CN108413918B - Method for measuring geometrical parameters of track at low speed and composite measuring method - Google Patents

Method for measuring geometrical parameters of track at low speed and composite measuring method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108413918B
CN108413918B CN201810115146.9A CN201810115146A CN108413918B CN 108413918 B CN108413918 B CN 108413918B CN 201810115146 A CN201810115146 A CN 201810115146A CN 108413918 B CN108413918 B CN 108413918B
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track
measuring
profile
computer
speed
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CN108413918A (en
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张发成
白洪林
常亮
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Beijing Li Tie Transit Equipment Co Ltd
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Beijing Li Tie Transit Equipment Co Ltd
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B21/00Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups
    • G01B21/30Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups for measuring roughness or irregularity of surfaces
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B61RAILWAYS
    • B61KAUXILIARY EQUIPMENT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR RAILWAYS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
    • B61K9/00Railway vehicle profile gauges; Detecting or indicating overheating of components; Apparatus on locomotives or cars to indicate bad track sections; General design of track recording vehicles
    • B61K9/08Measuring installations for surveying permanent way
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01BMEASURING LENGTH, THICKNESS OR SIMILAR LINEAR DIMENSIONS; MEASURING ANGLES; MEASURING AREAS; MEASURING IRREGULARITIES OF SURFACES OR CONTOURS
    • G01B21/00Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups
    • G01B21/20Measuring arrangements or details thereof in so far as they are not adapted to particular types of measuring means of the preceding groups for measuring contours or curvatures, e.g. determining profile
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C1/00Measuring angles

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for measuring geometrical parameters of a track at low speed and a composite measuring method, and the technical scheme is characterized in that the distance between a front profile instrument and a rear profile instrument above the same track is C; the odometer records the mileage passed by the train in real time and acquires the track relative geometric parameter x under the condition of low speediThe three-dimensional gyroscope measures α the angle change in the horizontal plane in real time, and the front profile instrument measures x from the surface of the track in real timei‑1Offset h ofi‑1(ii) a Real-time distance measuring track surface x of rear profile instrumentiOffset h ofi(ii) a Front profile instrument real-time measuring distance track surface xiOffset h ofi'; by the formulaDeriving y from the relative geometric parameters of the orbitiFinally, an arbitrary point (x) of measurement is obtainedi,yi) Obtaining the ride comfort parameter, and obtaining (x) by an inertia reference method when the train speed is more than 15Km/hi,yi) The detection of the track irregularity at low speed or high speed is accurate.

Description

Method for measuring geometrical parameters of track at low speed and composite measuring method
Technical Field
The invention relates to the field of track measurement, in particular to a method for measuring track geometric parameters at low speed and a composite measuring method.
Background
The rail state is manually detected in the early stage, and rail inspection trolleys appear in the 70 th century. The manual pushing trolley and the motor-driven detection trolley are used for detection. Inspection by these methods does not reflect the geometry of the rail under the load of the train wheels. In more than ten years, as the driving speed is increased and the traffic volume is increased, the irregularity of the track needs to be further improved, and the irregularity waveform of the track needs to be more accurately measured, so that the development of a new track detection technology is promoted.
In the prior art, a three-point deflection method or an inertia reference method is used for measuring the track irregularity. Under the condition of high speed, the rail irregularity is detected by using an inertial reference method, and a rail relative geometric parameter, namely relative measurement data, is obtained through a mileometer, a three-dimensional gyroscope, a track gauge sensor, a transverse inclination angle sensor and a longitudinal inclination angle sensor which are installed on a train. The measurement principle of the three-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the relative track of the track is shown in fig. 1, taking coordinate calculation in a horizontal plane as an example, the algorithm formula of the relative coordinate is as follows:α is the angle change in the horizontal plane measured by the three-dimensional gyroscope in real time, L is the result measured by the odometer, LiIs the mileage from the starting point to the calculation point, tiThe time during the measurement is minute.
The inertia reference method integrates the time twice, and the lower the speed is, the longer the time is, the larger the accumulated error is, so the inertia reference method is greatly influenced by the speed, is not suitable for low-speed detection, and has more advantages at high speed. When monitoring is carried out, the speed of the train is low when the train is just started, and the accuracy of measured data is not high at the moment.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a device and a method for measuring the geometric parameters of a track at low speed, which have the advantage of more accurate detection of the irregularity of the track under the condition of low speed.
A method for measuring geometrical parameters of a track at low speed,
starting the train at the starting point of the measuring section, and simultaneously enabling the odometer, the three-dimensional gyroscope, the central processing unit, the front profile instrument, the rear profile instrument and the computer to be in an on state;
the distance between the front profile instrument and the rear profile instrument above the same track is C;
the odometer records the mileage passed by the train in real time and acquires x of relative geometric parameters of the track under the condition of low speediThe data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
three-dimensional gyroscope for real-time measurement of angle change α in horizontal planeiThe data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
front profile instrument real-time measuring distance track 1 surface xi-1Offset h ofi-1The data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
real-time distance measuring track surface x of rear profile instrumentiOffset h ofiThe data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
front profile instrument real-time measuring distance track surface xiOffset h ofi' is input into a computer through a central processing unit;
by formulas in a computerDeriving y from the relative geometric parameters of the orbitiFinally, an arbitrary point (x) of measurement is obtainedi,yi) And obtaining the smoothness parameter.
By adopting the technical scheme, C is a fixed numerical value, y0For the initial measurement, hi’、hiAnd αiAre all measured values, and then y is obtained by means of accumulationiAnd a time integration mode is not adopted, so that the accumulated error is small under the condition of low speed, and the detection of the track irregularity is accurate under the condition of low speed.
A method for measuring geometrical parameters of track compositely uses a low-speed track measuring method under the condition that the train speed is not more than 15Km/h, and uses an inertia reference method to obtain an inertia monitoring platform space curve under the condition that the train speed is more than 15Km/h,
by adopting the technical scheme, when the train is just started, the speed of the train is low, the method for measuring the track at low speed is accurate, and when the speed of the train is more than 15Km/h, the method for measuring the track at low speed is accurate.
In conclusion, the invention has the following beneficial effects: 1. the detection of the irregularity of the track is more accurate under the condition of low speed; 2. the device and the method for measuring the orbit at low speed are used, and the inertial reference method is used for measuring at high speed, so that the overall measurement is accurate.
Drawings
FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram of low speed measurement of track geometry;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of the structure of the mounting bracket when connected to the train;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged view of portion A of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of the profiler as measured;
FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a profile gauge during reference selection;
fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of the inertial reference method for measuring the geometrical parameters of the orbit.
In the figure, 1, track; 2. a mounting frame; 3. a rear profile gauge; 4. a front profile gauge; 41. a front inside profiler; 42. a front outside profiler; 5. a three-dimensional gyroscope; 6. mounting the component; 61. a connecting rod; 62. a nut; 63. and (7) mounting a seat.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. In which like parts are designated by like reference numerals. It should be noted that, as used in the following description, the terms "front," "rear," "left," "right," "upper," "lower," "bottom" and "top" refer to directions in the drawings, and the terms "inner" and "outer" refer to directions toward and away from, respectively, the geometric center of a particular component.
Example one
A method for measuring geometrical parameters of a track at low speed is applicable to the speed of a train not exceeding 15Km/h, and data acquisition and processing are carried out by using an odometer, a three-dimensional gyroscope 5, a central processing unit, a front profiler 4, a rear profiler 3 and a computer, wherein the odometer, the three-dimensional gyroscope, the central processing unit, the front profiler 4, the rear profiler 3 and the computer are installed on the train, and the distance between the front profiler 4 and the rear profiler 3 above the same track 1 is C. When the train is started, the odometer, the three-dimensional gyroscope 5, the central processing unit, the front profile 4, the rear profile 3 and the computer are started.
Then recording the mileage of the train in real time through an odometer, and reflecting the mileage into coordinates in a horizontal plane to obtain the relative geometric parameter x of the track 1iThe angle change α in the horizontal plane is measured by the three-dimensional gyroscope 5 in real timeiAnd then input into a computer through a central processing unit. Front profile meter 4 measures distance track 1 surface x in real timei-1Offset h ofiAnd then input into a computer through a central processing unit. Real-time measurement of distance track 1 surface x by back profile instrument 3iOffset h ofiAnd then input into a computer through a central processing unit. Because the track 1 has certain irregularity in the running process and the train has certain fluctuation, the front profile instrument 4 detects xi-1After reaching xiWhen detecting the value, x is detected with the back contour gauge 3iDetected value h of timeiIn contrast, the profiler 4 can be used to measure the distance x from the surface of the track 1 in real timeiIs offset by an amount hi' is inputted to the computer via the central processing unit.
The unevenness of the rail in space has vertical unevenness, which may be referred to as height or heave, and also has horizontal unevenness, which may be referred to as rail unevenness, wherein the offset may be a vertical height from the upper surface of the rail or a horizontal distance from the inner surface of the rail in order to measure the vertical unevenness and the horizontal unevenness of the rail. Referring to fig. 1, the unevenness is taken as an example to make a specific explanation, the curve is an actual undulation curve of the rail 1, and two ends of a line segment above the curve are heights from the surface of the rail 1 measured by the front profile gauge 4 and the rear profile gauge 3 respectively. The length of the line segment is constant and is marked as C, but the track 1 has a certain lengthα so that the attitude of the train and the three-dimensional gyroscope 5, the front profile 4 and the rear profile 3 mounted thereon differ, αiAngular variations in the horizontal plane, measured in real time by the three-dimensional gyroscope 5, xthiAt an angle of αi-1The height h from the surface of the track 1 measured by the front profile instrument 4 isi-1' the height h from the surface of the track 1 measured by the back contour measuring instrument 3 isiThus, it can be derived thati=yi-1+hi-1+c*sinαi-1-hiFinally, finally obtainWherein y is0And C is the measured value, hi’、αiAnd hiFor the measured values, the parameters (x) of each point are obtained by computeri,yi) Eventually, the undulating curve of the track 1 is formed. When the vertical unevenness is measured, the vertical h is called height, and when the horizontal unevenness is measured, the horizontal h is called offset, and the offset from the inner side surface of the track 1, which is measured by the front profile gauge 4 and the rear profile gauge 3, is only needed.
Example two
Referring to fig. 2 and 3, the device for measuring geometrical parameters of the track at low speed comprises an odometer for recording the passing mileage of the train in real time and an angle change α in a real-time measuring horizontal planeiThe three-dimensional gyroscope 5 and the laser profile instrument for measuring the surface offset of the distance track 1 in real time comprise a front profile instrument 4 for measuring the surface offset of the distance track 1 in real time, a rear profile instrument 3 for measuring the surface offset of the distance track 1 in real time, a computer for arranging and calculating the information of the odometer, the three-dimensional gyroscope 5, the front profile instrument 4 and the rear profile instrument 3, wherein the odometer, the three-dimensional gyroscope 5 and the laser profile instrument are connected with a circuit board comprising a central processing unit, the central processing unit can be connected with the computer in a wireless communication mode, and the central processing unit receives the acquired information and feeds the information back to the computer.
Each track 1 is provided with preceding profile appearance 4 and back profile appearance 3 in the top, and preceding profile appearance 4 and back profile appearance 3 distribute along track 1 direction anteroposterior. The low-speed track geometric parameter measuring device further comprises a mounting rack 2, and a mounting assembly 6 is arranged on the side of the mounting rack 2. With reference to fig. 3, the mounting assembly 6 includes a connecting rod 61 and a mounting seat 63 fixedly connected to the side of the mounting frame 2, the upper end of the connecting rod 61 can be fixedly connected to the bottom of the train through a bolt, the lower end of the connecting rod 61 is provided with a thread, the lower end of the connecting rod 61 is connected with two nuts 62 through threads, the lower end of the connecting rod 61 penetrates through the connecting seat, and the connecting seat is clamped by the two nuts 62 to fix the mounting seat 63.
Mounting bracket 2 is the rectangle frame form, and the four corners department at mounting bracket 2 is installed to the laser profile appearance, and three-dimensional gyroscope 5 is located mounting bracket 2 inboard and is located the middle part position, three-dimensional gyroscope 5 and mounting bracket 2's inner wall rigid coupling.
The front profile 4 includes a front inner profile 41 for measuring the inner profile of the rail and a front outer profile 42 for measuring the outer profile of the rail, the front inner profile 41 and the front outer profile 42 are used to measure the cross section of the rail 1 and also measure the amount of displacement from the surface of the rail 1, and the rear profile 3 includes a rear inner profile for measuring the inner profile of the rail and measures the amount of displacement from the surface of the rail 1. Referring to fig. 4, the front inner side profile 41 and the front outer side profile 42 are respectively located above the rail 1, the front inner side profile 41 and the front outer side profile 42 may be symmetrical with respect to the rail 1, and the rear inner side profile is located above the rail 1, so that the profiles inside the rail can be measured by the respective profiles, and the vertical deviation and the horizontal deviation can be determined together.
With reference to fig. 5, when determining the deviation by the profiler, a reference is selected, a common tangent line of the working edge profile of the track 1 can be selected, a tangent point of the common tangent line and the track 1 is a reference point of vertical deviation, the tangent line moves downwards for a certain distance, which can be 14mm, 16mm or 18mm, an intersection point with the inner side surface is a reference point of horizontal deviation, the vertical deviation is used for calculating the height, and the horizontal deviation is used for calculating the track direction.
EXAMPLE III
In the case that the train speed is not more than 15Km/h, the method of the first embodiment is adopted for measurement, and in the case that the train speed is more than 15Km/h, the inertia reference method is used for measurement, and the inertia reference method is combined with the graph 6 for measuring the curveThe line being above the undulation curve of the actual track 1, for which purpose
Example four
On the basis of the second embodiment, the system further comprises a speed detection module α which is arranged on the train and connected with the central processing unit for reflecting the speed of the trainiAngle change in the horizontal plane measured in real time by the three-dimensional gyroscope 5, L is the result of the odometer measurement, LiFor the mileage from the starting point to the calculation point, of course, a synchronous clock synchronized with the odometer, tiIn order to measure the trace time in the process, an inertia reference method is used for measurement under the condition that the speed detection module detects that the speed of the train is more than 15 Km/h.
The present embodiment is only for explaining the present invention, and it is not limited to the present invention, and those skilled in the art can make modifications of the present embodiment without inventive contribution as needed after reading the present specification, but all of them are protected by patent law within the scope of the claims of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. A low-speed track geometric parameter measurement method is characterized by comprising the following steps:
the train starts at the starting point of the measuring section, and simultaneously, the odometer, the three-dimensional gyroscope (5), the central processing unit, the front profile (4), the rear profile (3) and the computer are all in an opening state;
the distance between the front profile gauge (4) and the rear profile gauge (3) above the same track (1) is C;
the odometer records the mileage passed by the train in real time and acquires the x of the relative geometric parameters of the track (1) under the condition of low speediThe data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
three-dimensional gyroscope (5) real-time measuring angle change α in horizontal planeiThe data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
the front profile instrument (4) measures the x from the surface of the track 1 in real timei-1Offset h ofi-1The data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
the rear profile meter (3) measures the surface x of the distance track (1) in real timeiOffset h ofiThe data are input into a computer through a central processing unit;
the front profile meter (4) measures the surface x of the distance track (1) in real timeiOffset h ofi' is input into a computer through a central processing unit;
by formulas in a computerDeriving y from the relative geometric parameters of the track (1)iFinally, an arbitrary point (x) of measurement is obtainedi,yi) And obtaining the smoothness parameter.
2. A method for compositely measuring geometrical parameters of a track is characterized by comprising the following steps: when the train speed is not more than 15Km/h, using the method for measuring the track (1) at low speed as claimed in claim 1, when the train speed is more than 15Km/h, after obtaining the space curve of the inertia monitoring platform by using the inertia reference method,Liis the mileage from the starting point to the calculation point, tiThe time during the measurement is minute.
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CN109910948B (en) * 2019-03-22 2020-05-05 北京锦鸿希电信息技术股份有限公司 Method and device for detecting height of track

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