CN108353746B - Rice and onion one-machinery dry field integrated rotation method - Google Patents

Rice and onion one-machinery dry field integrated rotation method Download PDF

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CN108353746B
CN108353746B CN201810191907.9A CN201810191907A CN108353746B CN 108353746 B CN108353746 B CN 108353746B CN 201810191907 A CN201810191907 A CN 201810191907A CN 108353746 B CN108353746 B CN 108353746B
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rice
seedling
onion
dry
planting
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CN108353746A (en
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边文范
辛淑荣
郑东峰
张昌爱
荐世春
张玉凤
赵庆雷
王瑜
田慎重
郭慧东
陈锋
申希爱
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Agricultural Resources and Environment of Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C11/00Transplanting machines
    • A01C11/02Transplanting machines for seedlings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/35Bulbs; Alliums, e.g. onions or leeks

Abstract

The invention relates to a rice and onion one-mechanical dry field integrated rotation method, which adopts the same transplanter to connect and rotate dry-planted rice pot seedlings and onions at specific stubble openings in double cropping areas of one year.

Description

Rice and onion one-machinery dry field integrated rotation method
Technical Field
The invention relates to a rice and onion one-machine upland field integrated rotation method, and belongs to the technical field of agricultural crop cultivation.
Background
The existing rice planting is paddy field rice transplanting, and the rice transplanting modes comprise artificial rice transplanting, mechanical rice transplanting and the like. The water quantity of rice is more than that of other dry crops, but the water consumption of rice field is mostly used in the intertillage field preparation before transplanting and the inter-plant evaporation and field infiltration during the growth period of rice, and actually, the physiological water demand is not much, about 1/3-2/3 is the water for farming and ecological water, and the water-saving potential is large (Shaoyjiang, 1985; Wubrshun et al, 1985). The irrigation quota of the dry farming rice in the growth period is 3000m per hectare3High yield can be obtained (Zhu court, 1986), and a large amount of water can be saved.
The rice pot mechanical transplanter is a dry land rice cultivation machine, compared with a rice water planting cultivation mode, the rice mechanical dry transplanting cultivation mode has the advantages that ① rice mechanical dry transplanting cultivation mode is suitable for northern areas short of water and accustomed to dry farming, energy and water are saved, labor force is saved, the planting area of rice can be stabilized and enlarged, and the rice industry needs green energy-saving development, ② rice pot seedling mechanical transplanting is a novel mechanical seedling transplanting mode which is innovated by taking a pot seedling tray as a carrier, the mode has the advantages compared with blanket seedling mechanical transplanting which is mainly planted by the existing rice machine, the problems that the seeding quantity of blanket seedling transplanting is large, the blanket seedlings are twisted together under the great seeding density, the roots of the whole blanket seedling tray are damaged by the machine transplanting, the survival rate of the rice seedling is influenced, the seedling slow seedling growth period is long, the seedling return is slow seedling speed is delayed, the growing period is high, the seedling leakage rate is high, the seedling transplanting is not uniform, the seedling transplanting is realized by adopting accurate quantification, the seed usage amount of each pot seedling is 35 g per tray, the rice seedling usage of each seedling, the rice mechanical rice seedling is suitable for rice seedling transplanting in dry land, the rice seedling transplanting is suitable for rice seedling transplanting, the rice seedling transplanting is suitable for rice seedling transplanting in the rice seedling transplanting mode, the rice seedling transplanting is suitable for the rice seedling transplanting mode, the rice seedling transplanting is suitable for rice field, the rice seedling transplanting mode, the rice seedling transplanting is suitable for rice field, the rice field is suitable for rice seedling transplanting method, the.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a rice and onion integrated rotation method in the same mechanical upland field. The method adopts the same transplanter to join and rotate dry-planted rice pot seedlings and onions in specific stubble gaps in a two-cropping area of one year, and during the rotation of the dry-planted rice and the onions, the same equipment, field and machinery can be used from a seedling raising plate, a seedling raising field, a seeding machine for seedling raising and a transplanter year by year, so that the cost is saved, the investment is reduced, and the method is particularly suitable for planting in the current rural cooperative society, large farms and the like; the rice-onion crop rotation method has the advantages that the rice yield is improved, the onion yield value is improved, meanwhile, a large amount of water is saved, the mechanical investment is saved, the rice epidemic disease is prevented, and the rice-onion crop rotation method is low in investment and high in yield.
The technical scheme of the invention is as follows:
a rice and onion same mechanical dry field integrated rotation method is characterized in that dry-land rice seedling raising and onion seedling raising of the method are carried out successively by using a same seeder and a seedling raising tray, and dry-land rice and onion are planted by using a same transplanter, and the method comprises the following steps:
(1) and (3) seedling culture of dry-planted rice: in the middle and late ten days of 5 months, rice seedling is grown by adopting a seedling raising tray, the seedling raising period is 25-35 days, the seedling raising tray comprises a tray body, a bowl body and a support body, the bowl body is an inverted frustum, and the bowl body is positioned in the tray body;
(2) and (3) seedling raising management of dry-planted rice: watering thoroughly at the early stage of the small seedlings, simultaneously carrying out spraying, moisturizing and watering, carrying out moisture management at the middle and later stages of the seedlings, controlling water completely at the later stage without drying, and carrying out drought training; obtaining robust seedlings;
(3) dry transplanting rice: a. soil preparation is carried out during the seedling raising period of dry-cultivated rice, rotary tillage is carried out on the soil after base fertilizer is spread, ridge forming is carried out, and the surface of each ridge is flat; b. dry planting, namely performing dry rice seedling planting in the middle and last ten days of 6 months after soil preparation, performing dry rice seedling planting by adopting a transplanter when performing the dry rice seedling planting, and adjusting the row spacing, the plant spacing and the transplanting depth of the transplanter to perform the dry rice loading;
(4) irrigating water within 6-8 hours after dry planting of the rice, managing fertilizers, plant diseases and insect pests and weeds according to a conventional technology, and before harvesting the rice, carrying out onion seedling culture by adopting the seedling culture plate in the step (1) in the last ten days of 9 months, wherein the seedling culture period is 40-50 days;
(5) onion seedling management: when the onion seedlings reach 3-5 leaves, the plant height is 15-25cm, the pseudostem is 0.5-0.7 cm thick, and the onion healthy and strong seedlings are obtained;
(6) land preparation: after the rice is harvested from the first ten days of 10 months to the middle and last ten days of 10 months, crushing rice straws, returning the crushed rice straws to the field, spreading a base fertilizer, and then carrying out rotary tillage;
(7) onion planting: planting onions in the middle and last ten days of 10 months to 11 last ten days after soil preparation, wherein the onion planting is carried out by adopting the transplanter in the step (3), the row spacing and the transplanting depth adjusted in the step (1) are adopted, only the row spacing of the transplanter is adjusted to be 8-10 cm, the transplanting is directly applied to dry planting of the onions, and the dry planting step is carried out according to the rice;
(8) and performing field management after planting the onions according to a conventional technology.
According to the invention, preferably, the rice seedling raising in the step (1) is carried out in No. 15-20 of 5 months, a tray body of the seedling raising tray is provided with 3-6 grooves, the support body is positioned in the grooves, the diameter of an upper opening of the pot body is 2.5cm, the diameter of a lower bottom surface of the pot body is 2.4cm, and the height of the pot body is 2 cm; the lower bottom surface of the bowl body is provided with a water-permeable circular hole with the diameter of 4mm, the specification of the seedling-raising disk is 32 × 14-448 holes/disk, and 3-5 rice seeds are sown in each hole.
Preferably, before the rice seedlings are raised in the step (1), selecting, removing awns, soaking the rice seeds in a seed soaking liquid for 48-72 hours, placing the rice seeds on a device with good air permeability after seed soaking, covering with rice straws or a towel, controlling the temperature to be 30-35 ℃, accelerating germination, and breaking the breast and exposing white seeds, namely finishing the accelerating germination; the method comprises the steps of adopting soil subjected to crushing, sieving, disinfection and nutrition blending as rice seedling raising soil, filling the seedling raising soil into a seedling raising tray, sowing, covering soil, applying water and raising seedlings.
According to the invention, preferably, step (2), the obtained robust seedling: the leaves are emerald green, the base of the seedling is flat and wide, and the seedlings are uniform; the height of the seedling is 15-25cm, the number of roots is 12-16, and the dry weight of the stem and leaf of the hundred plants is 2.0-2.5 g; the root part is firmly coiled and is not scattered when being lifted, and the thickness of the coiled part with soil is 2.0-2.5 cm.
The conventional water-transplanted seedling raising is that the seedling raising tray is in a flooded state most of the time after seedling emergence, water control is carried out before transplanting, and the root system of the water-transplanted seedling-raising rice seedling is in a water saturation state for a long time; the water root system of the rice cultivated in dry land is difficult to adapt to dry land cultivation, so that the seedling recovery period is long after dry land cultivation, and even death is caused.
Preferably, the soil is prepared in the step (3) during dry rice seedling planting, the cohesive soil is used for rotary tillage for 2 times, and the sandy soil is used for rotary tillage for 1 time.
According to the invention, preferably, the transplanter in the step (3) is a full-automatic onion pot seedling transplanter, the seedling tray is conveyed to the seedling taking mechanism by the seedling conveying mechanism of the full-automatic onion pot seedling transplanter, the seedling taking mechanism lays the seedlings taken from the pot tray on the transverse conveying belt, then the seedling throwing mechanism puts the seedlings on the conveying belt into the duckbilled seedling planting mechanism, the duckbilled seedling planting mechanism plants the seedlings into soil, and then the inclined compacting wheels compact the seedlings planted in the soil, thereby completing dry field transplanting of the rice. The full-automatic onion pot seedling transplanter is a full-automatic onion pot seedling transplanter of Fuzhou Asia Michelia mechanical equipment Limited company.
Preferably, in the step (3), the row spacing of the dry-planted rice is 25-30cm, the planting distance is 7-20 cm, the depth is 2.5-4 cm, and the number of the hole-planting piers for planting the rice is 1.6-1.7 ten thousand/mu.
Preferably, in the step (4), after irrigating the rice within 6-8 hours after dry planting, the rice is not flooded in the seedling stage, and is irrigated after drought, and the appearance indexes of irrigation are as follows: the leaves of the rice seedlings curl at noon in fine days, but can automatically stretch to irrigate water in the evening, and the rice seedlings are irrigated intermittently and alternately in dry and wet states, wherein the wet state is mainly used.
Preferably, in the step (4), the onion seedling raising step is the same as the rice seedling raising step, and the onion seedling raising is carried out by using the same seedling raising tray except that the onion seedling raising nutrient soil is used, and the number of the onion seeds per hole is 1-2. The nutrient soil for onion seedling culture is carried out according to the prior art.
According to the optimization of the invention, in the step (6), the rice straw is smashed and returned to the field for 2 times, the base fertilizer is spread, then the rotary tillage is carried out for 1-3 times, and the rotary tillage degree is as follows: the onion pot seedlings are easily inserted into the soil.
According to the crop rotation method, the rice and the onion are respectively raised through pot seedling, the quality of the rice seedlings can be ensured, the seedling age elasticity is large, the loose rice transplanting time can be realized, the rice is planted in a dry land without soaking and depositing the slurry, the time can be saved, the rice can be transplanted for 3-5 days in advance, and the problem of crop rotation connection between the rice and the onion in Shandong, Anhui and the like is effectively solved; the rice onion machine seedling planting requirements are similar in specification; the field planting depth of the rice and the onion is consistent; the field planting density is in the mechanical adjustable range; the rice and the onion can be used in the same seedling raising pot tray and a transplanter, so that the annual ring of one machine is realized, and the investment cost is saved.
The rice seedling and the onion seedling are sowed into the seedling tray by adopting the seeder.
The method of the present invention is not particularly limited, and may be selected according to the ordinary techniques in the art.
The method is suitable for the crop rotation of dry-planted rice and onions in Shandong and Anhui areas.
Compared with the prior art, the method has the following excellent effects:
1. the method adopts the same transplanter to join and crop the dry-land rice pot seedlings and the onions at specific stubble openings in the two-cropping area of one year, and in the crop rotation process of the dry-land rice and the onions, the seedling pot and the transplanter can perform seedling and planting year by using the same equipment, field and machinery, so that the mechanical integration is realized, the investment cost is saved, and the method is particularly suitable for planting in the current rural cooperative society, large farms and the like.
2. The method adopts rice pot seedling dry planting and onion dry land crop rotation, is a novel grain and vegetable crop rotation mode, and the rice and vegetable crop rotation solves the problems of short crop rotation conversion period of the traditional rice and wheat crop rotation, floating of field steeping straws and the like, thereby not only improving the rice yield, but also improving the onion yield value, saving a large amount of water and greatly reducing the rice epidemic disease.
3. The method of the invention adopts rice pot seedling dry planting and onion dry land rotation, changes the traditional rice and wheat rotation mode, so that mechanical equipment, seedling raising facilities and the like which are put in a single season of rice dry planting can be reused in the next crop, and the onion and the rice transplanter have the same seedling transplanting standard, the similar row spacing of field planting and the same planting depth, thereby realizing unified planting, unified management and high unit land output benefit and achieving the purposes of increasing income, saving expenditure and green sustainable development.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further illustrated by the following examples, which are not specifically illustrated and are generally within the skill of the art.
The transplanter in the examples was purchased from a fully automatic onion pot transplanter from mechanical equipment ltd, amacco, usa.
The seeder is prior art.
Example 1:
rice dry-planting and onion rotation crop on Yiyi clay soil in major rice producing area of Shandong
The method comprises the following steps of sequentially growing seedlings of rice and onion in a same seedling growing disc and a same seeder, and planting rice and onion in a dry planting mode by using a same transplanter, wherein the method comprises the following steps:
(1) and (3) seedling culture of dry-planted rice: in Shandong area No. 5, No. 15-20, rice seedling raising is carried out by adopting a seedling raising tray, the seedling raising period is 30 days, the seedling raising tray comprises a tray body, a bowl body and a support body, the bowl body is an inverted frustum, the bowl body is positioned in the tray body, the tray body of the seedling tray is provided with 5 grooves, the support body is positioned in the groove, the diameter of an upper opening of the bowl body is 2.5cm, the diameter of a lower bottom surface of the bowl body is 2.4cm, and the height of the bowl body is 2 cm; the lower bottom surface of the bowl body is provided with a water-permeable circular hole with the diameter of 4mm, the specification of the seedling raising plate is 32 × 14 ═ 448 holes/plate, 3-5 rice seeds are sown in each hole of the conventional japonica rice, the average of the middle ear type variety is 4-5 rice seeds in each hole, the average of the large ear type variety is 3-4 rice seeds in each hole, 2-3 rice seeds in each hole are sown in each hole of the hybrid rice, the dry seed amount of each conventional japonica rice plate is 35-58 g (the soaked wet seed amount is 45-70 g), 40 seedling raising plates are needed for planting 1 mu of rice, and the seedling raising field is 8 square meters;
selecting rice seeds before seedling raising, removing awns, soaking the rice seeds in a seed soaking solution for 60 hours, placing the soaked rice seeds on an instrument with good air permeability, covering with rice straws or a towel, controlling the temperature at 32 ℃, accelerating germination, and finishing the accelerating germination after the seeds break the chest and expose white; the method comprises the steps of adopting soil which is smashed, screened, disinfected and blended with nutrition as rice seedling raising soil, filling the seedling raising soil into a seedling raising tray, sowing, covering soil, applying water, adjusting the water spraying amount to enable the seedling raising soil to be saturated in moisture and not to be flooded, and carrying out seedling raising.
(2) And (3) seedling raising management of dry-planted rice: watering thoroughly at the early stage of the small seedlings without flooding, simultaneously spraying, preserving moisture and watering, performing moisture management at the middle and later stages of the seedlings without watering, completely controlling water at the later stage, and performing drought training; obtaining robust seedlings; strengthening the seedling: the leaves are emerald green, the base of the seedling is flat and wide, and the seedlings are uniform; the height of the seedling is 15-25cm, the number of roots is 12-16, and the dry weight of the stem and leaf of the hundred plants is 2.0-2.5 g; firm root coiling, no loose lifting, 2.0-2.5cm thickness of the packing with soil, and consistent thickness of the packing. Other diseases and insect pests are managed by the same conventional technology.
(3) Dry transplanting rice: a. soil preparation is carried out during the seedling raising period of dry-cultivated rice, the soil is rotary-tilled by cohesive soil for 2 times, the rotary tillage is carried out by sandy soil for 1 time, the rotary tillage is carried out on the soil after base fertilizer is spread, ridge forming is carried out, and the surface of each ridge is flat; b. dry planting, namely planting rice seedlings in the middle and last ten days of 6 months after soil preparation, and planting the rice seedlings in the dry way by using a transplanter; the row spacing of the dry-planted rice is 26cm, the plant spacing is 12cm, the depth is 2.8cm, and the number of the planted rice is 1.6 ten thousand per mu.
(4) Irrigating the rice within 8 hours after dry planting, not flooding in the seedling stage, and irrigating again after drought, wherein the appearance indexes of irrigation are as follows: the leaves of the rice seedlings curl at noon in fine days, but can automatically stretch to irrigate water in the evening, and the water is irrigated intermittently, alternately dry and wet, and mainly wet; managing fertilizers, plant diseases and insect pests and weeds according to the prior art, wherein before rice is harvested, in the last ten days of 9 months, the onion seedling raising step is the same as the rice seedling raising step, the onion seedling raising is carried out by adopting the same seedling raising plate, except that the onion seedling raising nutrient soil is adopted, the number of the sowed seeds of each hole of the onions is 1, and the seedling raising period is 40-50 days;
(5) onion seedling management: when the onion seedlings reach 3-5 leaves, the plant height is 15-25cm, the pseudostem is 0.5-0.7 cm thick, and the onion healthy and strong seedlings are obtained;
(6) land preparation: after the rice is harvested from the first ten days of 10 months to the middle and last ten days of 10 months, crushing rice straws, returning the crushed rice straws to the field, spreading a base fertilizer, and then carrying out rotary tillage;
(7) onion planting: and (3) carrying out onion planting in the middle and last ten days of 10 months after soil preparation, adopting a transplanting machine in the step (3) to carry out onion planting, directly applying the transplanting machine to onion dry planting after the planting distance is adjusted to 8cm, and carrying out the dry planting step according to the rice procedure.
(8) Onion planting is carried out in the field according to the conventional technology.
Application example:
and carrying out a field effect test of the rice and onion integrated rotation method in the same mechanical upland field in 2015-2017.
Test site: linyi city orchid mountain area
Test soil: clay soil
Respectively arranging a treatment group and a comparison group in the same area;
treatment group: the rice is planted in a dry way and the rice is planted in an onion wheel way under the mode of returning the total amount of the rice straws to the field
Control group: traditional rice and wheat crop rotation.
1. The effects of different treatment modalities on rice yield, onion yield and income field trial results are shown in table 1 below:
TABLE 1 Effect of different treatment modalities on Rice yield, onion yield and earnings
As can be seen from the above table 1, the rotation mode of the invention not only improves the rice yield, but also improves the onion yield value, improves the income of farmers, and greatly reduces the occurrence of rice blight.
2. The field test results of the effects of different treatment modes on investment cost, planting efficiency and water conservation quantity are shown in the following table 2:
TABLE 2 influence of different treatment modes on investment cost, planting efficiency and water saving
As can be seen from the above table 2, the rotation mode of the invention adopts the same transplanter to join the rotation rice pot seedlings and the onions at specific stubble gaps in the two-cropping area of one year, and in the rotation process of the dry-planting rice and the onions, the seedling pot plates and the transplanter can carry out seedling and planting year by using the same equipment, field and machinery, so that the mechanical integration is realized, the investment cost is saved, and the water saving amount reaches 15-25%.
In conclusion, the rice and onion one-mechanical dry field integrated rotation method not only improves the rice yield, but also improves the onion yield value, improves the economic income of farmers, and greatly reduces the occurrence of rice epidemic diseases, and the rotation mode adopts the same transplanter seedling raising pot disc and the transplanter to raise seedlings and plant year by using the same equipment, field and machinery, thereby realizing mechanical integration, saving the investment cost and saving water by 15-25%.
Example 2:
the integrated rotation method of the rice and the onion in the same mechanical upland field as the embodiment 1 is carried out according to the method and the steps of the embodiment 1, and the difference is that:
step (3), a transplanter is adopted for dry planting of rice; the row spacing of the dry-planted rice is 30cm, the plant spacing is 18cm, the depth is 3.0cm, and the number of the planted rice is 1.7 ten thousand per mu.
And (4) planting the onions in the last ten days of 11 months after soil preparation, wherein the transplanting is carried out by adopting the transplanting machine in the step (3), the transplanting machine is directly applied to dry planting of the onions after the planting distance is adjusted to be 10cm, and the procedure of the dry planting step is carried out according to the rice.

Claims (4)

1. A rice and onion same mechanical dry field integrated rotation method is characterized in that dry-land rice seedling raising and onion seedling raising of the method are carried out successively by using a same seeder and a seedling raising tray, and dry-land rice and onion are planted by using a same transplanter, and the method comprises the following steps:
(1) and (3) seedling culture of dry-planted rice: in No. 15-20 of 5 months, rice seedling is grown by adopting a seedling raising tray, the seedling raising period is 25-35 days, the seedling raising tray comprises a tray body, a pot body and a support body, the pot body is an inverted frustum, and the pot body is positioned in the tray body; 3-6 grooves are formed in a tray body of the seedling tray, the supporting body is positioned in the grooves, the diameter of an upper opening of the pot body is 2.5cm, the diameter of a lower bottom surface of the pot body is 2.4cm, and the height of the pot body is 2 cm; the lower bottom surface of the bowl body is provided with a water-permeable round hole with the diameter of 4mm, the specification of the seedling tray is 32 × 14=448 holes/tray, and 3-5 rice seeds are sown in each hole;
(2) and (3) seedling raising management of dry-planted rice: watering thoroughly at the early stage of the small seedlings, simultaneously carrying out spraying, moisturizing and watering, carrying out moisture management at the middle and later stages of the seedlings, controlling water completely at the later stage without drying, and carrying out drought training; obtaining robust seedlings;
(3) dry transplanting rice: a. soil preparation is carried out during the seedling raising period of dry-cultivated rice, rotary tillage is carried out on the soil after base fertilizer is spread, ridge forming is carried out, and the surface of each ridge is flat; b. dry planting, namely performing dry rice seedling planting in the middle and last ten days of 6 months after soil preparation, performing dry rice seedling planting by adopting a transplanter when performing the dry rice seedling planting, and adjusting the row spacing, the plant spacing and the transplanting depth of the transplanter to perform the dry rice loading; the transplanter is a full-automatic onion pot seedling transplanter, a seedling tray is conveyed to a seedling taking mechanism by a seedling conveying mechanism of the full-automatic onion pot seedling transplanter, the seedling taking mechanism lays seedlings taken out of a pot tray on a transverse conveying belt, then a seedling throwing mechanism puts the seedlings on the conveying belt into a duckbilled seedling planting mechanism, the duckbilled seedling planting mechanism plants the seedlings into soil, and then a pair of inclined compacting wheels compacts the seedlings planted in the soil, so that dry field transplanting of rice is completed; the row spacing of dry-planted rice is 25-30cm, the plant spacing is 7-20 cm, the depth is 2.5-4 cm, and the number of mounds of planting holes of the rice planted in a field is 1.6-1.7 ten thousand per mu;
(4) after the rice is irrigated within 6-8 hours after dry planting, the rice is not flooded in the seedling stage, and is irrigated after drought, wherein the appearance indexes of irrigation are as follows: curling rice seedling leaves at noon in sunny days, automatically stretching the leaves in the evening for irrigation, intermittently irrigating, alternately wetting and drying, wherein the wetting is mainly performed, the onion seedling is grown by adopting the seedling raising tray obtained in the step (1) in the first ten days of 9 months before the rice is harvested, and the seedling raising period is 40-50 days; the onion seedling raising step is the same as the rice seedling raising step, the onion seedling raising is carried out by adopting the same seedling raising plate, the difference is that the onion seedling raising nutrient soil is adopted, and the number of the sowing grains of each hole of the onions is 1-2;
(5) onion seedling management: when the onion seedlings reach 3-5 leaves, the plant height is 15-25cm, the pseudostem is 0.5-0.7 cm thick, and the onion healthy and strong seedlings are obtained;
(6) land preparation: after the rice is harvested from the first ten days of 10 months to the middle and last ten days of 10 months, crushing rice straws, returning the crushed rice straws to the field, spreading a base fertilizer, and then carrying out rotary tillage; crushing rice straws and returning the crushed rice straws to the field for 2 times, spreading a base fertilizer, and then carrying out rotary tillage for 1-3 times, wherein the rotary tillage degree is as follows: the onion pot seedlings are easily inserted into the soil;
(7) onion planting: planting onions in the middle and last ten days of 10 months to 11 last ten days after soil preparation, wherein the onion planting is carried out by adopting the transplanter in the step (3), the row spacing and the transplanting depth adjusted in the step (1) are adopted, only the row spacing of the transplanter is adjusted to be 8-10 cm, the transplanting is directly applied to dry planting of the onions, and the dry planting step is carried out according to the rice;
(8) and (5) carrying out field management after the onion is planted.
2. The integrated rotation method for rice and onion in the same mechanical upland field as claimed in claim 1, wherein step (1) rice seeds are selected, awn is removed, the seeds are soaked in seed soaking liquid for 48-72 hours, the seeds are placed on a device with good air permeability after being soaked, rice straws or towels are covered on the device, the temperature is controlled at 30-35 ℃, germination is carried out, and the germination is finished when the seeds break the chest and expose white; the method comprises the steps of adopting soil subjected to crushing, sieving, disinfection and nutrition blending as rice seedling raising soil, filling the seedling raising soil into a seedling raising tray, sowing, covering soil, applying water and raising seedlings.
3. The integrated rotation method for rice and onion in the same mechanical upland field as claimed in claim 1, wherein step (2) is carried out to obtain strong seedling seedlings: the leaves are emerald green, the base of the seedling is flat and wide, and the seedlings are uniform; the height of the seedling is 15-25cm, the number of roots is 12-16, and the dry weight of the stem and leaf of the hundred plants is 2.0-2.5 g; the root part is firmly coiled and is not scattered when being lifted, and the thickness of the coiled part with soil is 2.0-2.5 cm.
4. The integrated rice and onion rotation method in the same mechanical upland field as in claim 1, wherein the rice and onion rotation method in step (3) is characterized in that the rice is planted in the upland field by 2 times of rotary tillage on the cohesive soil and 1 time of rotary tillage on the sandy soil.
CN201810191907.9A 2018-03-08 2018-03-08 Rice and onion one-machinery dry field integrated rotation method Active CN108353746B (en)

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