CN108410507B - Cyclone separator and preheating type gasification system - Google Patents

Cyclone separator and preheating type gasification system Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108410507B
CN108410507B CN201810364252.0A CN201810364252A CN108410507B CN 108410507 B CN108410507 B CN 108410507B CN 201810364252 A CN201810364252 A CN 201810364252A CN 108410507 B CN108410507 B CN 108410507B
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cyclone
inlet
cyclone cylinder
cylinder
tangential
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CN108410507A (en
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王小芳
朱治平
那永洁
高鸣
任强强
李伟
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Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of CAS
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Institute of Engineering Thermophysics of CAS
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/46Gasification of granular or pulverulent flues in suspension
    • C10J3/48Apparatus; Plants
    • C10J3/485Entrained flow gasifiers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C10PETROLEUM, GAS OR COKE INDUSTRIES; TECHNICAL GASES CONTAINING CARBON MONOXIDE; FUELS; LUBRICANTS; PEAT
    • C10JPRODUCTION OF PRODUCER GAS, WATER-GAS, SYNTHESIS GAS FROM SOLID CARBONACEOUS MATERIAL, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING THESE GASES; CARBURETTING AIR OR OTHER GASES
    • C10J3/00Production of combustible gases containing carbon monoxide from solid carbonaceous fuels
    • C10J3/72Other features

Abstract

A cyclone separator comprises an inlet channel, a cyclone cylinder, a conical section and an outlet, wherein the inlet channel comprises a tangential side wall tangential to the cyclone cylinder; the inlet channel is communicated with the upper part of the cyclone cylinder body, and is provided with an inlet for the object to be separated to enter, so that the object to be separated enters the cylinder body along the tangential direction of the cyclone cylinder body after entering from the inlet; the lower part of the cyclone cylinder body is connected with the open end of the conical section, the closed end of the conical section is used as the outlet of the lower part, and the separated solid is configured to fall into the conical section through the cyclone cylinder body; the outlet is communicated with the top of the cyclone cylinder, and the separated gas enters the outlet through the cyclone cylinder and leaves the cyclone separator; at least one turbulent air inlet is arranged on the tangential side wall surface and/or the cyclone cylinder body. The cyclone separator can realize continuous and quantitative adjustment of heat, quality and fuel particle size distribution between the preheating unit and the gasification unit in the preheating type gasification process.

Description

Cyclone separator and preheating type gasification system
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of coal gasification, in particular to a cyclone separator and a preheating type gasification system comprising the cyclone separator.
Background
The coal gasification technology is an important component of clean coal technology in China, is one of main ways for efficiently and cleanly utilizing coal, and becomes a core technology of numerous modern energy and chemical systems. The entrained flow coal gasification process has high reaction temperature, can adopt liquid slag discharge, has high gasification strength, large production capacity and high carbon conversion rate, and becomes the main development direction of the existing coal gasification technology. However, the existing entrained-flow bed gasification process has the problems of small particle size of the coal powder entering the furnace, high preparation cost, large limitation on coal types and the like. The preheating type gasification process combines the preheating and the gasification of coal, realizes the step control of the coal gasification reaction process, effectively reduces the requirement of a system on the particle size of raw material coal, simultaneously takes oxygen-enriched/pure oxygen or air and water vapor as a gasification agent, realizes high-efficiency gasification, and can improve the effective gas content in product gas.
In the preheating gasification process, the matching of heat, quality and fuel particle size between the preheating unit and the gasification unit is a key factor for realizing the process, stabilizing the system operation and optimizing the gasification performance index of the system. In the prior art, the optimal matching relationship between the heat quantity, the quality and the fuel particle size between the preheating unit and the gasification unit can be obtained by design during system design aiming at specified input conditions (such as coal type, coal particle size and gasification load), but when the system operation deviates from the design load or the coal type and the particle size are changed during actual operation, the optimal matching relationship between the preheating unit and the gasification unit is destroyed, so that gasification performance indexes (such as effective gas proportion, carbon conversion rate, cold gas efficiency and the like) can not meet production requirements, and the system can not stably operate in severe cases.
Disclosure of Invention
The present invention is directed to overcoming the disadvantages of the prior art and providing a cyclone separator and a preheating type gasification system to solve at least some of the problems discussed above. The invention also aims to provide a regulating device for distributing heat, quality and fuel particle size between the preheating unit and the gasification unit in the preheating gasification process, which can improve the stability and flexibility of the operation of the preheating gasification system and broaden the adaptability of the coal type and the coal particle size of the single system.
The invention also aims to provide a preheating gasification system, which can ensure the adjustability of heat, quality and fuel particle size distribution between the preheating unit and the gasification unit so as to ensure the stability and flexibility of system operation.
According to an aspect of the invention, there is provided a cyclonic separator comprising an inlet passage, a cyclone body, a cone section and an outlet, wherein,
the inlet passage comprises a tangential sidewall tangential to the cyclone barrel;
the inlet channel is communicated with the upper part of the cyclone cylinder body, and is provided with an inlet for the object to be separated to enter, so that the object to be separated enters the cylinder body along the tangential direction of the cyclone cylinder body after entering from the inlet;
the lower part of the cyclone cylinder body is connected with the open end of the conical section, the closed end of the conical section is used as the outlet of the lower part, and the separated solid is configured to fall into the conical section through the cyclone cylinder body; the outlet is communicated with the top of the cyclone cylinder, and the separated gas enters the outlet through the cyclone cylinder and leaves the cyclone separator;
at least one turbulent air inlet is formed in the tangential side wall surface and/or the cyclone cylinder body.
In a further aspect, the turbulent wind inlets are multiple and arranged along the height direction of the tangential side wall.
In a further aspect, the included angle between the turbulent air inlet and the tangential side wall is greater than 30 °.
In a further scheme, the cyclone air-conditioning device further comprises a turbulent air angle adjusting device which is mechanically connected with the turbulent air inlet and used for adjusting an included angle between the turbulent air inlet and the tangential side wall surface or the wall surface of the cyclone cylinder.
In a further scheme, at least one row of disturbed flow air inlets are positioned on a tangent line of the tangential side wall surface tangent to the cyclone cylinder body.
In a further scheme, the disturbed flow air inlet is formed in the top plate of the cyclone cylinder body, so that disturbed flow air vertically and downwards enters the cyclone cylinder body.
In a further scheme, the disturbed flow wind inlets are also distributed on the side wall of the conical section and/or the cyclone cylinder body and are arranged along the circumferential direction of the conical section and/or the cyclone cylinder body.
In a further scheme, the included angle between the disturbed flow wind inlet and the wall surface of the cyclone cylinder body or the side wall of the conical section is smaller than 90 degrees.
According to another aspect of the present invention, there is also provided a preheat type gasification system, comprising:
a cyclone separator as described in any of the above;
the outlet of the preheating hearth is connected with the inlet of the cyclone separator;
and the turbulent air supply device is connected to a turbulent air inlet of the cyclone separator.
In a further aspect, the turbulent air supply device is configured to input steam and CO to the turbulent air inlet2Or gas.
In a further scheme, a disturbed flow air quantity adjusting device is further arranged between the disturbed flow air supply device and the disturbed flow air inlet.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
(1) the cyclone separator can realize continuous and quantitative adjustment of heat, quality and fuel particle size distribution between the preheating unit and the gasification unit in the preheating type gasification process.
(2) The preheating type gasification system can improve the stability and flexibility of the operation of the preheating gasification system, broaden the adaptability of the gasified coal types and the coal particle sizes of a single set of system and realize the wide load and variable coal type operation of the system.
(3) The process has simple structure, high reliability and easy engineering implementation, and is suitable for technical transformation of the existing system.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a turbulent wind arrangement in a cyclone separator according to embodiment 1 of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is a schematic view of a turbulent wind arrangement in a cyclone separator according to embodiment 2 of the present invention;
FIG. 3 is a schematic view of a turbulent wind arrangement in a cyclone separator according to embodiment 3 of the present invention;
FIG. 4 is a flow diagram of a preheat type gasification system according to the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a flow diagram of a preheat type gasification system in accordance with an embodiment of the present invention.
Detailed Description
Exemplary embodiments of the present invention will hereinafter be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, wherein like or similar reference numerals denote like or similar elements. Furthermore, in the following detailed description, for purposes of explanation, numerous specific details are set forth in order to provide a thorough understanding of the embodiments of the disclosure. It may be evident, however, that one or more embodiments may be practiced without these specific details. In other instances, well-known structures and devices are shown in schematic form in order to simplify the drawing.
A conventional cyclone separator comprising an inlet channel, a cyclone cylinder, a cone section and an outlet, wherein the inlet channel comprises a tangential sidewall tangential to the cyclone cylinder; the inlet channel is communicated with the upper part of the cyclone cylinder body, and is provided with an inlet for the object to be separated to enter, so that the object to be separated enters the cylinder body along the tangential direction of the cyclone cylinder body after entering from the inlet; the lower part of the cyclone cylinder body is connected with the open end of the conical section, the closed end of the conical section is used as the lower outlet, and the separated solid falls into the conical section through the cyclone cylinder body; the outlet is communicated with the top of the cyclone cylinder, and the separated gas enters the outlet through the cyclone cylinder and leaves the cyclone separator. As shown in fig. 1, 2 or 3, the cyclone separator provided according to the embodiment of the present invention includes an inlet channel 2 and a cyclone cylinder 1, wherein the inlet channel 2 is communicated with the upper portion of the cyclone cylinder 1, the inlet channel 2 is provided with an inlet for the object to be separated to enter, so that the object to be separated enters the cylinder from the inlet and then enters the cylinder along the tangential direction of the cyclone cylinder 1; at least one turbulent air inlet is arranged on the tangential side wall surface of the inlet channel 2 which is tangentially arranged with the cyclone cylinder 1 and/or the cyclone cylinder. The turbulent air is introduced from the turbulent air inlet, so that the air flow distribution in the cyclone separator can be changed, the solid particle amount and the particle size brought out by the gas at the outlet of the cyclone separator are further changed, the distribution of heat, quality and the particle size of the fuel between the preheating unit and the gasification unit is changed, the stability and the flexibility of the operation of the preheating gasification system can be improved, and the adaptability of the gasification coal type and the particle size of the coal of a single set of system is widened.
Fig. 1 is a schematic view of a turbulent wind arrangement in a cyclone separator according to embodiment 1 of the present invention. As shown in fig. 1, three rows of turbulent air R are arranged on the tangential side wall surface of the cyclone inlet channel 2 of the preheating unit along the inlet height direction, wherein one row of turbulent air is positioned on the tangential line of the tangential side wall surface tangential to the cyclone cylinder 1. Turbulent air is saturated vapor at 170 ℃, the speed is 15m/s, the turbulent air enters the cyclone separator from the tangential side wall surface of the inlet of the cyclone separator, the incident angle beta can be adjusted between 60 and 100 degrees, and the deflection quantity of the main airflow direction at the inlet of the cyclone separator can be changed by adjusting the incident angle. Numerical calculation results show that under the same operation conditions, particle flow in the cyclone separator enters the cyclone separator along the tangential side wall of the inlet channel 2, so that gas and solid can be in a better separation state, and the solid carrying amount in gas at the outlet of the cyclone separator is reduced; and when the particles at the inlet channel of the cyclone separator are disturbed and deviate from the tangential side wall, the tangential flow field is damaged, the solid carrying amount in the gas at the outlet of the cyclone separator is obviously increased, and the larger the deflection amount is, the larger the solid carrying amount in the gas at the outlet of the cyclone separator is.
Along with the increase of the solid carrying amount in the gas at the outlet of the cyclone separator, the solid circulation amount of the preheating unit is reduced, and the amount of the incompletely reacted semicoke entering the gasification unit is increased, so that the gasification share of the gasified fuel in the gasification unit is increased, and the adjustment of the heat, the mass and the fuel particle size distribution between the preheating unit and the gasification unit of the system is realized.
Fig. 2 is a schematic view of a turbulent wind arrangement according to embodiment 2 of the present invention. As shown in fig. 2, two circles of turbulent wind R are arranged in the circumferential direction on the cyclone cylinder 1 and the cone section 3. The turbulent air is CO preheated to 800 ℃2Gas with an incident velocity of 10 m/s; turbulent wind is arranged in an inclined upward direction, an included angle alpha between the turbulent wind and the wall surface of the cyclone separator can be adjusted between 20 degrees and 50 degrees, the deviation between tangential rotational flow in the cylinder body of the cyclone separator and the wall surface and the carrying amount of ascending airflow to particles can be changed by adjusting the included angle, the efficiency of the cyclone separator is further changed, and therefore the adjustment of the amount and the particle size of solid particles carried out by gas at the outlet of the cyclone separator is realized.
In the preheating unit, after a gas-solid mixture which finishes reaction in a hearth enters a cyclone separator, rotational flow motion is generated in a separation space, rotational flow gas close to the wall surface moves downwards, particles separated to the wall surface are brought to the bottom of the cyclone separator, ascending air flow carrying a small amount of solids is arranged in the center, and the solid particles carrying incomplete reaction leave the preheating unit and enter a gasification unit. Because a radial pressure gradient exists in the cyclone separator, the turbulence near the wall surface easily enables the cyclone dust-containing gas near the wall surface to leave the wall surface and flow radially, so that particles separated to the wall surface enter a central ascending airflow and are carried away from the preheating unit to enter the gasification unit, the gasification reaction share of the gasification unit is increased, and the adjustment of the preheating gasification share in the system is realized.
Fig. 3 is a schematic view of a turbulent wind arrangement according to embodiment 3 of the present invention. As shown in FIG. 3, a circle of turbulent wind R is arranged on the top plate of the cyclone separator along the circumferential direction close to the outer wall surface side of the cyclone cylinder. The turbulent air is CO preheated to 800 ℃2Gas with an incident speed of 5 m/s; turbulent wind vertically enters downwards, and the included angle between the turbulent wind and the top plate of the cyclone separator is 90 degrees.
In the preheating unit, after a gas-solid mixture which finishes reaction in a hearth enters a cyclone separator, rotational flow motion is generated in a separation space, rotational flow gas close to the wall surface moves downwards, particles separated to the wall surface are brought to the bottom of the cyclone separator, ascending air flow carrying a small amount of solids is arranged in the center, and the solid particles carrying incomplete reaction leave the preheating unit and enter a gasification unit. Turbulent air is circumferentially arranged on the top plate of the cyclone separator close to the outer wall surface side of the cyclone cylinder, so that on one hand, a tangential flow field in the cyclone cylinder can be effectively destroyed, and more particles are carried by central ascending air flow to leave the preheating unit and enter the gasification unit; on the other hand, the increase of the short-circuit flow at the tail end of the central cylinder reduces the separation performance of the cyclone separator, increases the gasification reaction share of the gasification unit, and realizes the adjustment of the preheating gasification share in the system.
As shown in fig. 4, the present invention provides a conditioning unit for heat, mass and fuel particle size distribution between a preheating unit and a gasification unit for preheating a gasification process and a preheating type gasification system including the same. The preheating type gasification system comprises a preheating unit, a gasification unit, a regulating unit and a tail unit. The adjusting unit comprises a disturbed flow air supply device 213, a disturbed flow air quantity adjusting device 212 and a disturbed flow air angle adjusting device 211 which are sequentially connected through a pipeline. The preheating unit comprises a preheating hearth 20, a cyclone separator 21 and a material returning system 22; the gasification unit comprises a gasification furnace hearth 10; the tail unit comprises a gas cooling device 11 and a gas purifying device 12. The preheating furnace 20 is provided with a fuel inlet, a first gasifying agent inlet and a mixture outlet, the preheating furnace 20 is configured to preheat the fuel a and the first gasifying agent B introduced into the preheating furnace 20 and generate reducing flue gas C and solid fuel D, and the generated reducing flue gas C and solid fuel D are discharged through a mixture outlet; the gasification furnace hearth 10 is provided with a fuel inlet, a second gasifying agent inlet, a crude gas outlet and a bottom slag outlet, and the gasification furnace hearth 10 is configured to enable reducing flue gas C and solid fuel D introduced through the fuel inlet to perform gasification reaction with a second gasifying agent E introduced through the second gasifying agent inlet to generate crude gas G and bottom slag F, discharge the crude gas G from the crude gas outlet and discharge the bottom slag F from the bottom slag outlet; the raw gas G enters a tail unit, is cooled by the gas cooling device 11 and purified by the gas purifying device 12 to generate final gas G1, and then leaves the system; the cyclone separator of the preheating unit is provided with a turbulent air inlet, turbulent air provided by a turbulent air supply device 213 of the adjusting unit adjusts the air volume through a turbulent air volume adjusting device 212, and after the turbulent air angle is adjusted through a turbulent air angle adjusting device 211, the turbulent air enters the cyclone separator, a gas-solid flow field in the cyclone separator is changed, the adjustment of the solid particle volume and the particle size carried out by gas at the outlet of the cyclone separator is realized, and meanwhile, the reaction share of raw materials entering the system in the preheating unit and the gasification reaction share in the gasification unit are controlled in cooperation with the adjustment of the components of the gasification agent and the flow of the gasification agent introduced into the preheating unit and the gasification unit, so that the adjustment of the distribution of heat, quality and fuel particle size between the preheating unit and the gasification unit is realized.
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of a preheat type gasification system according to one embodiment of the present invention. This embodiment is substantially the same as the embodiment shown in fig. 4, except that: the crude gas G enters a tail unit and is sequentially cooled by a gas preheating device 13 and a gas cooling device 11 and purified by a gas purifying device 12 to generate final gas G1, one part of the gas leaves the system, and the other part of the gas enters the gas preheating device 13 and is preheated to 500 ℃ to be used as turbulent air.
The embodiments of the present invention provide a cyclone separator and a preheating type gasification system, and provide a method for adjusting distribution of heat, quality, and fuel particle size between a preheating unit and a gasification unit in a preheating gasification process, so as to solve the problems in the prior art that when the system operation deviates from a design load or the actual operation changes the coal type, the optimal matching relationship between the preheating unit and the gasification unit is destroyed, so that the gasification performance indexes (such as effective gas ratio, carbon conversion rate, cold gas efficiency, etc.) cannot meet the production requirements, and the system cannot stably operate, realize continuous and quantitative adjustment of distribution of heat, quality, and fuel particle size between the preheating unit and the gasification unit, improve the stability and flexibility of operation of the preheating gasification system, and widen the adaptability of the gasified coal type and the coal particle size of a single set of system.
The above-mentioned embodiments are intended to illustrate the objects, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention in further detail, and it should be understood that the above-mentioned embodiments are only exemplary embodiments of the present invention and are not intended to limit the present invention, and any modifications, equivalents, improvements and the like made within the spirit and principle of the present invention should be included in the protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. A cyclone separator comprises an inlet channel, a cyclone cylinder body, a conical section and an outlet, wherein,
the inlet passage comprises a tangential sidewall tangential to the cyclone barrel;
the inlet channel is communicated with the upper part of the cyclone cylinder body, and is provided with an inlet for the object to be separated to enter, so that the object to be separated enters the cylinder body along the tangential direction of the cyclone cylinder body after entering from the inlet;
the lower part of the cyclone cylinder body is connected with the open end of the conical section, the closed end of the conical section is used as the outlet of the lower part, and the separated solid is configured to fall into the conical section through the cyclone cylinder body; the outlet is communicated with the top of the cyclone cylinder, and the separated gas enters the outlet through the cyclone cylinder and leaves the cyclone separator;
the cyclone cylinder is provided with at least one turbulent air inlet;
the at least one turbulent air inlet is arranged on the top plate of the cyclone cylinder body, so that turbulent air is vertically introduced into the cyclone cylinder body downwards;
the cyclone separator also comprises a turbulent air angle adjusting device which is mechanically connected with the turbulent air inlet and is used for adjusting the included angle between the turbulent air inlet and the tangential side wall surface or the wall surface of the cyclone cylinder body;
the turbulent air inlets are arranged along the height direction of the tangential side wall, and at least one row of the turbulent air inlets is positioned on a tangential line of the tangential side wall surface tangent to the cyclone cylinder;
the disturbed flow wind inlets are also distributed in the conical section and are arranged along the circumferential direction of the conical section.
2. The cyclone separator of claim 1, wherein the turbulent wind inlet is angled more than 30 ° from the tangential sidewall.
3. The cyclone separator as claimed in claim 1, wherein the turbulent wind inlets are further distributed on the sidewall of the cyclone cylinder, arranged along the circumference of the cyclone cylinder.
4. The cyclone separator as claimed in claim 3, wherein the angle between the turbulent wind inlet and the wall surface of the cyclone cylinder or the side wall of the cone section is less than 90 °.
5. A preheat gasification system, comprising:
the cyclone separator of any one of claims 1-4;
the outlet of the preheating hearth is connected with the inlet of the cyclone separator;
and the turbulent air supply device is connected to a turbulent air inlet of the cyclone separator.
6. The system of claim 5, wherein the spoiled wind supply device is configured to input steam, CO, to the spoiled wind inlet2Or gas.
7. The system as claimed in claim 5, wherein a turbulent air volume adjusting means is further provided between the turbulent air supply means and the turbulent air inlet.
CN201810364252.0A 2018-04-20 2018-04-20 Cyclone separator and preheating type gasification system Active CN108410507B (en)

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DE4136935A1 (en) * 1991-11-11 1993-05-13 Rheinische Braunkohlenw Ag Cyclone filter to selectively separate solid particles from gas - by variation of pressure pattern within cyclone chamber
WO2000018490A1 (en) * 1998-09-28 2000-04-06 Lundin Filter Gmbh Device and method for removing particles from a fluid
CN1817437A (en) * 2004-10-22 2006-08-16 阿尔斯通技术有限公司 Method and device for adjustment solid cycle quantity of circulating fluidized bed reaction system
CN201720137U (en) * 2010-01-11 2011-01-26 盐城工学院 Cyclone dust collector with fresh air current
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Inventor after: Wang Xiaofang

Inventor after: Zhu Zhiping

Inventor after: Na Yongjie

Inventor after: Gao Ming

Inventor after: Ren Qiangqiang

Inventor after: Li Wei

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