CN108401634A - A kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommend N application method - Google Patents

A kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommend N application method Download PDF

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CN108401634A
CN108401634A CN201810121407.8A CN201810121407A CN108401634A CN 108401634 A CN108401634 A CN 108401634A CN 201810121407 A CN201810121407 A CN 201810121407A CN 108401634 A CN108401634 A CN 108401634A
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nitrogen
tomato
leaf
recommendation
application
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CN108401634B (en
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缪旻珉
古浩
张治平
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Yangzhou University
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Yangzhou University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/007Determining fertilization requirements

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommend N application method, includes the following steps:(1) nitrogen content that tomato plant overground part is represented with the nitrogen content of the 6th leaf of tomato establishes tomato in plastic greenhouse condition of drip irrigation lower critical nitrogen concentration Dilution Model, the critical hammer count value of a certain growth period of tomato is determined according to the model;(2) when nitrogen concentration measured value is equal to or more than the critical hammer count value in the period, show that plant nitrogen nutrition is fully or superfluous, nitrogen is applied without applying nitrogen or need to be reduced;On the contrary, needing lift-augmented mechanism.(3) nitrogen knots modification is applied in the recommendation of the optimum fertilizing amount of tomato and (4) next stage before calculating above-mentioned growth period according to formula.Compared with the existing technology, the method for the present invention is simple and quick, at low cost, and measurement result is accurate, recommendatory height, and implementation in production will significantly reduce unit area amount of application of nitrogen fertilizer during tomato production.

Description

A kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommend N application method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommend N application method, belongs to plant nitrogen nutrition Diagnostic techniques field.
Background technology
Tomato is the important vegetables of current facility cultivation, and the problem of generally existing nitrogen application excess, leads in production process Causing fat, material waste, quality decline, the decline of plant resistance, the soil salinization and surrounding body eutrophication etc. are a series of seriously to ask Topic.
It is to solve one of the important method of excessive fertilization to carry out diagnosis to the nitrogen nutritional status of crop.Currently, plant group The chemical analysis for knitting nitrogen is still the classical way for diagnosing crop nitrogen nutrition level.About Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis at present There are many reports.These researchs seek the nitrogen of tomato often through the correlation between the spectral signature and nitrogen amount applied of blade It supports and is diagnosed.The problem of these spectroscopy diagnostic methods, is:1) expensive equipment, it is difficult to universal.2) tomato leaf critical Nitrogen is dense Degree (continuing lift-augmented mechanism, the no longer increased blade nitrogen concentration of biomass) is not a definite value in entire breeding time, It can be gradually reduced (so-called dilution curve) with the postponement of breeding time, and these researchs are only by tomato growth moment Universal diagnostic standard of the spectroscopic data as the time of infertility cannot accurately sentence the nitrogen nutritional status of entire breeding time It is disconnected.Research in relation to tomato critical hammer count Dilution Model also has many reports.But it is to grind that these, which study some with processing tomato, Study carefully object (variety type and cultural method and fresh food tomato are totally different), some are taken substrate culture or carry out pot experiment, gained As a result greenhouse production practices cannot be directly instructed, and important defect is that measuring tomato overground part nitrogen concentration needs to take plant Stem, fruit, each position such as spends to measure respectively at leaf, needs to destroy entire plant and step is loaded down with trivial details, measurement result is not accurate enough.
The fresh food tomato cultivated with drip irrigation in greenhouse there is no about critical hammer count Dilution Model at present and The report of nitrogen nutrition exponential model.
Invention content
Goal of the invention:In view of the above technical problems, the present invention provides a kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and Recommend N application method, this method is simple and quick, at low cost, and measurement result is accurate, recommendatory height.
Technical solution:In order to reach foregoing invention purpose, the technical solution adopted in the present invention is as follows:
A kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommend N application method, includes the following steps:
(1) nitrogen content that tomato plant overground part is represented with the nitrogen content of the 6th leaf of tomato, establishes tomato in plastic greenhouse condition of drip irrigation Lower critical nitrogen concentration Dilution Model determines the critical hammer count value of a certain growth period of tomato according to the model;
(2) when nitrogen concentration measured value is equal to or more than the critical hammer count value in the period, show that plant nitrogen nutrition is abundant Or it is superfluous, apply nitrogen without applying nitrogen or need to be reduced;When nitrogen concentration measured value is less than the period critical hammer count value, show plant nitrogen Nutrition is inadequate, needs lift-augmented mechanism;
(3) optimum fertilizing amount of tomato is to set X before above-mentioned growth period, and calculation formula is as follows:
X=(C/A) × R
Wherein, C represents critical hammer count value, and A represents nitrogen concentration measured value, and R is actually applied before representing above-mentioned growth period Nitrogen quantity;
(4) recommendation of next stage applies nitrogen knots modification and is set as D, and calculation formula is as follows:
D=(R-X)
If D is positive value, the recommendation amount of nitrogen of next stage should reduce D, if D is negative value, the recommendation of next stage is applied Nitrogen quantity should increase D.
The method for building up of the critical hammer count Dilution Model is as follows:
(1) every sub-sampling the upperground part biomass of comparative analysis Different nitrogen levels experiment and corresponding nitrogen concentration value, according to The result of variance analysis to plant growth by Nitrogen effect whether nitrogen amount applied classify;
(2) for plant growth by the nitrogen amount applied of Nitrogen effect, by the relationship of its upperground part biomass and nitrogen concentration value Carry out linear fit;
(3) for plant growth not by the nitrogen amount applied of Nitrogen effect, the average value of the upperground part biomass is for representing Maximum biomass;
(4) linearity curve that the theoretical critical fire area nitrogen concentration value per sub-sampling is obtained by (2) with maximum biomass for horizontal seat The ordinate of the intersection point of target vertical line determines.
The growth period is selected as the 1st inflorescence florescence, the 1st inflorescence fruiting period, the 2nd inflorescence fruiting period and the 3rd flower Sequence fruiting period.
The 6th leaf of the tomato is to be counted downwards from growing point, leaf counting is unfolded.
The nitrogen content of the 6th leaf of the tomato is high with whole strain overground part nitrogen concentration consistency, and related coefficient is more than or equal to 9.38, Up to the pole level of signifiance.
The nitrogenous quantity measuring method of the 6th leaf of the tomato is as follows:
Respectively at leaf base, leaf central part, leaf tip (avoiding big vein) sampling, sample after drying is ground, crosses 60 mesh sieve, H2SO4-H2O2Disappear and boil, measuring each organ using ultraviolet specrophotometer disappears total nitrogen content in boil liquid.
Tomato is the important vegetables of current facility cultivation, and the problem of generally existing nitrogen application excess, leads in production process Causing fat, material waste, quality decline, the decline of plant resistance, the soil salinization and surrounding body eutrophication etc. are a series of seriously to ask Topic.Common spectral diagnostics were affected by environment larger in document in the past, and accuracy is difficult to ensure, and spectrometry instrument price Costliness is not easy commonly used in production.Used in the method for the present invention light splitting light indexing be cheap conventional instrument, one As base's clay fertilizer station have outfit.
Technique effect:Compared with the existing technology, the method for the present invention is simple and quick, at low cost, and measurement result is accurate, recommendatory Height, implementation in production will significantly reduce unit area amount of application of nitrogen fertilizer during tomato production, and reduce peasant's cost, improves Plant health degree and product quality reduce environmental pollution, it is expected to obtain good economic benefit and social benefit.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the method for the present invention tomato the upperground part biomass nitrogen concentration dilution curve.
Specific implementation mode
Technical solutions according to the invention are further described in detail below by specific embodiment, but it is necessary to It points out that following embodiment is served only for the description to invention content, does not constitute limiting the scope of the invention.
Embodiment
One, basic setup and method are tested
Enforcement place:Eight bridge of Gaoyou City of Yangzhou University tests garden.
Tomato variety:Soviet Union's powder 14.
Establishment type:8 meters of vinyl houses.
Implantation time:On December 10th, 2016, seeding and seedling raising, chose in the same size, 1 heart stage of 5 leaf cave on March 1st, 2017 Disk seedling is colonized, and June 25, harvesting terminated.
Furrow are wide:0.8m.
Furrow width:0.4m.
Ditch depth:0.3m.
Wide row space.80cm.
Small line-spacing:40cm.
Spacing in the rows:30cm.
It is colonized strain number per acre:3700
Rich water method of administration:Trickle irrigation, rich water integration, the furrow face transparent covering with ground sheeting of 0.02mm after drip irrigation pipe is laid with.
Plastic shed soil physicochemical property:
1 different year test site soil chemical properties of table
Table 1Soil chemical properties of experimental plots in two years
2 different year test site soil physical properties of table
Table 2SOIL physical properties of experimental plots in two years
Base manure dosage:Per hectare applies the dilute cow dung 45m in decomposed cattle farm3, wherein 32.84kg containing N, P2O5 64.92kg K2O 80.42kg。
Nitrogen fertilizer amount is recommended by local agricultural sector:361.22kg·hm-2.Phosphorus potash fertilizer dosage:P2O5 176.77kg·hm-2, K2O 467.88kg·hm-2.(the above NPK dosages absorb amount of nutrients according to expected volume, tomato per ton, and soil amount containing NPK is supported Point utilization ratio etc. is calculated).
Fertilizer morphology and in each breeding time use ratio:Nitrogenous fertilizer is supplied with form of urea, and phosphate fertilizer is supplied in the form of calcium superphosphate It answers, potash fertilizer is supplied in the form of potassium sulfate.Phosphate fertilizer is disposably applied in the form of base manure when site preparation.Since tomato is in growth course Fertilizer needed for each stage is different, so entire growth period is divided into three phases:Apply 20%N within 0-40 days after field planting;40-80 It applies 40%N and 40%K;Residue 40%N and 60%K is applied to last within 80 days.Fertilizer follows dripping irrigation water equal when fertilising every time Even application.
Irrigation volume:284mm, every 4 days trickle irrigations are primary.
The date is measured by sampling in the 6th leaf of tomato:10 days after field planting (the 1st inflorescence florescence), 30 days (the 1st inflorescence fruiting period), 60 days (the 2nd inflorescence fruiting period), 90 days (the 3rd inflorescence fruiting period).
Two, greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation N application method
2.1 establish tomato critical hammer count dilution curve model, and steps are as follows:
(1) every sub-sampling the upperground part biomass of comparative analysis Different nitrogen levels experiment and corresponding nitrogen concentration value, according to The result of variance analysis to plant growth by Nitrogen effect whether nitrogen amount applied classify;
(2) for plant growth by the nitrogen amount applied of Nitrogen effect, by the relationship of its upperground part biomass and nitrogen concentration value Carry out linear fit;
(3) for plant growth not by the nitrogen amount applied of Nitrogen effect, the average value of the upperground part biomass is for representing Maximum biomass;
(4) linearity curve that the theoretical critical fire area nitrogen concentration value per sub-sampling is obtained by (2) with maximum biomass for horizontal seat The ordinate of the intersection point of target vertical line determines.Thus obtained tomato critical hammer count dilution curve model.
As shown in Fig. 1 tomato the upperground part biomass nitrogen concentration dilution curves, this curve of %Nc therein is tomato Critical hammer count dilution curve.
1 different year nitrogen level of table is arranged
Influence of 2 nitrogen amount applied of table to tomato the upperground part biomass Dynamic Accumulation
Note:Data are mean+/-standard error in table, are not had between the expression processing with data line with same letter Reach significance test (p<0.05).
2.2 find the 6th leaf of tomato (being counted downwards from growing point, leaf counting is unfolded) and whole strain overground part nitrogen concentration after measured Consistency is high, and related coefficient reaches the pole level of signifiance up to 9.38.Therefore, tomato plant can be represented with the nitrogen content of the 6th leaf of tomato The nitrogen content of overground part.
The assay method of the 6th leaf nitrogen content of 2.3 tomato:Referring especially to " for example female soil agrochemistries analysis method [M] in Shandong Beijing:Chinese agriculture publishing house, 2000:308-312 " methods carry out.With card punch respectively at leaf base, leaf central part, leaf tip (avoiding big vein) samples.Sample is ground after drying, and crosses 60 mesh sieve, H2SO4-H2O2Disappear and boil, is surveyed using ultraviolet specrophotometer Fixed each organ disappears total nitrogen content in boil liquid.
2.4 according to above-mentioned tomato critical hammer count dilution curve model, obtain after tomato field planting the 1st inflorescence florescence, 1st inflorescence fruiting period, the 2nd inflorescence fruiting period, the 3rd inflorescence fruiting period the critical hammer count value of the 6th leaf of tomato be respectively 4.38%, 3.64%, 3.09%, 2.60% (using leaf dry weight as the mass fraction of denominator).When the 6th leaf of tomato growth period When nitrogen concentration measured value is equal to or more than the period critical value, show that plant nitrogen nutrition is fully or superfluous, without applying nitrogen.Work as some time When the 6th leaf nitrogen concentration measured value of phase is less than the period critical value, shows that plant nitrogen nutrition is inadequate, need lift-augmented mechanism.
2.5 when nitrogenous fertilizer deficiency, at this time the ratio a (nitrogen nutrition index) of the 6th leaf nitrogen content measured value of tomato and critical value It can be used for calculating and recommend to apply nitrogen.Before the ratio shows this stage amount of nitrogen wane compared with best amount of nitrogen (1-a) × 100%, it is suitably augmented in fertilizing management that should be thereafter.
It is specific to calculate and recommend real nitrogen quantity method as follows:
The optimum fertilizing amount of tomato is to set X before above-mentioned growth period, and calculation formula is as follows:
X=(C/A) × R
Wherein, C represents critical hammer count value, and A represents nitrogen concentration measured value, and R is actually applied before representing above-mentioned growth period Nitrogen quantity;
The recommendation of next stage applies nitrogen knots modification and is set as D, and calculation formula is as follows:
D=(R-X)
If D is positive value, the recommendation amount of nitrogen of next stage should reduce D, if D is negative value, the recommendation of next stage is applied Nitrogen quantity should increase D.
Three, nitrogen result is applied in Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation
It measures for the first time and fertilising is corrected:Measured value:4.82.Field nitrogen fertilizer application 23kghm before this phase-2.If this rank The optimum fertilizing amount of tomato is x, the then computational methods invented according to us before section:23=(4.82/4.38) x, x=20.9, The nitrogen quantity that this stage applies more should be 23-20.9=2.1kghm-2.Stage reduction it should apply nitrogen 2.1kghm thereafter-2
Second of measurement and fertilising are corrected:Measured value:4.63.It is measured for the first time between second of measurement and has been applied fertilizer 62kg·hm-2.If the optimum fertilizing amount of tomato is x, the then computational methods invented according to us before this stage:62=(4.63/ 3.64) x, x=48.7, the nitrogen quantity that this stage applies more should be 62-48.7=13.3kghm-2.It stage reduction should apply thereafter Nitrogen 13.3kghm-2
Third time measures and fertilising is corrected:Measured value:3.91.Second of measurement has been applied fertilizer between being measured to third time 74kg·hm-2.If the optimum fertilizing amount of tomato is x, the then computational methods invented according to us before this stage:74=(3.91/ 3.09) x, x=48.5, the nitrogen quantity that this stage applies more should be 74-48.5=25.5kghm-2.It stage reduction should apply thereafter Nitrogen 25.5kghm-2
4th measurement and fertilising are corrected:Measured value:3.33.Third time is measured between the 4th measurement and has been applied fertilizer 76kg·hm-2If the optimum fertilizing amount of tomato is x, the then computational methods invented according to us before this stage:76=(3.33/ 2.60) x, x=59.3, the nitrogen quantity that this stage applies more should be 76-59.3=16.7kghm-2.It stage reduction should apply thereafter Nitrogen 16.7kghm-2
Effect:Actual production 118.6thm-2.With expected volume 120thm-2Difference is not notable.But amount of application of nitrogen fertilizer 24.5% is reduced, about 57.6kghm-2, 15.9% is reduced compared with the dose recommended originally.

Claims (6)

1. a kind of greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation N application method, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
(1) nitrogen content that tomato plant overground part is represented with the nitrogen content of the 6th leaf of tomato, establishes under tomato in plastic greenhouse condition of drip irrigation and faces Boundary's nitrogen concentration Dilution Model determines the critical hammer count value of a certain growth period of tomato according to the model;
(2) when nitrogen concentration measured value be equal to or more than the period critical hammer count value when, show plant nitrogen nutrition fully or mistake It is surplus, apply nitrogen without applying nitrogen or need to be reduced;When nitrogen concentration measured value is less than the period critical hammer count value, show plant nitrogen nutrition Not enough, lift-augmented mechanism is needed;
(3) optimum fertilizing amount of tomato is to set X before above-mentioned growth period, and calculation formula is as follows:
X=(C/A) × R
Wherein, C represents critical hammer count value, and A represents nitrogen concentration measured value, and R represents practical amount of nitrogen before above-mentioned growth period;
(4) recommendation of next stage applies nitrogen knots modification and is set as D, and calculation formula is as follows:
D=(R-X)
If D is positive value, the recommendation amount of nitrogen of next stage should reduce D, if D is negative value, the recommendation amount of nitrogen of next stage D should be increased.
2. greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation N application method, feature exist according to claim 1 In the method for building up of the critical hammer count Dilution Model is as follows:
(1) every sub-sampling the upperground part biomass of comparative analysis Different nitrogen levels experiment and corresponding nitrogen concentration value, according to variance The result of analysis to plant growth by Nitrogen effect whether nitrogen amount applied classify;
(2) plant growth is carried out the relationship of its upperground part biomass and nitrogen concentration value by the nitrogen amount applied of Nitrogen effect Linear fit;
(3) for plant growth not by the nitrogen amount applied of Nitrogen effect, the average value of the upperground part biomass is for representing maximum Biomass;
(4) linearity curve that is obtained by (2) of theoretical critical fire area nitrogen concentration value per sub-sampling with using maximum biomass as abscissa The ordinate of the intersection point of vertical line determines.
3. greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation N application method, feature exist according to claim 1 In the growth period is selected as the 1st inflorescence florescence, the 1st inflorescence fruiting period, the 2nd inflorescence fruiting period and the 3rd inflorescence result Phase.
4. greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation N application method, feature exist according to claim 1 In the 6th leaf of the tomato is to be counted downwards from growing point, leaf counting is unfolded.
5. greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation N application method, feature exist according to claim 1 In the nitrogen content of the 6th leaf of the tomato is high with whole strain overground part nitrogen concentration consistency, and related coefficient is more than or equal to 9.38, reaches pole The level of signifiance.
6. greenhouse fresh food Nitrogen In Tomato nutrient diagnosis and recommendation N application method, feature exist according to claim 1 In the nitrogenous quantity measuring method of the 6th leaf of the tomato is as follows:
Respectively at leaf base, leaf central part, leaf tip (avoiding big vein) sampling, sample after drying is ground, crosses 60 mesh sieve, H2SO4-H2O2Disappear and boil, measuring each organ using ultraviolet specrophotometer disappears total nitrogen content in boil liquid.
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