magnetic material.

An exemplary embodiment of the resonator with heat conduction material material strip is shown in Figure 17.Figure 17 A show do not have The resonator structure of conductive bars has piece of magnetic material, including constitutes the calculon of the magnetic material of gap or seam.Heat conduction item 1708 materials can be placed between the circuit of conductor 1702, be thermally contacted with piece of magnetic material 1704, such as Figure 17 B and 17C institutes Show.In order to enable influence of the item to resonator parameter is minimum, in certain embodiments, it may be preferable that being parallel to conductor circuit or hanging down Directly item is arranged in the dipole moment of resonator.The item of conductor can be set, it is as big as possible or as more as possible between brick to cover Seam or gap, the especially seam between the brick of the dipole moment of resonator.

In embodiment, Heat Conduction Material may include copper, aluminium, brass, hot epoxy resin, paste, liner etc., and can Thermal conductivity to be the magnetic material that thermal conductivity is at least resonator (is~5W/ (K-m) for certain commercial Ferrite Materials Any material).In the also conductive embodiment of Heat Conduction Material, material can need the layer or coating of electrical insulator, to avoid The good conductor circuit short circuit of magnetic material with resonator or directly electrical contact.

In embodiment, heat conduction material material strip can be used for heat being transmitted to structure or medium from resonator structure, can be with Safely dissipate heat.In embodiment, heat conduction material material strip may be coupled to radiator, such as big flat on conductor bar Plate, can using to the passive or forced convertion of environment, radiation or conduction come the thermal energy that dissipates.In embodiment, system can be with Be included in any number of Active Cooling System of resonator structure outside or inside, can from heat conduction item dissipation thermal energy, and May include liquid-cooling system, compressed air system etc..For example, heat conduction item can be hollow or includes for the logical of coolant Coolant can be pumped or be forced through channel to cool down magnetic material by road.In embodiment, by electricity good conductor (such as Copper, silver, aluminium etc.) constitute field deflection device can be doubled as part radiator.Heat conduction and conductive bar are increased into magnetism Space between material and field deflection device can have edge effect to disturbance Q because electromagnetic field within this space usually by It is suppressed in the presence of field deflection device.This conductive bars can be thermally connectable to magnetic material and field deflection device, so that not Evenly with the Temperature Distribution in item.

In embodiment, heat conduction item is spaced apart, to allow at least one conductor circuit to be wrapped in around magnetic material. In embodiment, heat conduction material material strip can be only located at gap or the seam crossing of magnetic material.In other embodiments, it can position Item substantially all to contact magnetic material over the whole length.Item can be distributed to match the flux density in magnetic material. The region of magnetic material under resonator normal operating can have higher magnetic density, can have with heat conduction item The contact of higher density.Such as in the embodiment shown in Figure 17 A, magnetism is observed that towards the center of piece of magnetic material Highest magnetic density in material, can be towards the block end on the direction of the dipole moment of resonator compared with low-density.

In order to illustrate how to help to reduce the bulk temperature in magnetic material using heat conduction item, and in potential hot spot Temperature, inventor performs the finite element modelling similar to resonator structure shown in 17C.Model configuration, operation exist The frequency of 235kHz and include EPCOS N95 piece of magnetic material, size is 30cm x 30cm x 5mm, is all transmitted by each The peak point current of 10A 10 circle twisted wires excitation (from the plane of symmetry of structure be symmetricly set on 15mm, 40mm, 55mm, 90mm and At 105mm), and it is thermally connected to 50cm by the aluminium of three 3x 3/4x 1 ' (alloy 6063) hollow square tube (wall thickness 1/8 ") The field deflection device of x 50cm x 4mm, central shaft are arranged at-the 75mm, 0mm and+75 of the plane of symmetry away from structure.Due to field Your moral conduction disturbance Q of deflector and hollow tube is 1400 (compared to mutually isostructural 1710) of not hollow tube.In fender It is 35.6W with the power calculation to dissipate in pipe, and the power to dissipate in magnetic material is 58.3W.It is assumed that by cross-ventilation and Radiation-cooled structure, and environment temperature is 24 DEG C, the maximum temperature in structure is 85 DEG C (between about hollow tube at half Magnetic material in point), and contact hollow tube magnetic material portion in temperature be about 68 DEG C.By comparing, for The identical excitation current of 40W peak values, without the same resonator dissipation 62.0W of heat conduction hollow tube, the maximum in magnetic material is warm Degree is found to be 111 DEG C.

If we introduce defect in a part of magnetic material, well thermally contacted with pipe, the advantages of conductive bars just more It is apparent.At magnetic material center, and perpendicular to the air gap at the 10cm long of dipole moment orientation He the intervals 0.5mm by magnetic material The power of middle dissipation increases to 69.9W and (is increased relative to the zero defect example for being highly concentrated near gaps discussed in the past 11.6W), but conductive bars pipe ensures that the maximum temperature in magnetic material only moderately increases 11 DEG C and reaches 96 DEG C relatively.Phase Instead, the identical defect of conducting tube does not cause the maximum temperature near defect to be 161 DEG C.Other than convection current and radiation Other cooling solutions, for example, with big thermal mass be thermally connected conduction tube body or active cooling they, can be in same current Level is that the resonator generates even lower operation temperature.

In embodiment, the heat conduction item of material can be arranged in most possible cracked region, can lead to magnetic Irregular gap in property material.This region can be high stress or strain regions on material, or carry out resonator packaging Support or support poor region.Although strategically setting heat conduction item may insure that crackle or irregular gap appear in In magnetic material, but the temperature of magnetic material is also maintained at its critical-temperature or less.Critical-temperature can be defined as magnetic material Curie temperature or resonator characteristic degrade more than expected performance parameter any temperature.

In embodiment, radiator structure can provide mechanical support for magnetic material.In embodiment, radiator structure can To be designed as having desired mechanical elasticity amount (for example, by using epoxy resin, heating pad etc., to there is suitable machinery Characteristic is to be thermally connected the different elements of structure), to provide the variation to the intrinsic size of its element (due to heat for resonator Expansion, magnetostriction etc.) and external impact and the bigger of active tolerance, and avoid the shape of crackle and other defect At.

Include that can adjust conductive material item in the embodiment of the winding of magnetic material vertical wrap in resonator To obtain in the region delimited by two vertical adjacent loop groups thermally contacting with magnetic material.In embodiment, item can With comprising notch appropriate, to coordinate around the conductor of at least one orthogonal winding, while to a little less and magnetic material Thermo-contact.In embodiment, magnetic material can be thermally contacted with the multiple heat-conducting blocks being placed between adjacent loop.Heat-conducting block It can be connected thermally to one another again by the good conductor and/or radiator of heat.

Throughout this manual, although the heat conduction item of term material to be used as to the exemplary sample of material shape, this Field technology personnel should be understood that without departing from the spirit of the invention, could alternatively be any shape and profile.Side Shape, oval, bar shaped, circular point shape, elongated shape etc. are all within the spirit of the invention.

Communication in wireless energy transfer system

Wireless energy transfer system can require verification step, to ensure to transmit energy between specified resonator.Example Such as, in wireless energy transfer system, source resonator, equipment resonator and transponder resonator be not necessarily to for positive energy exchange and Physical contact with one another, but depending on the size and number of resonator in system, these resonators can by centimetre or meter away from From being separated from each other.In certain configurations, multiple resonators can generate or receive power, but two only in these resonators Or certain is specified resonator.

The communication of information in wireless energy transfer system between resonator can be used for specified resonator.It can make The communication of information between resonator is realized with communication in band or out of band or communication channel.If for exchanging power at least A part of magnetic resonators be also used for exchange information, and the carrier frequency of information exchange close to for Power Exchange resonance frequency Rate, which is just known as in band by we.The communication of any other type between magnetic resonators is known as outside band.Band Outer communication channel can use antenna and signal transfer protocol, different from energy transmission resonator and magnetic field.Out-of-band communication is believed Road can use or based on bluetooth, WiFi, Zigbee, NFC technique etc..

Communication between resonator can be used for coordinating wireless energy transfer, or adjust wireless energy transfer system Parameter, identifies and certification available power source and equipment, optimization efficiency, power transmission etc., track and energy priority selection of keeping accounts, It uses etc. and monitor system performance, battery condition, vehicle good condition, external object, also referred to as foreign object etc..Make When with band and out-of-band communication channel, the method for resonator specified and that verification is for energy transmission can be different, because Using with outer exchange of skills signal of communication by distance can substantially exceed exchange power signal by distance.In addition, The bandwidth of out-of-band communication signal can be more than in-band communications signal.This difference in communication range and performance can influence wirelessly The coordination of energy delivery system.For example, the quantity using the manageable resonator of out-of-band communication can be very big, communication is humorous Shake device apart can than they can effectively positive energy exchange distance it is much farther away.

In certain embodiments, all signal transmissions and communication can be executed using band communication channel, and signal can To be modulated on the field for energy transmission.In other embodiments, in-band communications can use and the frequency for energy transmission Substantially the same frequency spectrum is composed, but does not transmit substantial energy while being communicated.If separation or multiple verification steps There are problems, be using only band communication channel preferably as communication range can be confined to it is identical with Power Exchange Range, or because information is reached as the modulation on power signal itself.But it in certain embodiments, is more desirable to obtain The out-of-band communication channel of separation.For example, out-of-band communication channel implements less expensive, and higher data transfer rate can be supported.Band Outer communication channel can be supported to communicate more at a distance, and resonator is allowed to find to survey and draw with power system.It can operate with outer logical Believe channel regardless of whether power transfer carries out, and can be carried out in the interruption that power transfer does not occur.

The exemplary embodiment of wireless energy system is shown in Figure 18.This exemplary embodiment includes two equipment Resonator 1802,1816, be each respectively provided with out-of-band communication module 1804,1818 and two source resonators 1806, 1810, each it is respectively provided with the out-of-band communication module 1808,1812 of their own.System can be come using out-of-band communication channel It adjusts and coordinates energy transmission.Communication channel can be used for finding or find neighbouring resonator, initiate power transfer, and pass Send adjustment of operating parameter, such as the power output of single resonator, impedance, frequency etc..

In some cases, equipment resonator can inaccurately be communicated with a source, but be connect from another source resonator Receive energy.For example, it is envisioned that equipment 1802 sends out-of-band communication signal, power is asked from source.Source 1810 can respond and start to Equipment 1802 provides power.Imagine equipment 1816 and also send out-of-band communication signal, asks power, source 1806 to respond and open from source Begin to provide power to equipment 1816.Because equipment 1802 is close to source 1806, equipment 1802 is possible to receive its certain from source 1806 A little or most of power.If the power level received by equipment 1802 becomes excessively high, equipment 1802 can be to source 1810 Out-of-band communication signal is sent, to reduce the power that it sends to equipment 1802.But equipment 1802 can still receive excessive work( Rate because it receives power from source 1806, but does not transmit control signal to source 1806.

Therefore, the separation of energy transmission channel and communication channel can generate performance, control in wireless energy transfer system The problems such as system, safety, confidentiality, reliability.In embodiment, having for the resonator in wireless energy transfer system must It identifies/specifies and verify any or all of resonator for exchanging power with it.It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that Figure 18 Shown in example be only an example, many configurations there are wireless power transmission system and arrangement, can have benefited from bright True or implicit energy transmission verification step.

It in embodiment, can be to avoid potential performance, control, safety, secrecy by providing additional verification step The problems such as property, reliability, verification step ensure the energy transmission channel used by a pair of of resonator and communication channel with it is same It is associated to resonator.

In embodiment, verification step may include certain additional information exchanges by wireless energy transfer channel Or signal transmission.Including using the verification step of the communication of the field of energy transmission channel or energy transmission channel or information exchange can Or information will exchanged between identical two resonators of positive energy exchange for verification out-of-band communication channel.

In the embodiment with out-of-band communication channel, verification step can be implicit or specific.In certain implementations In example, verification can be implicit.In embodiment, it can be exchanged in response to band external information, by monitoring and by energy transmission The situation of channel relatively impliedly verifies energy transmission channel compared with desired situation or parameter.For example, establishing with outer logical After letter, equipment can ask radio sources to increase the quantity of power that it sends.Wireless energy transfer channel and resonance can be monitored simultaneously The parameter of device.The increase for the passed power observed at equipment can be used for inferring out-of-band communication channel and energy transmission letter Road is correctly connected to specified resonator.

In embodiment, implicit verification step may include wireless energy transfer of the monitoring for wireless energy transfer The parameter of any number of parameter or resonator and component.In embodiment, as out-of-band communication exchange as a result, can supervise Electric current, voltage, impedance, frequency, efficiency, temperature and its driving circuit etc. of resonator are controlled, and with desired value, trend, variation etc. It compares.

In embodiment, as communication exchange as a result, resonator can store measurement parameter and to the phase of these parameters Prestige value, trend and/or the table of variation.Resonator can store the history of communication and the Parameters variation observed, can be used for Verify energy transmission channel.In some cases, the single unexpected Parameters variation exchanged due to communication can be not enough to tie Determine that outband channel is improperly matched by property.In some embodiments it is possible to be swept in several or many communications exchange It retouches or the history of monitoring parameter variation is to execute verification.

Exemplary algorithm is shown in fig. 19 a, shows that being used for out-of-band communication impliedly verifies wireless energy Measure the series of steps of energy transmission channel in transmission system.In first step 1902, establish outside the band between source and equipment Communication channel.In next step 1904, source and equipment can exchange information, about the ginseng of adjustment wireless energy transfer The parameter of component several or for wireless energy transfer.Information exchange on out-of-band communication channel can be controlled for system The normal exchange in normal operating with adjustment energy transmission.In some systems, out-of-band communication channel can be encrypted, Avoid eavesdropping, personation etc..In next step 1906, source and equipment or be only source or to be only equipment can monitor and keep Track any variation of the parameter of wireless energy transfer, or any variation for parameter in the component of energy transmission.As It is any to it is outer communication exchange as a result, the variation of tracking can be compared with the expectancy changes to parameter.When one in parameter or The variation that many is observed and expectancy changes in parameter not to it is corresponding when be to confirm failure.

In some embodiments of wireless energy transfer system, verification can be specific.In embodiment, it source or sets The standby parameter wireless energy transfers such as can change, shiver, modulating, or resonator for wireless energy transfer parameter, Signal is can verify that transmit or provide to source or equipment by energy transmission channel.Specific verification may include variation, change Become, certain parameters of wireless energy transfers such as modulation or for the resonator of energy transmission or the parameter of component, for clearly Verifying purpose, and can not be associated with optimization, tuning or adjustment energy transmission.

For the purpose transmitted or communicated with another wireless energy resonator or component signal, variation changes, modulation Etc. certain parameters of wireless energy transfers or be referred to as with interior logical for the resonator of energy transmission or the parameter of component Letter.In embodiment, band communication channel can be implemented as a part for wireless energy transfer resonator and component.Information can To be sent to another from a resonator by the parameter for changing resonator.The parameter of inductance, impedance, resistance etc. can To be shivered or be changed by a resonator.These variations can influence other resonators around signal transmission resonator Impedance, resistance or inductance.Variation itself can be revealed as can detecting or be decoded to the resonator in message voltage, The corresponding of electric current etc. is shivered.In embodiment, in-band communications may include the magnetic for being used for energy transmission such as changing, changing, modulate Power stage, amplitude, phase, direction, the frequency etc. of field.

In one embodiment, it can be executed after establishing out-of-band communication channel explicitly with interior verification.It is outer using band Communication channel, source and equipment can exchange the information about power transfer performance and inband signaling transmission performance.It can then open Move the wireless energy transfer between source and equipment.Source or equipment can use band communication channel to ask or address inquires to other sources Or equipment carries out signal transmission, to verify the connection between out-of-band communication channel and energy transmission channel.When in in-band communications When channel observation is to the signal transmission for establishing agreement in out-of-band communication channel, channel is just demonstrated.

In embodiment, verification can the only middle execution during the specific or predetermined time of energy exchange agreement, such as During energy transmission starts.In other embodiments, specific verification step can be in the normal behaviour of wireless energy transfer system It is periodically carried out during making.When the efficiency or characteristic variations that wireless power transmits, verification step can be triggered, it can To signal to physical orientation variation.In embodiment, communication controler can retain the history of energy transfer properties, and The verification transmitted is initiated, is signaled to using resonator when being included in the variation observed in characteristic.It can be according to resonance Variation in efficiency, impedance, voltage, electric current of the energy transmission of device or resonator elements and power and control circuit etc. comes Observe the variation in energy transfer properties.

One skilled in the art will recognize that the signal transmission of message can be sent and communication channel can be with arbitrary number Encryption, certification and the secret algorithm of amount is protected.In embodiment, out-of-band communication can be encrypted, safe communication channel can be with For sending random sequence, for the verification using in-band channel.In embodiment, band communication channel can be by any public affairs The safety known and cryptographic protocol and algorithm are encrypted, are randomized or protect.Safety and Encryption Algorithm can be used for certification and Verify compatibility between resonator, and can use Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) and secondary communication channel authorize with Certification.

In the embodiment of energy delivery system between source and equipment, equipment can verify energy transmission channel, with true It protects it and receives energy from the source it is expected or assumed.Source can verify energy transmission channel, with ensure to transfer energy to it is expected or It is assumed that source.In certain embodiments, verification can be it is two-way, source and set can a step or agreement operation in Verify their energy transmission channel.In embodiment, may exist more than two resonator, and there may be transponder is humorous Shake device.In the embodiment of multiple resonators, communication and control can concentrate in one or several resonators, or communication It can be distributed in many, most of or whole resonators in a network with control.In embodiment, communication and/or control can To be realized by one or more semiconductor chips or microcontroller, it may be coupled to other wireless energy transfer components.

Exemplary algorithm is shown in fig. 19b, shows that being used for out-of-band communication clearly verifies wireless energy Measure the series of steps of energy transmission channel in transmission system.In first step 1908, establish outside the band between source and equipment Communication channel.In next step 1910, source and equipment can be coordinated or arrange send by wireless energy transfer channel Signal transfer protocol, method, scheme etc..In order to avoid eavesdropping, and confidentiality is provided, encrypt out-of-band communication channel, source and set It is standby to follow any number of known encryption authentication protocol.In the system for imparting cryptographic protocol ability, identifying code can To include that Challenge-response type exchanges, increased confidentiality and authentication capability rank can be provided.For example, equipment can address inquires to Source, to use common secret encryption key or private key encryption, it is sent to via out-of-band communication channel the random verification code in source.With The identifying code that can be sent in out-of-band communication channel by band communication channel signal transmission 1912 afterwards.Imparting encryption In the case of the source of protocol capability and equipment, the identifying code of signal transmission can be by sender with can in band communication channel Inverse cipher function is encrypted or modification, allows recipient further certification sender, and verify band communication channel and be associated with The identical sources or equipment of out-of-band communication channel connect.

In the case of authentication failed, wireless energy transfer system can attempt duplicate acknowledgment process.In some embodiments In, system can be by exchanging for being attempted again really using another verification sequence of band communication channel signal transmission Recognize wireless energy transfer channel.In certain embodiments, after attempting verification band communication channel failure, system can change Or change the sequence or type of the information for verifying band communication channel.System can change the letter of in-band communications identifying code Number transport-type, agreement, length, complexity etc..

In certain embodiments, the authentication failed of the energy transmission channel based on band communication channel and therefore, system The power stage of signal transmission, modulate intensity, modulating frequency etc. in band communication channel can be adjusted.For example, based on equipment to source Authentication failed, system can attempt to execute verification with higher energy transmission grade.The power that system can increase source is defeated Go out, generates stronger magnetic field.In another example, the source of identifying code is transmitted to equipment to the authentication failed in source based on equipment By changing the impedance of its source resonator, it can increase or the source resonator that even doubles is in the impedance of signal transmission Variable quantity.

In embodiment, the authentication failed based on energy transmission channel, system can be attempted to detect, find or find to make With other possible sources of out-of-band communication channel or equipment.In embodiment, out-of-band communication channel can be used for finding for nothing Other possible candidates that heat input transmits.In certain embodiments, the defeated of out-of-band communication channel can be altered or modified in system Go out power or range, to help so that the pairing of failure reaches minimum degree.

It can be with algorithm for power modulation out-of-band communication channel with several patterns, long range pattern is to detection source, short distance mould Formula or low-power mode are ensuring to be communicated with another nigh equipment or source.In embodiment, out-of-band communication is believed Road can match with the range for the wireless channel applied for each.It, can be with after the authentication failed of energy transmission channel The output power for slowly increasing out-of-band communication channel, to find for other possible sources of wireless energy transfer or equipment.Such as Upper described, out-of-band communication channel can show interference and obstruction, can be different from the interference and resistance of energy transmission channel Plug needs the source of higher power grade progress out-of-band communication and equipment can be close enough, to allow wireless energy transfer.

In some embodiments it is possible to using shielding or position and the out-of-band communications channel such as orient, arrange, focus, so as to Only in finite region (i.e. in the case of vehicle) effectively, to ensure that it is merely able to and close enough neighbouring, position and orientation Another source or equipment establish communication to carry out energy transmission.

In embodiment, system can establish out-of-band communication channel using the supplementary source of one or more information or test Card band self-energy transmits channel.For example, during initially setting up out-of-band communication channel, it can be by source or the position of equipment With well known to radio sources or equipment or on figure position or location database compared with, to determine that energy transmission is most possible It is successfully right.Can with from one or more GPS receivers GPS data, from alignment sensor, inertial navigation system Data etc. found to supplement out-of-band communication channel.

Tunable wireless power transmission system framework

One embodiment for the system diagram of source unit in wireless power transmission system is shown in Figure 20 A.This reality Apply the adjusting that the DC/DC converters in example can be used for allowing at least one source parameter, such as the DC bus electricity of switching amplifier Pressure, and amplifier output power therefore.The system for unit in wireless power transmission system is shown in Figure 20 B One embodiment of figure.DC/DC converters in this embodiment can be used for allowing the adjusting of at least one device parameter, Such as the DC load voltages in the output of DC/DC converters, or the impedance seen of input in rectifier.In this specification In, we, which will demonstrate, can not use DC/DC converters, and come using only controllable (tunable) switching amplifier and rectifier Identical parameter in adjusting source and unit, and realize the full tuning of system, as shown in figures 21a and 21b.Due in system Each power train irrespective of size (such as DC/DC converters) usually along with certain efficiency costs, these can be eliminated by eliminating grade The energy loss of grade.It therefore, can be relative to using without using the wireless power transmission system embodiment of DC/DC converters The system of DC/DC converters has improved system effectiveness.

Tunable dc-dc converter

Switching amplifier and rectifier can be with the half-bridges or full-bridge topologies of D or E classes.It is illustrative for one Embodiment, it is contemplated that the half-bridge topology of D classes, wherein the voltage of the sides DC (amplifier or rectifier) of converter can be with Constant, and can be realized by using the DC of appropriate size filtering shunt capacitors, the electric current on the sides AC of converter Can substantially sine curve, and can be realized by using the filtering series reactor of appropriate size, to filter out by switching The high order current harmonics that converter generates.The topology of exemplary amplifier and exemplary rectifier is shown in Figure 22 A and 22B Structure.Although particular exemplary topological structure can be studied herein, it is to be understood that, it is set with the general principle of this specification Any topological structure can be used in the system of the wireless power transfer of meter.For example, with DC filtering series reactors and AC filters The full-bridge converters of wave shunt capacitor can be designed as providing sinusoidal AC voltages and constant DC electric current.

If the switch with shunt capacitance is connected in non-zero voltage, or if has the switch of series inductance non- Zero current disconnects, and dc-dc converter can be lost during by switch conduction and in a switching situation.

Rectifier

Rectifier usually uses diode as switch, can have small shunt capacitance.Due to diode it is considered that It is from break-make, in the topological structure of Figure 22 B, they usually can be in the voltage close to zero from being connected, and close to zero Electric current disconnects, they are not exposed to switching loss in this way.But since diode voltage lands, they can be damaged by big conduction Consumption.Therefore, MOSFET or any kind of active switch, including but not limited to, transistor, field-effect transistor (FET), IGBT etc. preferably may be used as switching, and can be synchronous with input current waveform, and be configured as with diode-like seemingly Ground mode works, but only by much smaller conduction loss, this is because the small conducting resistance of MOSFET.With MOSFET generations The framework of sometimes referred to as synchronous rectifier is produced for diode.MOSFEET can have Parallel opertation capacitance and parallel connection reversed Body diode.In certain embodiments, external capacitor and/or diode can be in parallel with each MOSFET of rectifier bridge Connection.External diode can be Schottky diode.The effective capacitance C of MOSFET bridgerIt can be defined as working as switch conduction When from input to the capacitance in bridge direction.Since switch is connected with input in turn on process, the real part of AC input rectifier impedance It is smaller, since the influence to efficiency of the conducting resistance of switch is bigger.In some embodiments it is possible to select conducting resistance The substantially less than MOSFET of the expectation real part of input impedance.

In certain embodiments, MOSFET can in the time point break-make substantially the same with diode break-make so that Shunt capacitance can discharge (no-voltage) (so-called zero voltage switch ZVS conditions) in conducting, and make parallel diode It is not turned on.On the contrary, electric current flows through MOSFET itself.Therefore, rectifier can be with minimum loss, the conducting resistance of MOSFET Small conduction loss work.For the topological structure of Figure 22 B, corresponding voltage, electric current and switch wave are shown in Figure 23 A Shape, wherein it is symmetrical for two half portions in period that can see them, and there are dead times when switch all disconnects at two (dead time).In this operating mode, the dead time phase of upper switcho, conducting dutycycle D, rectifier it is defeated Enter complex impedance ZrAnd DC output voltage VDCWith the amplitude I of input sinusoidal currentACRatio ZIO, DC load electricity can be only dependent upon Hinder RlWith effective capacitance Cr.For the half-bridge embodiment of Figure 22 B, ZIOThan the plural number input resistance of, dead time phase and rectifier Anti- ZrIt is given by the following formula:

In some embodiments it is possible to during the work time by other processor portions in microcontroller or unit Part is by CrWith DC load resistances RlThe knowledge measured in real time, calculate in real time and adjust dead time phase appropriate.It can be with MOSFET rectifiers in the dynamic adjustment course of work, so that ZVS can be kept, parallel diode is not turned on (or only most Be connected smallly), so its efficiency can be optimized while changing load.In some embodiments it is possible to monitor full input electricity Corrugating can adjust dead time phase, to be kept substantially ZVS and be connected or do not lead by the minimum of parallel diode It is logical.

It should be noted that in this pattern of this embodiment of rectifier, switch can also be disconnected in another zero current (so-called Zero Current Switch ZCS conditions).This is because diode switch can be from disconnecting, we can design MOSFET Imitate diode operation.Since diode and MOSFET can not have series inductance substantially, keep ZCS can be with disconnecting It is inessential.Therefore, in some embodiments it is possible to design MOSFET rectifiers, so that MOSFET can not be at the ZCS moment It disconnects, but is disconnected in later time.This design can not be damaged with ZVS band logical MOSFET, this only adjusts correlation Dead time be exactly practicable, all disconnected in two switches of period.Figure 23 B are shown for deviateing the ZCS moment Time only there are one (under) switch disconnect embodiment voltage, electric current and switching waveform.Figure 23 C show for two (under With it is upper) switch all moved from ZCS identical phase embodiment waveform so that waveform is still in the two half-unit pair in period Claim.Figure 23 C are shown all shifts two switches from ZCS, but moves the waveform of the embodiment of out of phase.Figure 23 B It is asymmetric for the two half-unit in period with 23D.Therefore, in the lower and upper MOSFET of switching sequence to(for) half bridge rectifier Above example in, can independently tune turn-off time (from ZCS postpone).Then, with these are tuned, even if DC is negative Carry resistance RlIt can be fixed or variable, the input complex impedance Z of rectifier can also be adjustedr.It can not sacrifice substantially These adjustment are carried out in the case of efficiency, because ZCS can not be lost, and parallel diode is connected scarcely ever or minimum Ground is connected.Each of the above operating mode embodiment can give different AC inputs even for identical DC load impedances Impedance.In this way, desirably output voltage or power adjustment or work can be selected according to the subsequent real part of AC input impedance Operation mode, so that influence of the conducting resistance of MOSFET for efficiency is minimum.

In the operating mode shown in Figure 23 B, can by the conducting dutycycle D of upper switch independently be tuned to zero and Do Between value.The electrical characteristics of this half bridge rectifier embodiment are by for ZIO、φONAnd ZrFormula provide:

Note that due toThenAnd D=Do, give the knot of former rectifier embodiment Fruit, wherein be dependent of DC load tuning duty ratios, and maintain ZCS.

It in certain embodiments, during the work time can be by other processor portions in microcontroller or unit Part is by CrWith the knowledge measured in real time of DC load resistances, and/or the knowledge of one or more desirable system performance characteristics, Such as duty ratio D, compare ZIOAnd/or real part of rectifier impedance etc. calculates in real time and adjusts phase appropriateWith In such an embodiment, tunable MOSFET rectifiers can be dynamically adjusted during the work time, so that can keep ZCS, and parallel diode is connected or is minimally connected scarcely ever, and to optimize its efficiency, while load can become Change, and desired output voltage or power or input impedance rank can be adjusted.In some embodiments it is possible to monitor completely defeated Enter voltage waveform and can be with adjustment phase placeTo be kept substantially ZVS, seldom or do not pass through parallel diode Conducting.

Similar conclusion can be shown with the operating mode of 23D for Figure 23 C.Equally, by tuning one from ZCS Or two phase shifts can adjust input impedance, output voltage and the power stage of rectifier.

In certain embodiments, rectifier can have full-bridge topologies.In order to not damage the efficiency in full-bridge In the case of, realize identical duty ratio tuning, in certain embodiments, the left and right side of bridge can be with shown in Figure 23 C Switching waveform works, but phase shift half period is in certain embodiments worked with switching waveform shown in Figure 23 A, but Phase shift is less than certain values of half period.

Amplifier

In one embodiment of rectifier in Figure 22 A, MOSFET may be used as switching.MOSFET can have simultaneously Join output capacitance and reversed body diode in parallel.In certain embodiments, extraneous capacitance and/or diode can be connected in parallel To each MOSFET of amplifier bridge.In certain embodiments, extraneous diode can be Schottky diode.MOSFET The effective capacitance C of bridgeaIt can be defined as when there is no switch conduction from the capacitance that amplifier output is seen.Due to being connected Switch can connect with output in the process, and the real part of AC impedances is smaller, due to the influence to efficiency of the conducting resistance of switch It is bigger.In some embodiments it is possible to select conducting resistance be substantially less than output impedance expectation real part MOSFET. Since MOSFET amplifiers are identical with Figure 22 A, the topological structure of 22B of rectifier, the corresponding rectifier of time reversal can be passed through Waveform carry out the possible different working modes of paraphase amplifier.

In certain embodiments, for the low and high switch of half-bridge, on off sequence can be used, at two of the period It is symmetrical between half portion.In such an embodiment, if the output in amplifier is connected to value Zr *Complex impedance, wherein Zr Equation provides in (1), then the DC input impedance R of amplifieraThe corresponding R that can be equal in equation (1)l, upper switch leads Logical duty ratio can be the D provided in equation (1)o, voltage and current waveform can be the time reversal those of in Figure 23 A, Indicate realize and meanwhile ZVS and ZCS.If be connected to for any R in the output of amplifierlEquation (1) cannot all be given The complex impedance of the value gone out, then ZVS and ZCS cannot be realized simultaneously.To one group of then perceptual complex impedance, Ke Yishi Existing ZVS, so as to keep high efficiency, waveform can be the time reversal those of in Figure 23 C.It is again noted that ZCS conditions The switch efficiency of amplifier can not be it is vital because MOSFET can not have substantive series inductance. When with this ZVS, the ZCS during switch conduction can basically mean that the voltage equally by zero derivative realizes ZVS conditions, To allow the improved tolerance to realizing the ZVS moment in terms of sequential.That is allow certain time ranges, it is sufficient wherein Enough close to ZVS.In these embodiments, switch sequence and duty ratio D can be hindered by the AC plural numbers exported in amplifier Resist, realize ZVS and the requirement for being seldom connected or being not turned on by parallel diode in turn-on instant to uniquely determine.Therefore, It gives fixed DC input voltages and power stage is independently adjustable desired amount meeting in the case where not sacrificing certain efficiency It is impossible.

In some embodiments it is possible to during the work time by other processor components in microcontroller or source unit By CaWith the knowledge of AC output impedances measured in real time, (calculating, know using tabling look-up) is determined in real time and is adjusted suitably Duty ratio D and dead time.The MOSFET amplifiers in the course of work can be dynamically adjusted, so that ZVS can be kept, Parallel diode is not turned on or is only minimally connected, and allows that while changing load its efficiency can be optimized.In certain realities Apply in example, full input voltage waveform can be monitored, on off sequence can be adjusted, be kept substantially ZVS and by and union II The conducting of the very little of pole pipe is not turned on.

In certain embodiments, for the low and high switch of half-bridge, on off sequence can be used, at two of the period It is asymmetric between half portion.That is the turn-on time of MOSFET can appear in ZVS or its near, to keep enough effects Rate, but the turn-off time of upper MOSFET is tunable.This solution provides independent tuning knobs, can adjust and put by it The power of big device.If being connected to value Z in the output of amplifierr *Complex impedance, wherein ZrIt is provided in equation (2), then The DC input impedance R of amplifieraThe corresponding R that can be equal in equation (2)l, the conducting dutycycle of upper switch can be equation (2) D provided in, voltage and current waveform can be the time reversals those of in Figure 23 B, indicate in two turn-on instants ZVS is realized, ZCS is realized in a turn-on instant.If be connected to for any D and R in the output of amplifierlEquation (2) complex impedance for the value that cannot all provide, then all can not achieve ZCS at any time.To one group of then perceptual plural number ZVS may be implemented in impedance, and so as to keep high efficiency, waveform can be the time reversal form those of in Figure 23 D.

In some embodiments it is possible to during the work time by other processor components in microcontroller or source unit By CaWith AC output impedances it is real-time measure at least one knowledge, and one or more desirable system performance characteristics Knowledge, such as duty ratio D, compare ZIOAnd/or DC input impedance etc., when determining and adjust duty ratio D appropriate in real time and stagnating Between.The tunable MOSFET amplifiers in the course of work can be dynamically adjusted, so that ZVS can be kept, parallel diode is several From being not turned on or can minimally be connected, to optimize its efficiency while changing output impedance, and can be with Adjust desired power stage.In some embodiments it is possible to monitor full input voltage waveform, on off sequence can be adjusted, with base ZVS is kept in sheet and by the conducting of the very little of parallel diode or is not turned on.

In certain embodiments, amplifier has full-bridge topologies.In order to the case where not damaging the efficiency in full-bridge Lower to realize identical duty ratio, the left and right side of bridge can be worked with switching waveform shown in Figure 23 C, but time reversal And phase shift half period, or worked with switching waveform shown in Figure 23 A, but time reversal and phase shift are less than half Certain values in period.

From above it could be assumed that:Switching amplifier and switching rectifier can be designed, so that tuning independent duty While than " knob " certain characteristics to adjust converter, high efficiency is kept.This knob or adjustable parameters can be shown For tuning task can be provided in wireless power transmission system, otherwise will be realized using DC/DC converters.

Tunable wireless power transmission system

As exemplary embodiment, considers the situation of wireless power transmission system WPT, (R can not be changeds、Ls、Rd、 LdAnd MsdCan not change) load can have constant resistance Rl.Figure 22 A and 22B show this exemplary embodiment.It is right In this fixed overall system, tunable element can not be needed in source and unit to optimize end-to-end efficiency.Phase Instead, for the efficiency of optimization system, as previously disclosed, the impedance matching network IMN of equipment can be designedd, so that working The frequency f=π of ω/2, from equipment coil to load in terms of when, the input impedance Z of rectifierrIt can be transformed to Or equivalently, in IMNdInput when being seen to load, subtracting equipment coil (Rd+jωLd) after, it is transformed toCan be to the reflected umpedance of source coilOr equivalently, source is being added Coil impedance (Rs+jωLs) after, in the terminal of source coilTherefore the impedance matching in source can be designed Network, so that in working frequency, this impedance can be transformed to impedance Z appropriates, so that amplifier is with minimal losses (such as with ZVS and ZCS) is operated, and exports desired quantity of power.When realizing the above impedance rank, we can say that being System is operated under impedance matching condition.

Good WPT efficiency may be implemented in the above impedance rank.Power stage can be adjusted by tunable amplifier, it can Tuned amplifier can be used for changing its output power by tuning its duty ratio (abandoning ZCS).By this method, entire WPT The impedance rank of system can not change (impedance matching that can keep system), so as to keep good overall efficiency. In certain embodiments, tunable rectifier can be used for by tune its duty ratio (abandoning ZCS) and therefore its input resistance Resist to change its output power.In this way, it is possible to change the impedance rank of WPT system, but in some cases, for effect Rate there is no influence.

As another example, the situation of following WPT system is considered:Load in unit has constant resistance Rl, But coil parameter (Rs、Ls、Rd、LdAnd Msd) can change due to the external disturbance of variation or the variation of its relative position.For Maximum WPT efficiency is kept, needs the impedance rank in source and equipment tunable, when so as in terms of from equipment coil to load It can obtain impedanceAnd the impedance of ZVS and ZCS can be provided in amplifier output.Due to this two Each in a impedance can be plural number, and can have real and imaginary parts, and in certain embodiments, two tunable " knob " (being otherwise known as component, parameter, amount, value etc.) can be used for equipment, and two in source unit.In some embodiments In, as described above, can be provided with system change for two knobs in source unit and be directed to what ZVS and ZCS was tuned Ability can be the duty ratio and IMN of amplifiersThe value of an interior tunable component, for example, the value of tunable capacitor. Similar, in certain embodiments, it can provide with system change and be directed to for two knobs in unitThe ability being tuned can be the duty ratio and IMN of rectifierdThe value of an interior tunable component, For example, the value of tunable capacitor.Tunable amplifier can be used for reducing it by reducing its duty ratio (abandoning ZCS) Output power.By this method, the impedance rank of entire WPT systems can not change, to maintain good overall efficiency. Practical impedance is kept in equipmentIt may mean that and need to keep equipment resonance.Similarly, it is source amplifier ZVS and ZCS is kept to may mean that and needs holding source resonance, otherwise will obtain cannot will be enough for the output impedance of amplifier Power send its value to, and either capacitive so that can not achieve ZVS, or extremely perceptual so that ZCS is largely lost, the conducting resistance of MOSFET can be suitable with the real part of output impedance, so as to cause due to leading Decline in the efficiency of logical loss.Therefore the purpose of tunable IMN in such embodiment can be to maintain the resonance of resonator Frequency is close enough with operating frequency.

In certain embodiments, if being only the coupling between coil, i.e. Msd, can substantially change, just without adjustable Humorous IMN provides enough power to load with enough efficiency.Fixed IMN can be designed so that can be in desirable coupling The power of desired amount is sent in closing operation range to load, while tunable rectifier can be used for by adjusting its input resistance Resist to improve efficiency, tunable amplifier can be used for fully realizing ZVS, and seldom or do not have diode current flow, Yi Jiru Additional adjustment power stage in need.

In another exemplary embodiment, the situation of following WPT system is considered now:Coil parameter and coupling can be with Do not change (Rs、Ls、Rd、LdAnd MsdCan not change), but load can require the quantity of power of variation, and can need in perseverance Fixed voltage.In certain embodiments, this load can be battery charger, LED light of battery etc..For this feelings Shape can use DC/DC converters after the rectifier in unit, and output voltage is adjusted to desired level, such as Shown in Figure 20 B.In the present specification, it is proposed that this DC/DC converter can not needed.Consideration can be initially by system Design is in maximum load power stage, to realize impedance matching in entire WPT system, optimizes WPT efficiency, and make negative Load sees correct output dc voltage.In some embodiments it is possible to tunable amplifier is used in source unit, so that with The power for load requirement reduces, and the output power of tunable amplifier can also reduce identical amount (by its duty of reduction Than and lose ZCS), this reduction can cause DC load voltages and level of impedance match to keep essentially identical, because of coupling The system of resonator is substantially linear.In certain embodiments, tunable rectifier can be used for being maintained at the phase of load It hopes output dc voltage level, while load power demand can be reduced.In this embodiment, due to losing optimization impedance Matching, and the power output of source amplifier only changes according to the variation of its output impedance, the efficiency of WPT system can be by shadow It rings, but efficiency is enough for certain applications.

In another exemplary embodiment, above type of load can be used in WPT system, between coil Coupling can change, and external disturbance can influence system, and system can also change (Rs、Ls、Rd、LdAnd MsdIt can change Become).It needs to keep desired operation target in systems to be four:(1) the DC load voltages of the specified operation of load are used for, (2,3) seen impedance level is seen in matching from equipment coil to load(real and imaginary parts), so that WPT efficiency is maximum, and (4) in the resonance in source, so that in impedance (substantially its real part and imaginary part of amplifier output Ratio) to allow to transmit enough power to its (and apparatus of load therefore), and capacitive can be avoided in rank appropriate Or pole emotional resistance, efficiency of amplitude can be caused to reduce.

In order to keep this four systems target, four tunable knobs are usually may require that in systems.In the implementation of proposition In example, four knobs can be the tunable duty ratio of source amplifier, the tunable duty ratio of equipment rectifier, IMNsIn Tuned element (such as capacitor) and IMNdIn tuned element (such as capacitor).In some embodiments it is possible to Tune all four knobs with and meanwhile realize all four expectation.In certain embodiments, each knob can be with a phase Hope to be target, since all knobs are for its individual target tuning, system can merge to total desired conditions.One this In class embodiment, the duty ratio of rectifier can be tuned, to be maintained at the expectation DC output voltage of load, IMN can be tuneds In tuned element can be with the duty ratio and IMN of tuned amplifier to keep source resonancedIn tuned element, with It is maintained at the impedance matching condition of equipment.This last step may be implemented, because adjustment power stage has adjusted rectifier AC input impedance (since nonlinear load is connected to its output), and tunable IMNdElement can be with the resonance of adjusting device. In another embodiment, it can be adjusted with the duty ratio of tuned amplifier with being directed to constant DC load voltages, it equally can be with Tune IMNsIn tuned element can tune the duty ratio and IMN of rectifier to keep source resonancedIn it is tunable Element, to be maintained at the impedance matching condition of equipment.

In certain embodiments, if the resonance of equipment resonator not substantially changes (usually because the electricity of equipment coil Sense does not change substantially due to disturbance), it may not need IMNdIn tuned element realize in desired D/C voltage and with foot Enough high efficiency sends the expectation power of load to.In certain such embodiments, IMN can be tunedsTuned element, To be kept substantially source resonance, the duty ratio of rectifier can be tuned, it, can be with tuned amplifier to keep DC load voltages Duty ratio, so that total efficiency of transmission is maximum.In certain embodiments, the role of the duty ratio of amplifier and rectifier can be with It exchanges.In certain embodiments, instead of making efficiency maximum, a duty ratio knob can be tuned, it is defeated in rectifier to realize The specific AC impedance levels entered.

In certain embodiments, if being only the coupling between coil, i.e. Msd, can substantially change, in source and equipment It is just all not necessarily to tunable IMN and provides required power to load in required voltage level with enough efficiency.In certain realities Apply in example, the duty ratio of rectifier can be tuned, to keep DC load voltages, can with the duty ratio of tuned amplifier so that Total efficiency of transmission is maximum.In certain embodiments, the role of the duty ratio of amplifier and rectifier can be interchanged.In certain realities It applies in example, instead of so that efficiency is maximum, a duty ratio knob can be tuned, to realize that the specific AC inputted in rectifier hinders Anti- grade.

In some embodiments it is possible to which the additional knob in amplifier tuning is switch (and operation therefore) frequency Rate.Tuned frequency can provide power adjustment.In some embodiments of the WPT with high Q resonator, wherein in resonator Between the resonance that needs access to, tuned frequency can be used for adjusting power, as long as all devices unit may include tunable IMN is substantially matched so that their resonant frequency can be adjusted with operating frequency.

In certain embodiments, available additional tunable knob can be source and equipment IMN in it is additional can Tune element.

In typical battery supply set, charging circuit can be before battery, so as on each charge cycle It is battery charging using specific charging feature figure.In embodiment, the WPT system embodiment adjustment equipment units of this specification The ability of output unit can be allowed to be directly connected to battery, be not necessarily to additional charging circuit, or if still need to Additional charging circuit is wanted, it can be smaller, relatively inexpensive, and may include less component.That is, in embodiment, WPT systems It itself can be the battery charger of battery to unite, all battery managements of execution, such as monitoring battery status (such as voltage Or temperature), and different quantity of power is required in the different piece of charge cycle.Allusion quotation such as Li ions or NiMH batteries The charging feature figure of type may include the time interval of the constant current or constant voltage that are provided by charging circuit.In this explanation It is illustrated in book, in certain embodiments, WPT systems can be maintained at whole by tuning at least one system knob Flow the DC load voltages of device output.In certain embodiments, this knob can be the duty ratio of tunable rectifier.Straight When being connected to battery in succession, output voltage is usually set as its own internal instantaneous voltage by battery automatically.Therefore, in certain realities It applies in example, system tunning knob can be tuned, to be maintained at the DC load currents of rectifier output (instead of voltage).In certain realities It applies in example, this tuning knob equally can be the duty ratio of tunable rectifier.In certain embodiments, WPT system passes through At least one system knob is tuned, realizes any desired charging feature figure, including between constant current or constant voltage Every.In certain embodiments, this tuning knob can be the duty ratio of tunable rectifier.

In the embodiment of WPT system, cause its system control tuned that can depend on the measurement of parameter list. In source unit, D/C voltage and electric current can be measured, to determine input power and the DC impedances to source amplifier.Source DC power, electricity The measurement of pressure and/or electric current can be used for the duty ratio of tuned amplifier, to adjust the power for being input to source unit, voltage And/or electric current.Equally in source unit, AC voltage and or currents can be measured, with determine source amplifier output power and/ Or AC impedances.As explained before, the measurement of AC impedances can be used for the switch time of tuned amplifier MOSFET, so as to reality Existing ZVS, and electric current is scarcely ever by parallel diode, but pass through MOSFET.The measurement of AC impedances can be used for adjusting The value of the tunable element of one or more of humorous source impedance matching network, to keep source resonance and/or in order to by AC impedances It is revised as allowing the desired output power from amplifier, but with the value of more preferably efficiency of amplitude.In unit, D/C voltage and/or electric current can be measured, to determine that equipment rectifier is transmitted to output power and the instantaneous DC load resistances of load It is anti-.The measurement of equipment DC power, voltage and or current can be used for tuning the duty ratio of rectifier, to adjust from tables of equipment Member is output to the power of load, voltage and or current.Equally in unit, AC voltage and or currents can be measured, with Determine the input power to equipment rectifier and/or AC input impedance.As explained a little earlier, the measurement of DC impedances and with input AC current waveforms synchronize the switch time that can be used for tuning MOSFET, and to realize ZVS, and electric current leads to scarcely ever Parallel diode is crossed, but passes through MOSFET.

In certain embodiments, analog filter can be used for filtering the sources AC of sensing and/or equipment voltage waveform Wave.In certain embodiments, filter may include the double high Q low passes of second order (SAB) of single amplifier or bandpass filter.

In some embodiments it is possible to measure the sources AC and/or device current using current sense transformer.Certain In embodiment, if impedance matching network includes the inductor for the sides AC for being connected in series to amplifier and/or rectifier, so that it may To measure AC electric currents by the way that this inductor is revised as transformer by the one or more secondary turns of increase.Certain In embodiment, analog filter can be used for the current waveform filtering to sensing.In certain embodiments, filter can wrap Include the double high Q low passes of second order (SAB) of single amplifier or bandpass filter.

In the embodiment of tunable rectifier, analog circuit, digital circuit, microcontroller can be used or it is arbitrary It combines to realize that the switching waveform of rectifier MOSFET is synchronous with the AC electric currents for being input to rectifier.In certain embodiments, It can sense, filter AC electric currents, and comparator can be input to, to generate synchronizing signal.In certain embodiments, comparator It can be in microcontroller.The switching waveform of rectifier MOSFET is needed relative to sync signal delay.In some embodiments In, it can realize delay with discrete analog or digital component or in microcontroller.In some embodiments it is possible to The variable duty ratio (or phase shift) of rectifier MOSFET is generated using analog- and digital- logic circuit or in microcontroller Switching waveform.

In the embodiment of WPT system, cause the system control that it is tuned that can be also required to run calculation in processing unit Method, processing unit can be in source unit, unit or the two.Algorithm can utilize one or more systems measured to join Number, and can determine the necessary modification to the tunable parameter of system.Algorithm can be a Global Algorithm, receive all surveys The parameter of amount, and transmit all necessary tunings.Algorithm can be the summation of polyalgorithm, and the operation of their serial or parallels is led Cause global convergence.In the embodiment of this polyalgorithm, certain algorithms can be run in source unit, certain to set It is run in standby unit.

In the embodiment of WPY systems, the control algolithm that operates in a unit of WPT system can need about In the information for the parameter that the different units of WPT system measure.This information can be passed via communication channel in different units It send.In certain embodiments, the communication channel that information is transmitted can be identical with energy transmission.In the reality of this in-band communications It applies in example, at least one parameter or the component needs of information passing unit are tunable, so as to realize to information receiving unit Operation measurable change.Tunable parameter or component can be the duty ratios in the converter of unit, or single Tunable element etc. in the IMN of member.In certain embodiments, information transmit communication channel can be with energy transmission not Same channel.In the embodiment of this out-of-band communication, it can use and operate in any frequency different from WPT running frequencies Communication any standard method and platform.

In the embodiment of WPT system, tunable MOSFET amplifiers and rectifier can symmetrically allow WPT system Unit role exchange.That is, source unit can be used as equipment to run, unit can be used as source to run.System is therefore It can allow the two-way flow of power.This feature in the control of system and its several reasons of application aspect but have .It is more advantageous to bidirectional operation when the load in unit is battery itself.Then, system can be without appointing Inverted running in the case of what topological structure modification.

In some embodiments of system control, certain communication protocols can periodically, but in extremely short time quantum Regulating system executes following algorithm:All units in WPT system other than one run as source unit are as equipment Operation so that as source unit operation unit can execute measurements (and it is possible that by communications reception about in other lists The information for the measurement that member executes), and tune itself;All units are used as this tuned cell successively, so that when having tuned institute When having unit, system just reaches it and optimizes tuning state.In other embodiments, algorithms of different variation can be needed short In time quantum, the role that unit normally has from it in power transmission process changes role.

In the embodiment of application, as the equipment powered by particular source when the ability of unit way traffic allows normal And this unit run is run in other times as source, is powered for distinct device.Illustratively, laptop can be with Including WPT units, run usually as the equipment by the source unit power supply in built-in desk, but other times (such as In travelling), it can be used as source to run, and be that the unit in mobile phone, smart phone, earphone, digital camera etc. supplies Electricity.

The logical construction of the tunable converter of high efficiency and the described above of configuration can expand to and have in WPT system The system of multiple units, for example, multiple sources and/or multiple equipment, it is possible to when multiple head-end units.In this embodiment In, the tunable rectifier in each unit can tune its duty ratio, to be directed to fixed D/C voltage or fixed DC electricity Stream is adjusted in any desired battery charging feature figure of load output.In certain embodiments, each source is single Tunable amplifier in member can tune its duty ratio, to adjust its output power.This power adjustment can make Overall system efficiency is optimized.In certain embodiments, tunable element is present in the IMN of some or all system unit, Additional tuning knob can allow more complicated system to control, and final goal is the optimization of system effectiveness, by required DC The constraint of load voltage, load power demand, maximum source power transfer capability etc..In general, different equipment can be for from one The power of a or multiple source unit outputs increases or reduces the stake that can have conflict.In some embodiments it is possible to The power exported from source unit is adjusted, to meet the maximum power requirement from all devices, until possible maximum output Power stage.Then, in the equipment for needing less power, if tuning them close to resonance, there will be a large amount of cycles, And thereby the power to dissipate.In certain embodiments, one or more tunable elements are present in the IMN of equipment, with In the WPT system of multiple equipment, the one or more tunable element in the equipment for needing less power can be tuned, with Reduce the power to dissipate in equipment, while keeping desired output power, voltage or electric current.

Exemplary System Embodiment

Figure 24 shows the exemplary block diagram of wireless energy transfer system according to the present invention.System in Figure 24 includes Energy is transmitted in wireless energy source at least one wireless energy capture device.System includes tunable source element and tunable Equipment component can adjust the energy transmission of system.The adjustment of energy conduction can be used for controlling the energy for being transmitted to equipment Amount.Adjustment can be used for controlling the work(for sending load under the distinct device position/orientation in different loads condition and opposite source Rate.The adjustment of energy transmission can be used for by reduce due to store or flow through system element excessive power system member The energy for wasting or dissipating in part, to ensure effectively to transmit energy.

The source of system may include tunable switching amplifier and tunable impedance matching networks.The tuned element in source It can be used for the power output in adjustment source, the resonant frequency of the efficiency and source resonator in source.In the exemplary embodiment, adjustable Humorous switching amplifier 2402 is connected to energy source, such as DC voltage source.The D/C voltage of energy source can be by switching amplifier 2402 are transformed to switch or oscillating voltage, and for passing through 2404 driving source resonator coil 2422 of impedance network.Switch amplification Device can have adjustable or tunable switching frequency.In certain embodiments, the frequency of switching amplifier can be used for adjusting The power output of whole amplifier.Driving source resonator can be used for changing amplifier to resonant frequency in source below and above Power output.In the exemplary embodiment, in the normal course of operation of amplifier, switching amplifier preferably has basic Upper fixed or constant switching frequency.The switching frequency of amplifier is preferably matched with system frequency, or can be substantially Equal to the resonant frequency of source resonator.In this embodiment, the power control in source is preferably by adjusting the duty of amplifier Than or amplifier phase in-migration control.

The impedance matching network that source 2404 can be tuned, to provide effective operation of amplifier.Impedance matching network can be with Including tunable component, to provide the impedance matching between amplifier and the resonator in source, so that effectively energy passes It passs.Impedance matching network can also include tunable component, to provide source resonant frequency control and adjustment.Due to humorous Shake device parameter by environmental disturbances because equipment operation, equipment variation on the move and change etc., tunable component can be used In the resonant frequency in source is remained essentially in system frequency.

Can by source feedback or control loop carry out the tuned element of voltage input.It can be based on source voltage, electricity The measurement parameter of stream, temperature, field strength etc. carrys out the tuned element of voltage input by feedback or control loop.It can use and be The information of the devices exchange of system carrys out the tuned element of voltage input by feedback or control loop.

Such as in the exemplary embodiment shown in Figure 24, source may include amplifier control device 2410, to putting The input of big device carries out D/C voltage and the one or more of DC electric current measure.Input voltage is measured in the input 2416 of amplifier The power input to source can be determined with electric current, and may infer that the power output in source.Amplifier control can adjust amplifier The duty ratio of 2402 switch element or phase shift, to adjust power input or the output of amplifier.Amplifier control can communicate Ground is coupled to equipment, and the duty ratio of amplifier can be adjusted based on the power of the power or device request that are transmitted to equipment Or phase shift.

In systems, as the variation for the quantity of power for being transmitted to equipment or equipment requirement as a result, the duty ratio of amplifier Or phase shift needs periodically or continuously to adjust.The power of equipment requirement can be due in source resonator coil 2422 and equipment The variation of coupling between resonator coil 2424, the movement of equipment, other equipment power extraction etc. and change.For example, such as Far from source, the coupling between source resonator coil and equipment resonator coil will reduce fruit equipment.Since distance is remote, pass Being sent to the power of equipment resonator coil 2424 will reduce.In order to keep the specified power for being transmitted to equipment, amplifier control System can increase the duty ratio of the switch element of amplifier, to transmit more power in the output of source resonator coil.

In the exemplary embodiment shown in Figure 24, source may include impedance matching control device 2412, in amplifier 2402 output carries out AC voltages and the one or more of AC electric currents 2418 measure.By measuring the waveform exported in amplifier Characteristic, amplifier control device 2410 can adjust the switch element of amplifier 2402, in the switch element of amplifier 2402 Realize zero voltage switch.Waveform characteristic measures the resonant frequency that can be controlled by impedance matching for determining source.It can adjust The element of IMN makes resonant frequency substantially achieve the switching frequency of amplifier.The measurement of waveform characteristic can be by impedance matching The value for controlling tunable element for determining impedance matching network, with improved efficiency of amplitude by the power of amplifier Input or output adjustment are to expected degree.

In embodiment, may be physically identical controller, Huo Zheke for amplifier control and impedance matching control To be the circuit or block of separation.It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that there are it is various can mode realize with this paper institutes State the control block of function.In embodiment, it can realize control using analog circuit, realize comparator, sensor etc.. It can realize control, such as FPGA, microcontroller, ASIC etc. with digital hardware in embodiment.

The equipment of system may include impedance matching network 2406 and tunable rectifier 2408.In resonator coil The oscillating voltage of induction can be transmitted by impedance matching network 2406, and be rectified into substantially in the output of rectifier 2408 Upper D/C voltage and electric current, to be load supplying, such as battery, electronic equipment etc..Rectifier can be controlled zero voltage switch Rectifier, the tunable duty ratio with switch element or phase shift, and can be used for controlling the output electricity for being transmitted to apparatus of load Pressure or output current.

The tuned element of switching rectifier can be controlled by the backfeed loop in equipment.Rectifier control 2414 can measure carrying out the one or more of the voltage and current of equipment, and adjust the duty of the switch element of rectifier Than or phase shift.In embodiment, rectifier control can measure the D/C voltage exported in rectifier 2420 and electric current. In embodiment, duty ratio and/or the phase shift of the switch element of rectifier can be controlled and/or adjust, in load or rectifier Constant voltage is realized in 2420 outputs.In embodiment, can control and/or adjust the switch source of rectifier duty ratio and/ Or phase shift, to realize substantially invariable electric current in load or the output of rectifier 2420.

In wireless energy transfer system, due to the variation of load parameter, in the electricity of load or the output of rectifier 2420 Pressure and/or electric current need periodically or even continuously to adjust.In embodiment, the power requirement of load can be with the period Property or continuously change.In the exemplary embodiment that load is battery, power requirement can be with the state of charge of battery Change and continuously changes.When the cell is discharged, battery may require that constant current in its initial charge period, but with battery It is electrically charged, current requirements can reduce.In systems, rectifier control 2414 can adjust the switch element of rectifier Duty ratio and/or phase shift, to provide required voltage and or current to load.

In systems, as the quantity of power variation received from source as a result, the duty ratio and/or phase shift needs of rectifier Periodically or constantly adjust.Since source exports less power, source resonator coil 2422 and equipment resonator coil 2424 Between couple variation, the movement of equipment, the situation of other equipment or power extraction etc. in system, be transmitted to equipment resonator The power of coil 2424 can change.For example, if equipment far from source, in source resonator coil and equipment resonator coil it Between coupling will reduce.Since distance is remote, being transmitted to the power of equipment resonator coil 2424 will reduce.In order to no matter It is transmitted to the variation of the power of equipment resonator coil, to be also maintained at the voltage, electric current or power output of load, rectifier Control device can increase the duty ratio of the switch element of rectifier, greater percentage of in equipment resonator coil to allow The power of capture flows to load.

In embodiment, rectifier control is communicatively coupled to the source of system.In embodiment, rectifier control Device processed can send signal notice based on the operating parameter of the voltage and current or rectifier that are exported in rectifier to source Increase or reduce its power output.If rectifier other than its maximum range of operation or near, cannot increase its duty ratio or Phase in-migration meets the power requirement of load, and equipment can signal the more power of output to source.In embodiment, When rectifier close to 50% duty ratio or close to 40% duty ratio or it is less in the case of, rectifier control can be to source Signal the more power of output.In embodiment, rectifier can be signaled to source reduces its output power. In embodiment, when rectifier is run with 40% or lower duty ratio or 30% or lower duty ratio, equipment connects The power of receipts will meet more needed for load power demand than it.In embodiment, attached in equipment and source resonator coil The circulating power added can lead to the reduction of energy transfer efficiency.In embodiment, equipment rectifier control can be to source It signals and reduces source power output, to match the power requirement in load.

In embodiment, system can adjust the power output in source, so that the rectifier in equipment can be with basic Duty ratio operation between upper 50% duty ratio or 40% to 50%, to meet the power requirement in the load of equipment.Whole Stream device can allow rectifier more effective in the duty ratio operation close to 50%, and reduce due to source or equipment resonator line The loss of additional cycles electric current in circle and component.In embodiment, equipment periodically can signal adjustment to source The power output in source.In embodiment, equipment can be signaled periodically to source and identify its power requirement, and be allowed Source determines optimal power output power.

In certain embodiments, equipment may include detuning ability.In embodiment, if equipment have received it is excessive Power, or more than the power of its needs, equipment can leave its resonant frequency from the resonant frequency detuning in source, to reduce It is transmitted to the power of equipment.In some systems, equipment can first attempt to transmit its power requirement to source, and source is waited for subtract Its small power output.But if after during a specified time, source power output does not reduce, and equipment can detuning its resonance Frequency is to reduce the energy of its capture.Equipment can make a return journey by adjusting one or more of its impedance matching network component Its humorous resonant frequency.In embodiment, load power demand that can be based on measurement and meet whole needed for load power demand The parameter of device is flowed to execute the detuning of passback and equipment resonant frequency of the power requirement to source.It is less than if rectifier operates in 30% duty ratio, and meet the power requirement of load, rectifier control can detuning equipment, or to sources traffic To reduce its power output.

Figure 25 indicates to show system embodiment in more detail with system element.Source may include switching amplifier 2402 With impedance matching network 2404.Amplifier can be switch half-bridge amplifier, and there are two switch element S1 and S2 for tool.Switch member Part can be switch of random number of types, including field-effect transistor (FET), BJT, electric mechanical switch etc..Switch can be with solid It is connected and disconnects with determining frequency cycle, the oscillating voltage and electric current that DC input voltages and electric current are become exporting in amplifier. The switching frequency and duty ratio of switch element S1 and S2 can be controlled by amplifier control device 2410.Those skilled in the art It can be appreciated that, amplifier may include four or more switch elements, and may include full-bridge topologies.

Impedance matching network 2404 may include the network of concatenated inductor L2 and capacitor C6, C5, C4 and humorous with source It shakes the parallel configuration of device coil 2422.The topological structure of the element of impedance matching network can for system service requirement and It designs and adjusts.Network can be designed as reducing the electric current or crest voltage of the capacitor in certain systems.In other systems In, network can be designed so that the number of components in network is minimum.

In embodiment, impedance matching network 2404 may include one or more tunable components.In embodiment, Network 2404 may include tunable capacitor C5, C4, in parallel with resonator coil 2422.Tunable capacitance may include one A or multiple capacitor groups can use one or more electronically controlled switch to be connected or disconnected from circuit.Such as scheme In 25, capacitor C5 can be connected or disconnected from by using electronically controlled switch S3 to adjust shunt capacitance.In capacitance Variation can be used for the resonant frequency in tuning source, to correct any disturbance or change to the resonant frequency in source.In embodiment In, capacitance tuning can be used for remaining essentially in the resonant frequency in source the fixed frequency of system.In embodiment, capacitance Tuning can be used for adjusting power input or the output of amplifier with improved efficiency of amplitude.

Impedance matching network can have other tuned elements, such as inductor, other capacitors, resistor etc..It can With with the switch element in capacitor C5 in such as Figure 25 come adjustment element.Switch element can control 2412 by impedance matching Electronic control can change capacitance by the way that one or more capacitors are connected or removed for circuit.

The impedance matching network 2406 of equipment may include the network of capacitor and inductor, the resonance of set device Frequency, and by resonator coil 2424 and 2408 impedance matching of rectifier.Rectifier 2408 may include at least one active opens Close element.One or more switch element S4, S5 can be synchronous with the oscillating voltage of the input in rectifier, and can be connected And disconnection, it is the D/C voltage exported in rectifier and electric current by oscillating voltage and electric current substantially rectification.Switch is preferably electricity Sub- controlled switch, such as the transistor that is controlled by rectifier control 2414.Rectifier control 2414 can control Switching characteristic, for example, the duty ratio of switch, to control the output voltage or electric current that are exported in rectifier.In embodiment, whole It may include one or more filters to flow device, with smooth or reduction output voltage output ripple.Filter can be one Or multiple capacitors or other any number of passive and active filtering topological structures.

In embodiment, amplifier topology and rectifier topology structure can be set based on full-bridge shown in Figure 26 Meter.In the full-bridge topologies in source, amplifier 2402 may include setting about four switch elements S1, S2, S3, S4.In full-bridge In topological structure, impedance matching network 2404 chooses 2422 symmetrically preferably about resonator.The element of impedance matching network can It is upper identical with two outputs in amplifier.For example, inductor L2, which can copy to two outputs, is used as exemplary network In L2a and L2b.Balanced impedance matching network may include tunable component, such as capacitor group, can cut and cut Go out circuit.In embodiment, switchable capacitor group can also be symmetrical, such as C5a and C5b, and using in circuit Symmetrical switch S5, S6 of heart point carry out break-make.

Exemplary System Embodiment with tunable source amplifier and tunable equipment rectifier is mobile or can for arriving The wireless energy transfer of mobile device or for the system with more than one equipment with important advantage.With more In the embodiment of an equipment, there is the source of fixed or constant switch and output frequency more than one equipment to be allowed to connect simultaneously Receive power.In order to keep the tuning of source impedance matching network of the resonant frequency in source to be necessary, because equipment is mobile and changes Load and disturbance in the resonator coil of source.

Although illustrating that the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art should understand that other in conjunction with certain preferred embodiments Embodiment, they, which are also intended to, belongs to scope of the present disclosure interior, should come in the permitted broadest meaning of law It is explained.

All documents being mentioned above all are incorporated herein by quoting at it on the whole, as fully illustrated herein 's.

Claims (24)

1. a kind of wireless energy transfer system for transmitting energy between power supply and load, including:
Source resonator coil;
Equipment resonator coil, the equipment resonator coil are inductively coupled to the source resonator coil;
Tunable switching amplifier drives the source resonator coil by the power drives and by source impedance matching network, The switching amplifier has the switch element of electronic controllable;
Tunable switching rectifier, the tunable switching rectifier driving load and by design impedance matching network from The equipment resonator coil receives energy, and the switching rectifier has electronically controlled switch element;
Source amplifier control device, the source amplifier control device are configured as controlling the switch element of the amplifier Switching characteristic to adjust the power extracted from power supply;And
Rectifier control, the rectifier control are configured as controlling opening for the switch element of the rectifier Characteristic is closed to adjust the characteristic for the output for being supplied to the load, the rectifier control is communicatively coupled to the source Amplifier control device;
Wherein, the amplifier controls to the switch element of the amplifier and provides substantially fixed switching frequency.
2. system according to claim 1, wherein the amplifier has half-bridge topology, and the source is amplified Device control device is configured as controlling the duty cycle of switching of the switch element of the amplifier.
3. system according to claim 1, wherein the amplifier has full-bridge topologies, and the source is amplified Device control device is configured as controlling the phase of the switch element of the amplifier.
4. system according to claim 1, wherein the rectifier has half-bridge topology, and the rectifier Control device is configured as controlling the duty cycle of switching of the switch element of the rectifier.
5. system according to claim 1, wherein the rectifier has full-bridge topologies, and the rectifier Control device is configured as controlling the switch phase of the switch element of the rectifier.
6. system according to claim 1, wherein the rectifier control is configured as control and is supplied to described bear The voltage of load.
7. system according to claim 1, wherein the rectifier control is configured as control and is supplied to described bear The electric current of load.
8. system according to claim 1, wherein the rectifier control is configured as control and is supplied to described bear The power of load.
9. system according to claim 1, wherein the source amplifier control device adjusts the work(extracted from the power supply Rate, so that from the power supply to the efficiency optimization of the power transmission of the load.
10. system according to claim 4, wherein what the source amplifier control device adjusting was extracted from the power supply The power, to be kept substantially 50% duty ratio on the switch element of the rectifier.
11. system according to claim 5, wherein what the source amplifier control device adjusting was extracted from the power supply The power, to be kept substantially 50% phase shift in the switch element of the rectifier.
12. system according to claim 1, wherein the amplifier control is configured as controlling the institute of the amplifier At least one dead time of the switching characteristic of switch element is stated to be kept substantially zero voltage switch.
13. according to system described in claim 12, wherein the measurement of output voltage and output current in response to the amplifier As a result at least one dead time is controlled.
14. system according to claim 1, wherein the rectifier control is configured as controlling the rectifier The switch element the switching characteristic at least one dead time to be kept substantially zero voltage switch.
15. system according to claim 14, wherein the survey of output voltage and output current in response to the rectifier It measures to control at least one dead time.
16. system according to claim 1, wherein the source impedance matching network includes at least one tuned element.
17. system according to claim 16, wherein at least one tuned element is adjustable capacitance device.
18. system according to claim 17, wherein adjust the capacitor to keep the source resonant frequency.
19. system according to claim 17, wherein adjust the capacitor to by power from the power delivery The power extracted from the power supply is adjusted to the improved efficiency of the source resonator coil.
20. system according to claim 17, wherein adjust the capacitor to adjust the work(extracted from the power supply Rate, while being kept substantially on the switch element of the amplifier 50% duty ratio or phase shift.
21. a kind of method for energy of the control to load in wireless energy transfer system, the method includes:
Amplifier is provided for source, the switch element of the amplifier has tunable duty ratio;
Rectifier is provided for equipment, the switch element of the rectifier has tunable duty ratio, and the rectifier is communicably It is coupled to the amplifier in the source;
The duty ratio of the rectifier is adjusted to meet the power requirement of the output to the rectifier;And
The duty ratio of the amplifier is adjusted to obtain substantially 50% on the switch element of the rectifier Duty ratio.
22. according to the method for claim 21, wherein the rectifier transmits one or more operations to the amplifier Characteristic.
23. according to the method for claim 21, wherein the rectifier adjusts the duty ratio with to the rectifier The output provides constant voltage.
24. according to the method for claim 21, wherein the rectifier adjusts the duty ratio in the rectifier The output provides constant current.
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CA2844062C (en) 2017-03-28
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AU2012289855A1 (en) 2014-03-13
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