CN108331000A - Caisson sinking construction method - Google Patents

Caisson sinking construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108331000A
CN108331000A CN201810020081.XA CN201810020081A CN108331000A CN 108331000 A CN108331000 A CN 108331000A CN 201810020081 A CN201810020081 A CN 201810020081A CN 108331000 A CN108331000 A CN 108331000A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
open caisson
well
sinking
concrete
caisson
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CN201810020081.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
贾延财
刘杰章
靳保林
孙振远
王建军
徐鹏远
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Cccc-Tdc Yantai Environmental Protection Dredging Co Ltd
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Cccc-Tdc Yantai Environmental Protection Dredging Co Ltd
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Application filed by Cccc-Tdc Yantai Environmental Protection Dredging Co Ltd filed Critical Cccc-Tdc Yantai Environmental Protection Dredging Co Ltd
Priority to CN201810020081.XA priority Critical patent/CN108331000A/en
Publication of CN108331000A publication Critical patent/CN108331000A/en
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E02HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING; FOUNDATIONS; SOIL SHIFTING
    • E02DFOUNDATIONS; EXCAVATIONS; EMBANKMENTS; UNDERGROUND OR UNDERWATER STRUCTURES
    • E02D23/00Caissons; Construction or placing of caissons
    • E02D23/08Lowering or sinking caissons

Abstract

A kind of caisson sinking construction method of the present invention, includes the following steps:(1) excavation of foundation pit:Excavation of foundation pit is carried out in open caisson manufacture place, gutter is dug in margin of foundation pit, earth dam is laid with for collecting the rainwater retained in foundation pit, and in excavation slope slope edges, to stop that ground rainwater flows into foundation pit;(2) open caisson manufacture is molded;(3) well sinking:A, it just sinks the stage;B, normally sink the stage;C, it sinks eventually the stage;(4) bottom sealing.A kind of steady, construction safety the caisson sinking construction method for closing on the fields He Hai that the technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide sinkings.

Description

Caisson sinking construction method
Technical field
The present invention relates to hydroelectric facility technical field of construction, more particularly to a kind of caisson sinking construction method.
Background technology
Open caisson due to its stable structure, the features such as cost is relatively low be widely applied to the municipal administrations such as water supply, draining, electric power, Industrial circle.When carrying out well sinking close to the fields He Hai, due to its special geographical location, level of ground water is higher, soil property Soft, when this kind of construction area carries out well sinking, open caisson surrounding soil generates quicksand, gushes native phenomenon, is susceptible to open caisson It is prominent heavy, it causes unstable, and is susceptible to safety accident.
Invention content
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of sinkings steadily, the open caisson for closing on the fields He Hai of construction safety Sinking construction method.
A kind of caisson sinking construction method, includes the following steps:
(1) excavation of foundation pit
(1) carry out excavation of foundation pit in open caisson manufacture place, the cutting depth of foundation pit according to live soil property and environmental condition and It is fixed, when ensureing open caisson manufacture more than level of ground water;
(2) gutter and sump are dug in margin of foundation pit, is used for foundation pit internal drainage, and repair in excavation slope slope edges Earth dam is built, to stop that ground rainwater flows into foundation pit;
(2) open caisson manufacture is molded
(1) blade foot model installs
Open caisson lower part is cutting shoe, before blade foot model installs, first sand bedding course is equipped in blade foot model bottom, on sand bedding course It is laid with support pad wood or adds concrete cushion, blade foot model is made to be maintained at the same horizontal plane;
(2) open caisson formwork erection
A, stencil design type selecting:Template uses wood plywood, and when formwork erection, open caisson inside division is at multiple same sizes Trave, and fixed using shoring;
B, template flow of installation:Position, size, absolute altitude review install → shuttering supporting with external mold in snap the line → borehole wall Reinforcing → template inspection and examination;
(3) construction scaffolding installs
A, scaffold building type selecting:Using fastener type steel pipe scaffold;
B, scaffold building technological process:Basis leveling tamp → put sweep the floor in length and breadth bar → upright bar and sweep the floor bar fastening → Installation upper layer size cross bar → add hound → installation wall-connecting piece → and connect upright bar → add bridging → successively set up successively → Hang outer vertical net;
(4) open caisson reinforcement construction
After the completion of the counterdie of open caisson bottom girder is laid with, upper reinforcement binding is carried out, when placement layer by layer, first tie up reinforcing bar formwork again Plate;
(5) concrete construction process
A, concrete uses commerical ready-mixed concrete, pours transport and uses concrete delivery truck and concrete pump;
B, it concreting merogenesis and is symmetrically carried out along borehole wall surrounding, the concreting layered for often saving open caisson carries out simultaneously Continuously poured in one is completed, and next section can be poured by often saving after the concrete strength that open caisson has poured reaches 70%;
Upper lower horizontal seam uses spill horizontal joint when c, pouring, construction joint contact surface after rinsing dabbing processing, It is further continued for next section to pour, contact surface is first laid with one layer of high strength cement mortar, and the pre-buried expansion sealing strip before pouring, then pours Build layer concrete;
D, 10h takes covering water seasoning after concreting;
(6) form removable
When open caisson concrete strength reaches the 25% of design strength, open caisson template side form is removed, when cutting shoe strong concrete When degree reaches design strength 70%, the template on cutting shoe inclined-plane is removed;
(7) bed course is removed
A, concrete cushion is removed:Concrete cushion is using segmentation, symmetrical, the dismounting mode uniformly abolished, when dismounting, sword Underfooting is backfilling and compacted using sand in time, and on the inside of cutting shoe building at small earth embankment;
B, support pad wood is extracted:When cutting shoe concrete strength reaches the 100% of design strength, open caisson concrete strength, which reaches, to be set When counting the 70% of intensity, support pad wood is extracted, uses sand or rubble to be backfilling and compacted in time when often extracting a support pad wood, and in cutting shoe Interior outside building is at small earth embankment;
(3) well sinking
(1) sinking preparation
A, preservative treatment carried out to open caisson surfaces externally and internally, be in level of ground water reserved opening progress below to designed elevation It blocks;
B, multiple dewatering wells, excavation water intaking pond and mud pit are set in the surrounding of foundation pit, and arranges water supply installation, is laid with confession Water lines, are laid with sludge discharge pipeline at arrangement sand pumping device;
(2) well sinking
A, just heavy stage, well sinking depth are just to sink the stage within 0~3m, remove sand bedding course first, then pass through High pressure water flow washes away the soil layer inside open caisson, makes to form the spill the bottom of a pan inside open caisson, while the soil layer in the spill the bottom of a pan Mud is formed, and mud is drained by mud pit by sand pumping device, when fetching earth, is expanded symmetrically around since middle part It opens up, retains the earth embankment of 1m wide in digging process on the inside of well outer wall cutting shoe, earth embankment height is 0.5~1m;
B, normally sink the stage, in first heavy latter stage in stage, under conditions of all technical stabilization of well sinking, accelerate Well sinking speed makes the deep-controlled within 1m of the spill the bottom of a pan, when fetching earth, is symmetrically extended around since middle part, The soil under cutting shoe is dug again, and the spill the bottom of a pan is minimum to be not less than cutting shoe 1m;
C, heavy stage eventually slows down well sinking speed when distance of the cutting shoe tread away from designed elevation of open caisson is when within 2m Degree, and flatness adjustment is carried out to open caisson inside, make to form the anti-the bottom of a pan of convex inside open caisson, until the cutting shoe tread of open caisson is sink to At designed elevation;
(4) bottom sealing
(1) prepare before back cover
A, New-old concrete contact surface is washed away into clean and feather plucking, the shaft bottom finishing concavity open caisson the bottom of a pan, and in open caisson The bottom of a pan bottom surface is laid with chunk stone, and broken stone leveling is used in combination;
B, in open caisson surrounding trave and central trave, relief well is set, and rubble, relief well are equipped under relief well It is internally provided with immersible pump;
(2) bottom sealing
After well sinking to designed elevation, plain concrete back cover is carried out, when back cover, well is carried out to relief well using immersible pump It inside draws water, until sole plate construction finishes;
(3) relief well blocks
When bottom concrete intensity reaches the 70% of design strength, stops pumping to relief well, block one by one one by one.
Caisson sinking construction method of the present invention, wherein in excavation of foundation pit step, the physical dimension of the foundation pit is more than institute State the physical dimension of open caisson.
Caisson sinking construction method of the present invention, wherein in excavation of foundation pit step, the height of the earth dam is 0.3m, width For 1~1.5m.
Caisson sinking construction method of the present invention, wherein in open caisson reinforcement construction step, the sequence of the reinforcing bar binding is First bottom girder, rear wall plate, first vertical bars, rear horizontal bar, reinforcing bar controls verticality using thread-ligating therapy, using level meter controlled level degree, Spacing is controlled using the wooden just slide calliper rule, protective layer thickness is controlled using marble cushion block.
Caisson sinking construction method of the present invention, wherein in sinking preparation step, the water supply installation is high pressure water The water outlet of rifle, centrifugal pump and immersible pump, described water supply pipe one end and centrifugal pump connects, and the other end is connect with giant, The water inlet of the centrifugal pump is connect with immersible pump, and the immersible pump is placed in water intaking pond, and the sand pumping device is sand pump.
Caisson sinking construction method of the present invention is carried out at the same time punching respectively wherein in well sinking step to each trave Brush suction operation.
Caisson sinking construction method of the present invention, wherein being blocked in step in relief well, the relief well is suitable for reading to be higher by back cover Top of concrete 20cm, and it is provided with bored plate.
Compared with prior art, it advantage for present invention and has the beneficial effect that:
(1) present invention can reduce the quantities of well sinking, improve construction effect by carrying out excavation of foundation pit before open caisson Rate, meanwhile, it is carried out directly on foundation pit in prefabricated open caisson, no longer needs to separately carry out deep pit digging, foundation pit sealing, foundation pit protection Etc. processes, and constructed, be unearthed efficient, construction speed is fast, effectively shortens the construction period using drainage sink.
(2) present invention has dug dewatering well around open caisson, and the level of ground water around open caisson is made to be down to Sinking Well Design bottom mark It is high hereinafter, disclosure satisfy that the construction requirement for doing operation in open caisson, while while reducing well sinking, gushes soil and gushes sand phenomenon, guarantee Open caisson uniformly sinks, and construction safety.
(3) present invention is required according to well sinking depth and open caisson control, and well sinking is divided into three phases, is passed through The fall rate in each stage is controlled respectively, while ensureing safety and quality, improves fall rate.
(4) for the present invention by open caisson inside division at the identical trave of multiple sizes, each trave is interior to arrange have a construction Personnel are carried out at the same time each trave and wash away suction operation respectively, wash away suction mud to open caisson implementation by sub-module, advantageous in this way In the subsidence velocity of control open caisson, if in operation, there is non-uniform phenomenon, adjusting constructor in each trave in time Member's washes away rate, to ensure that open caisson uniformly sinks.
The caisson sinking construction method of the present invention is described further below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the process flow chart of caisson sinking construction method of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the structural schematic diagram of foundation pit in caisson sinking construction method of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the sequential schematic that support pad wood is extracted in caisson sinking construction method of the present invention;
Wherein:1, foundation pit;2, open caisson;3, side slope;4, earth dam;5, gutter;6, support pad wood.
Specific implementation mode
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of caisson sinking construction method of the present invention, includes the following steps:
(1) excavation of foundation pit
As shown in Fig. 2, for the structural schematic diagram of foundation pit,
(1) it is the quantities for reducing well sinking, excavation of foundation pit, the cutting depth root of foundation pit is carried out in open caisson manufacture place Depending on live soil property and environmental condition, in the above 1m of level of ground water when ensureing open caisson manufacture.The physical dimension of foundation pit is more than The physical dimension of open caisson, to ensure reserved enough construction operation spaces, as external scaffolding set up range, some materials stockyard and Transport passage for transporting, crane and pump truck decorating position etc..
(2) gutter and sump are dug in margin of foundation pit, the edge in gutter is arranged in collecting gutter, in foundation pit Draining, and it is 0.3m to build height in excavation slope slope edges, width is the earth dam of 1~1.5m, to stop ground rainwater stream Enter foundation pit.
(2) open caisson manufacture is molded
(1) blade foot model installs
Open caisson lower part is cutting shoe, and cutting shoe is wedge structure, and so that open caisson cuts native sinking, blade foot model is installed using poppet Method, half poppet method, brick base, brick bag base or clay model, before blade foot model installs, first in blade foot model bottom (i.e. cutting shoe Tread) it is equipped with sand bedding course, it is laid with support pad wood on sand bedding course or adds concrete cushion, blade foot model is made to be maintained at same level On, after blade foot model installs, brushing interleaving agent prevents from corroding.
Wherein:A, the determination formula of sand bedding course thickness is:H=(G/R-L)/2tg φ
In formula:The thickness (m) of h-sand bedding course;
Weight (KN/m) of the G-in open caisson first segment borehole wall unit length;
Bearing capacity (the KN/m of soil layer under R-sand bedding course2);
L-concrete cushion width or sleeper length (m);
φ-sand bedding course angle of flare.
B, the determination formula of concrete mats layer thickness is:H=(G/R-L)/2
In formula:The thickness (π) of h-sand bedding course;
Weight (KN/m) of the G-in open caisson first segment borehole wall unit length;
Bearing capacity (the KN/m of soil layer under R-sand bedding course2);
L-cutting shoe tread width (m).
In practice of construction, the thickness of concrete cushion is unsuitable excessively high, in order to avoid influencing well sinking, therefore to control open caisson The weight of the first segment borehole wall.
C, support pad wood calculates under cutting shoe
The quantity of support pad wood should depending on the heavyweight foundation bearing capacity of open caisson first segment casting concrete, support pad wood Radical calculates according to the following formula:
N=Gk/A[f]
In formula:The radical (root) of n-support pad wood;
Gk- open caisson first segment concrete structure weight standard value (kN);
Contact area (the m of A-single support pad wood and ground2);
The allowable bearing (kPa) of [f]-foundation soil;
The spacing of support pad wood is generally 0.5~1.0m.
When open caisson merogenesis makes primary sinking, when allowing to generate sedimentation, the bearing capacity of sand bedding course can improve, but not It is more than strength of wood to obtain.Support pad wood calculates according to the following formula with cutting shoe tread contact area:
An=Gk/R
In formula:AnContact area (the m of-cutting shoe tread and ground2);
GkWhen-extraction support pad wood, the weight standard value (kN) of open caisson;
R-timber band part crushing strength, generally desirable 3000kPa.
The cross-sectional area of required support pad wood, according to wood cross section allow cut Strength co-mputation:
A1> Gk/2τ0
In formula:A1- support pad wood cross-sectional area (m2);
τ0- wood cross section allows to be cut intensity, can use 2000kPa.
(2) open caisson formwork erection
A, stencil design type selecting:Template uses wood plywood, strut rail that 60 × 80 lumps of wood, spacing 30cm, vertical gear is used to adopt WithSteel pipe, spacing 60cm, with wall-crossing opposite-drawing bolt drawknot, spacing 60cm, when formwork erection, open caisson inside division It is fixed at the trave of multiple same sizes, and using shoring;
B, template flow of installation:Position, size, absolute altitude review install → shuttering supporting with external mold in snap the line → borehole wall Reinforcing → template inspection and examination;
Before the borehole wall template for installing open caisson, then the concrete on dabbing construction joint face rinses net, pop-up with giant Outer edge in wallboard clear span as template position control line, while also determining wallboard thickness;It (constructs from borehole wall plate outer side Under seam at about 250mm) horizontal line is popped up as open caisson template installed height mark control line, while being also used as open caisson template start line; 12 reinforcing pull rods of prefabricated Φ (split bolt), the wide+500mm of length=borehole wall;Borehole wall template by side plate (with thick nine clamping plates of 18mm), Compositions, the intermediate draw bars such as vertical shelves, crosspiece, diagonal brace, brace should be welded with the waterproof ring of 3 × 60 × 60mm, and after form removal immediately Along split bolt surrounding chisel at the pit of deep 30mm, split bolt both ends are prescinded, then tight pit is blocked up with expansive cement mortar;Well The necessary perps Zhi Li of the outboard template of wall, each portion's size of upper and lower opening, the verticality of the borehole wall, cutting shoe absolute altitude will be checked after standing well;Branch It supports pull rod (inside and outside intermode) and draws hoop secured;When the borehole wall is gradient, template will be by slope requirement Zhi Li.
(3) construction scaffolding installs
A, scaffold building type selecting:Using fastener type steel pipe scaffold, used outside the borehole wallSteel pipe set up it is double Steel pipe scaffold is arranged, upright bar advance 1.5m, transfer 0.9m, step pitch 1.8m, scaffold inside upright bar is away from borehole wall outer surface 200mm;
B, scaffold building technological process:Basis leveling tamp → put sweep the floor in length and breadth bar → upright bar and sweep the floor bar fastening → Installation upper layer size cross bar → add hound → installation wall-connecting piece → and connect upright bar → add bridging → successively set up successively → Hang outer vertical net;
The requirement of setting up of scaffold is that the foundation bottom of scaffold must be tamped, and pedestal or side to be arranged under upright bar Sheeting caps, upright bar lower part must be provided with two-way bar of sweeping the floor, and bar of sweeping the floor should not exceed 200mm away from upright bar pedestal or backing plate epithelium, Rod end is preferably higher by open caisson outer wall epithelium 1.5m;Leger is arranged on the inside of upright bar, and its length is not preferably less than 3 across big horizontal Bar is fastened with upright bar junction with right-angle coupler, must not be omitted;A horizontal rod is must be provided at host node, with right angle button Part snapping and forbid to remove;Work layer scaffold board will be paved with, spread surely.Work layer end scaffold board probe length should not exceed 150mm, and scaffold board grow to both ends be intended to be reliably fixed with supporting rod;Even wall bar usesSteel pipe, and close to main Node is arranged, and even the vertical range of wall bar should not exceed 4m, i.e., every two steps setting is together;It rises and takes along scaffold both ends and corner If bridging, bridging and ground angle are 45 °~60 °, and it is 4 across intermediate along longitudinal direction every 6 across making one group of scissors to set up width Support, in outer side elevation along the high continuous setting of frame length and frame, bridging brace is buckled except both ends rotary buckle and upright bar or small cross bar It is tight outer, 2~4 should be increased therebetween and buckled a little;In addition at turning, lateral diagonal brace should be set, it is intermediate every 6 across setting together, Add brace from bottom to the top in transverse plane;Should expire on the inside of scaffold outer vertical rod and hang safe Dense mesh screen, net and frame body and It is fixed and is obturaged with 5mm nylon ropes between net and net.
(4) open caisson reinforcement construction
After the completion of the counterdie of open caisson bottom girder is laid with, upper reinforcement binding is carried out, when placement layer by layer, first tie up reinforcing bar formwork again Plate.
Reinforcing bar binding sequence is first bottom girder, rear wall plate, first vertical bars, rear horizontal bar;Reinforcing bar controls verticality with thread-ligating therapy, uses Level meter controlled level degree controls spacing with the wooden just slide calliper rule, protective layer thickness is controlled with marble cushion block.
Reinforcing bar binding operation:After steel bar meter molding, transports to scene in place, manually bound;The weldering that will first process There is the cutting shoe tread of anchor rib to be placed on marble cushion block, protective layer cushion block be lined under every reinforcing bar, then lay cutting shoe muscle, Inner wall muscle in length and breadth, outer wall muscle in length and breadth;When binding reinforcing steel bars of wallboards, vertical reinforcement is first laid, the vertical reinforcement diagonal brace at both ends is consolidated It is fixed, and two rows of transverse steels are first laid in certain altitude, it is used as the intermediate vertical reinforcement of support, finally binds remaining horizontal bar.It is perpendicular Muscle uses sleeve connection, connector to be staggered 1/4, and for horizontal bar using being welded to connect, unilateral weldering, weld seam length is no less than 10d;Section well up and down Joint bar is stretched out in wall junction, and connector is staggered as required.
(5) concrete construction process
A, concrete uses commerical ready-mixed concrete, pours transport and uses concrete delivery truck and concrete pump;
B, it concreting merogenesis and is symmetrically carried out along borehole wall surrounding, avoids concrete surface height from differing greatly, to prevent production Raw uneven subsidence causes crack.Often the concreting layered of section open caisson carries out and continuously poured in one is completed, and often section is heavy The concrete strength that well has poured can pour next section after reaching 70%.
Upper lower horizontal seam uses spill horizontal joint when c, pouring, construction joint contact surface after rinsing dabbing processing, It is further continued for next section to pour, contact surface is first laid with one layer of high strength cement mortar, and the pre-buried expansion sealing strip before pouring, then pours Layer concrete is built, so that the borehole wall reaches seepage resistance demand.
D, 10h takes covering water seasoning that can cover and spill after final set when hot climate is dried after concreting Water curing prevents burning sun to be exposed to the sun, and the outdoor lowest temperature, should be by the winter less than subzero 3 DEG C or when outdoor temperature on average is less than 5 DEG C above freezing Season, construction requirement handled.
(6) form removable
When open caisson concrete strength reaches the 25% of design strength, open caisson template side form is removed, when cutting shoe strong concrete When degree reaches design strength 70%, the template on cutting shoe inclined-plane is removed.
(7) bed course is removed
A, concrete cushion is removed:Concrete cushion is using segmentation, symmetrical, the dismounting mode uniformly abolished, when dismounting, sword Underfooting is backfilling and compacted using sand in time, and for building at small earth embankment, effect is to undertake part open caisson weight, is prevented on the inside of cutting shoe It has removed part and has not removed inconsistent to the load-bearing of open caisson between part, open caisson is made uneven subsidence phenomenon occur.It should be noted , to reinforce observing when removing bed course, whether uniform pay attention to sinking, if finding to tilt, concrete cushion should be adjusted in time Position is removed, inclined side is suspended concrete cushion and removed, is purged in the other side, to leveling open caisson.
B, support pad wood is extracted:When cutting shoe concrete strength reaches the 100% of design strength, open caisson concrete strength, which reaches, to be set When counting the 70% of intensity, support pad wood is extracted, uses sand or rubble to be backfilling and compacted in time when often extracting a support pad wood, and in cutting shoe Interior outside building is at small earth embankment;
Further, extraction support pad wood answer subregion, grouping, successively, symmetrically, be carried out at the same time, as shown in figure 3, being to extract and hold The sequential schematic of chock extracts the support pad wood under internal partition wall, is then grouped while extracting short side first by taking rectangular open caisson as an example Positioning support pad wood, then after extract general support pad wood under long side, the last support pad that extracts simultaneously is wooden, when extracting support pad wood, should reinforce Observation pays attention to dynamic of sinking.
(3) well sinking
(1) sinking preparation
A, preservative treatment is carried out to open caisson surfaces externally and internally, to prevent corrosion of the underground water to open caisson.It is first before well sinking First externally the borehole wall carries out preservative treatment and first handles exposed split bolt well before brush preservative, should be immediately after form removal Along bolt surrounding chisel at the pit of 30mm depths, bolt both ends are prescinded, then tight pit is blocked up with expansive cement mortar.
When well sinking is at designed elevation, the preformed hole having on open caisson is in level of ground water hereinafter, therefore to design Absolute altitude is in level of ground water reserved opening below and is blocked, and soil or underground water pour in open caisson when preventing from It is interior, it blocks and uses brick mode, when aperture >=1000mm, supported using the 60*80 lumps of wood, inside is reinforced with channel steel, and channel steel is used Expansion bolt is fixed or is directly welded on built-in fitting.
B, multiple dewatering wells, excavation water intaking pond and mud pit are set in the surrounding of foundation pit, and arranges water supply installation, is laid with confession Water lines, are laid with sludge discharge pipeline at arrangement sand pumping device, now make to illustrate as follows,
1. dewatering well:Since this construction is carried out on the peripheries He Hai, abundant underground water is contained in underground, and open caisson is sinking Before, needing makes the level of ground water of construction area be down to Sinking Well Design absolute altitude 1m gushes hereinafter, gushing soil when reducing well sinking Sand phenomenon not only influences well sinking, but also can cause construction accident, according to field geology and hydrologic regime, on open caisson periphery Equipped with multiple dewatering wells, make in the seepage action of ground water to dewatering well of construction area.Dewatering well lay when, for level of ground water compared with Dewatering well is laid in height, the big region of seepage discharge along the outside positions 6m of open caisson outer rim at interval of 4-6m;For border on the sea direction or Encryption is taken to arrange towards the direction of underground water source, strongly weathered sand-rock 1m need to be entered or reach Sinking Well Design mark by laying dewatering well The high following positions 2-5m, dewatering well internal diameter are 300mm, place the PVC chimney filters that caliber is 250mm, one is placed in every mouthful of dewatering well Platform immersible pump, is replaced or is replaced for the well-point pipe of blocking and set, and ensures the water yield and dewatering effect of dewatering well, to protect Card can disclosure satisfy that the construction requirement of dry back cover effectively by water level control in open caisson the bottom of a pan position.
2. laying water supply installation, it is laid with water supply pipe:Water supply installation is giant, 1 15 kilowatts of centrifugal pump and one 7.5 kilowatts of immersible pumps of platform are composed in series, and the water outlet connection of water supply pipe one end and centrifugal pump, the other end connects with giant It connects, the water inlet of centrifugal pump is connect with immersible pump, and immersible pump is placed in water intaking pond, and water supply installation provides be no less than per hour 100m3, pressure is the water source of 10-14kg/cm2, and giant is driven to break ground;Water supply pipe uses 4 cun of hoses, passes through various valves High pressure water is transported to open caisson, meets two giant water by door and branch pipe.
3. laying sand pumping device, it is laid with mud line:Sand pumping device is sand pump, and sand pump is hung on open caisson bottom, And so that suction sand mouth is submerged and take out sand in mixing mud, silt particle is discharged to by mud line in mud pit.
4. pond of fetching water:Water intaking pond provides water source for giant, and high-pressure hydraulic pump is arranged in water intaking pond, in pond of fetching water Water by the drawing water of each dewatering well, drawing water in the water in gutter and neighbouring Haihe River is collected, resource is filled in realization Divide and utilizes.
5. mud pit:Mud pit is that the mud that sand pumping device is released is done preliminary sedimentation, then clear water is discharged, under In heavy construction, normal sand production rate maintains 30% or so, needs to be disposed about excavator and loading machine in mud pit, 24 hours are not Interruption is discharged into the silt particle in mud pit and removes.
6. sinking equipment and circuit installation and debugging:Operating platform is set up on open caisson top, arranges control room, it is each to control Between place two sets control devices, often cover control device and control a sand pump and giant pump, all devices pipeline is pacified After the completion of dress, it is necessary to carry out test running to mounted pipeline and the machinery that breaks ground, whether detection device, circuit, pipeline are normally transported Turn, sinking construction can be formally entered after meeting the requirements.
(2) well sinking
The Construction Principle of well sinking is to form high pressure water flow by high-pressure hydraulic pump to wash away the soil layer inside open caisson, Mud is formed, then mud is discharged by sand pump, in construction, since open caisson inside division is at the identical well of multiple sizes Lattice, each trave is interior to arrange have a construction personnel, is carried out at the same time respectively to each trave and washes away suction operation, passes through sub-module Suction mud is washed away to open caisson implementation, is conducive to the subsidence velocity for controlling open caisson in this way, if in operation, occurring non-uniform existing As adjust construction personnel in each trave in time washes away rate, to ensure that open caisson uniformly sinks.
According to the depth for forming the bottom of a pan in well sinking depth and open caisson, well sinking is divided into three phases, is passed through The subsidence velocity for controlling each stage respectively makes open caisson while ensureing to sink uniform, fall rate is improved, below to each Stage is described in detail:
A, just heavy stage, well sinking depth are just to sink the stage within 0~3m, remove sand bedding course first, remove sand pad Layer sequence be:The sand bedding course inside sand bedding course → open caisson under caisson cutting edge, then by high pressure water flow to open caisson inside Soil layer is washed away, and makes to form the spill the bottom of a pan inside open caisson, while the soil layer in the spill the bottom of a pan forms mud, and by taking out sand dress It sets and mud is drained into mud pit, when fetching earth, extended symmetrically around since middle part, in well outer wall sword in digging process Retain the earth embankment of 1m wide on the inside of foot, earth embankment height is 0.5~1m, increases with well sinking amount and suitably reduces, makes to sink as far as possible Well is smoothly cut in soil.
The just heavy stage needs two giants to supply a sand pump, wherein a high pressure water since underground water offer is less Rifle is fixed on sand pump, vertically downward sand washing, and another giant is operated by underground sand-wash personnel, and sand washing operative radius is 0-10m。
The just fall rate in heavy stage, should be controlled according to different soil properties, such as:In silt clay condition Under, fall rate is suitably reduced, and is controlled within 30cm/d;Under the conditions of sand soil, fall rate can be controlled in 50-100cm/ d。
B, normally sink the stage, in first heavy latter stage in stage, under conditions of all technical stabilization of well sinking, accelerate Well sinking speed makes the deep-controlled within 1m of the spill the bottom of a pan, when fetching earth, is symmetrically extended around since middle part, The soil under cutting shoe is dug again, and the spill the bottom of a pan is minimum to be not less than cutting shoe 1m.
Sinking situation should be observed when construction at any time, if finding to tilt, satisfactory after correcting is taken in time, forbids well inner shoe occur Vacantly, the phenomenon that lying on the table in the middle part of cutting shoe;Well sinking record is carried out when construction, finishes fall rate figure, is carried for heavy construction eventually For reliable data;When subsidence coefficient of sinking well is bigger than normal, and soil property situation is poor, it is prominent heavy and super heavy to need especially to take precautions against.
The fall rate in normal sinking stage is generally faster 20-100cm/d than the just heavy stage, the settling velocity in the case where this stage increases Rate, it is possible to reduce native counter-force to reduce resistance when sinking, and then improves construction speed.
C, heavy stage eventually slows down well sinking speed when distance of the cutting shoe tread away from designed elevation of open caisson is when within 2m Degree, and flatness adjustment is carried out to open caisson inside, make to form the anti-the bottom of a pan of convex inside open caisson, until the cutting shoe tread of open caisson is sink to At designed elevation.
When open caisson surrounding control point height difference is more than 20cm, should rectify a deviation in time, method for correcting error is to adjust each storehouse digging depth Based on, the open caisson peripheral portion soil body is easily poured into open caisson at this time, is dug to the inaccurate punching of this kind of soil body, the soil body of open caisson surrounding landslide is answered Use clay backfilling in time.
Heavy stage fall rate control is within 50cm/d eventually, and with the increase of submergence depth, fall rate gradually subtracts It is small.When cutting shoe tread absolute altitude is just higher by 10cm than designed elevation (depending on soil property and whole heavy situation), it should stop taking immediately Soil with ratchel throwing under cutting shoe inclined-plane, and carries out intensive observation, in 24 hours well sinking be not more than 1cm when, as under It sinks successfully, after open caisson construction in place, observation requires primary for 4-6 hours.
After sinking, cutting shoe bottom surface average elevation deviation is ± 5cm, and cutting shoe plane axial location deviation is ± 10cm, Any two-edged foot plate surface height difference is ± 10cm.
The abnormal conditions occurred when being now directed to well sinking are analyzed and prevent to be described in detail with processing operation
(1) quicksand gushes native phenomenon
Reason:Geological condition changes, and encounters sandy silt, fine sand layer, does not take measures in advance or well-points dewatering is lost suddenly Effect, causes quicksand phenomenon;The bottom of a pan is excavated too deep in well, and the outer loose ground of well pours in well, generates quicksand;The outer underground flowing pressure of well Hydraulic gradient is excessive, in the outer soil body indentation well of well.
Prevent:Using Deep Pumped Wells, ensure well-points dewatering effect, avoid flowing pressure upward, keeps soil stabilization; It when fetching earth in well, avoids drawing digging under cutting shoe, the bottom of a pan is unsuitable too deep when centre is fetched earth, and pours in prevent fluid stopping sand.
It administers:Change hydraulic gradient direction, increases pipe well quantity arrangement, increase pipe well internal diameter, deepen pipe well depth, replace High-power pipe well immersible pump;It avoids circumcirculation from gushing soil, reduces the bottom of a pan depth in well, reduce flowing pressure;It is returned in time with clay Fill out the open caisson surrounding landslide soil body;It pours water when necessary into well, drainage sink is changed to non-drainage subsidence.
(2) prominent heavy phenomenon
Reason:Silt clay has thixotropy, its intensity significantly reduces after disturbance, and change in friction force range is larger, holds It is prominent heavy easily to occur;It is improper that open caisson fetches earth, and the bottom of a pan excavation is too deep, and open caisson is temporarily by outer wall frictional resistance and cutting shoe tread support force support Firmly, when continuing to fetch earth, borehole wall frictional resistance reaches the limit values, and wall drag sinks suddenly because of the thixotropy of soil;Generate quicksand Phenomenon, a large amount of silt particles in bottom pour in well.
Prevention:It is appropriate to increase subsidence coefficient of sinking well, soil compaction sinking state is formed, cutting shoe inclined-plane should be embedded in soil always;No It should promote to sink by increasing the bottom of a pan depth, open caisson soil compaction should be made to sink by eliminating the nearly cutting shoe soil body;It is returned in time in sinking watching Clay or dirt are filled out, and is compacted, to bear part borehole wall frictional resistance;Ensure that well-points dewatering effect, control quicksand gush native phenomenon hair It is raw.
(3) inclination and shift phenomenon
Reason:Soil property is soft or hard uneven under caisson cutting edge;Observation not in time, is not fetched earth symmetrically, and native face height difference in well is made Great disparity;Cutting shoe side is put by barrier, not timely discovery processing;Attached lotus is unevenly distributed in open caisson dead weight and well.
Prevention:Reinforce lower side bivalent Dirichlet series and geologic information analysis, finds to tilt and correct in time;Reinforce taking in the high side of cutting shoe Soil, low side are dug or are not dug less, and even laminating fetches earth again after normotopia;The earthwork for tilting reverse side is deep-cut outside well, is backfilling into One side is tilted, inclined surface frictional resistance is increased;The soil body of backfill landslide in time in sinking watching, and be compacted, keep surrounding earth stress Uniformly;After open caisson displacement, it is intended that open caisson inclined in opposite directions, can be restored to correct position several times after correcting inclination;Have Meaning makes open caisson along inclined direction sink, until cutting shoe center line matches with design centre line, then by correcting inclination.
(4) bottom sealing
(1) prepare before back cover
A, New-old concrete contact surface is washed away into clean and feather plucking, the shaft bottom finishing concavity open caisson the bottom of a pan, and in open caisson The bottom of a pan bottom surface is laid with the chunk stone of 0.3-0.4m, and broken stone leveling is used in combination;
B, to reduce pressure of the level of ground water to back cover concrete, according to the size and water yield of open caisson internal diameter, in open caisson surrounding In trave and central trave, relief well is set, and rubble is equipped under relief well, relief well is internally provided with immersible pump, is used for Drainage pressure-reducing.
Wherein, relief well is made of diameter 1m, the steel bushing of high 2m, and steel plate water stopper, steel is arranged in the positions 1m among sleeve There are the inlet openings diameter 2-3cm, average 1/0.01m for plate waterstop side wall below2, filtering net plate twice are wound outside filter opening, are subtracted Kill-job is suitable for reading to be higher by bottom concrete top surface 20cm, and bored plate is arranged.
(2) bottom sealing
After well sinking to designed elevation, plain concrete back cover is carried out, when back cover, well is carried out to relief well using immersible pump It inside draws water, to reduce underground water to bottom concrete pressure, ensures level of ground water 500mm below bottom plate when drawing water, until base Plinth construction of bottom plates finishes.
(3) relief well blocks
When bottom concrete intensity reaches the 70% of design strength, stops pumping to relief well, block one by one one by one.It will After the water of relief well is drained, immersible pump is taken out immediately, pours into dry concrete rapidly and is blocked and consolidated, then upper method Blue disk is tightened (two ring flange interfaces apply waterproofing unction) with bolt, and casting concrete and plate top surface are flat again on ring flange top Together.
Compared with prior art, the present invention possessed outstanding advantages are:(1) present invention passes through progress foundation pit before open caisson It excavates, the quantities of well sinking can be reduced, improve construction efficiency.
(2) present invention has dug dewatering well around open caisson, makes in the seepage action of ground water to dewatering well of construction area, to protect Card can disclosure satisfy that the construction requirement of dry back cover, when reducing well sinking effectively by water level control in open caisson the bottom of a pan position It gushes soil and gushes sand phenomenon, ensure that open caisson uniformly sinks, and construction safety.
(3) well sinking is divided into three by the present invention according to the depth for forming the bottom of a pan in well sinking depth and open caisson Stage makes open caisson while ensureing to sink uniform, improves fall rate by controlling the subsidence velocity in each stage respectively.
(4) for the present invention by open caisson inside division at the identical trave of multiple sizes, each trave is interior to arrange have a construction Personnel are carried out at the same time each trave and wash away suction operation respectively, wash away suction mud to open caisson implementation by sub-module, advantageous in this way In the subsidence velocity of control open caisson, if in operation, there is non-uniform phenomenon, adjusting constructor in each trave in time Member's washes away rate, to ensure that open caisson uniformly sinks.
Embodiment described above is only that the preferred embodiment of the present invention is described, not to the model of the present invention It encloses and is defined, under the premise of not departing from design spirit of the present invention, technical side of the those of ordinary skill in the art to the present invention The various modifications and improvement that case is made should all be fallen into the protection domain of claims of the present invention determination.

Claims (7)

1. a kind of caisson sinking construction method, it is characterised in that:Include the following steps:
(1) excavation of foundation pit
(1) open caisson manufacture place carry out excavation of foundation pit, the cutting depth of foundation pit depending on live soil property and environmental condition, with When guarantee open caisson manufacture more than level of ground water;
(2) gutter and sump are dug in margin of foundation pit, is used for foundation pit internal drainage, and soil is built in excavation slope slope edges Dam, to stop that ground rainwater flows into foundation pit;
(2) open caisson manufacture is molded
(1) blade foot model installs
Open caisson lower part is cutting shoe, before blade foot model installs, is first equipped with sand bedding course in blade foot model bottom, is laid on sand bedding course Support pad wood adds concrete cushion, and blade foot model is made to be maintained at the same horizontal plane;
(2) open caisson formwork erection
A, stencil design type selecting:Template uses wood plywood, when formwork erection, open caisson inside division at multiple same sizes well Lattice, and fixed using shoring;
B, template flow of installation:Position, size, absolute altitude review and external mold in snap the line → borehole wall install → shuttering supporting reinforcing The inspection of → template and examination;
(3) construction scaffolding installs
A, scaffold building type selecting:Using fastener type steel pipe scaffold;
B, scaffold building technological process:Sweep the floor in length and breadth bar → upright bar and bar fastening → installation of sweeping the floor are tamped → are put in basis leveling Upper layer size cross bar → add hound → installation wall-connecting piece → and connect upright bar → add bridging → successively setting up successively → hang it is outer Vertical net;
(4) open caisson reinforcement construction
After the completion of the counterdie of open caisson bottom girder is laid with, upper reinforcement binding is carried out, when placement layer by layer, first tie up reinforcing bar formwork supporting plate again;
(5) concrete construction process
A, concrete uses commerical ready-mixed concrete, pours transport and uses concrete delivery truck and concrete pump;
B, concreting merogenesis and symmetrically carried out along borehole wall surrounding, often save open caisson concreting layered carry out it is simultaneously primary Continuous placing is completed, and next section can be poured by often saving after the concrete strength that open caisson has poured reaches 70%;
Upper lower horizontal seam uses spill horizontal joint when c, pouring, construction joint contact surface after rinsing dabbing processing, followed by Continuous next section pours, and contact surface is first laid with one layer of high strength cement mortar, and the pre-buried expansion sealing strip before pouring, then pours Layer concrete;
D, 10h takes covering water seasoning after concreting;
(6) form removable
When open caisson concrete strength reaches the 25% of design strength, open caisson template side form is removed, when cutting shoe concrete strength reaches When to design strength 70%, the template on cutting shoe inclined-plane is removed;
(7) bed course is removed
A, concrete cushion is removed:Concrete cushion is using segmentation, symmetrical, the dismounting mode uniformly abolished, when dismounting, under cutting shoe Be backfilling and compacted in time using sand, and on the inside of cutting shoe building at small earth embankment;
B, support pad wood is extracted:When cutting shoe concrete strength reaches the 100% of design strength, it is strong that open caisson concrete strength reaches design Degree 70% when, extract support pad wood, use sand or rubble to be backfilling and compacted in time when often extracting a support pad wood, and inside and outside cutting shoe Side building is at small earth embankment;
(3) well sinking
(1) sinking preparation
A, preservative treatment carried out to the surfaces externally and internally of open caisson, level of ground water reserved opening below is in designed elevation seals It is stifled;
B, multiple dewatering wells, excavation water intaking pond and mud pit are set in the surrounding of foundation pit, and arranges water supply installation, is laid with feed pipe Road, is laid with sludge discharge pipeline at arrangement sand pumping device;
(2) well sinking
A, just heavy stage, well sinking depth are just to sink the stage within 0~3m, remove sand bedding course first, then pass through high pressure Flow washes away the soil layer inside open caisson, makes to form the spill the bottom of a pan inside open caisson, while the soil layer in the spill the bottom of a pan is formed Mud, and mud is drained by mud pit by sand pumping device, it when fetching earth, extends, opens symmetrically around since middle part Retain the earth embankment of 1m wide during digging on the inside of well outer wall cutting shoe, earth embankment height is 0.5~1m;
B, normally sink the stage, in first heavy latter stage in stage, under conditions of all technical stabilization of well sinking, accelerate open caisson Subsidence velocity makes the deep-controlled within 1m of the spill the bottom of a pan, when fetching earth, is symmetrically extended around since middle part, then dig Soil under cutting shoe, the bottom of a pan is minimum to be not less than cutting shoe 1m;
C, heavy stage eventually slows down well sinking speed when distance of the cutting shoe tread away from designed elevation of open caisson is when within 2m, and Flatness adjustment is carried out to open caisson inside, makes to form the anti-the bottom of a pan of convex inside open caisson, until the cutting shoe tread of open caisson is sink to design At absolute altitude;
(4) bottom sealing
(1) prepare before back cover
A, New-old concrete contact surface is washed away into clean and feather plucking, the shaft bottom finishing concavity open caisson the bottom of a pan, and in the open caisson the bottom of a pan Bottom surface is laid with chunk stone, and broken stone leveling is used in combination;
B, in open caisson surrounding trave and central trave, relief well is set, and rubble is equipped under relief well, inside relief well Equipped with immersible pump;
(2) bottom sealing
After well sinking to designed elevation, plain concrete back cover is carried out, when back cover, relief well take out in well using immersible pump Water, until sole plate construction finishes;
(3) relief well blocks
When bottom concrete intensity reaches the 70% of design strength, stops pumping to relief well, block one by one one by one.
2. caisson sinking construction method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In excavation of foundation pit step, the base The physical dimension in hole is more than the physical dimension of the open caisson.
3. caisson sinking construction method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In excavation of foundation pit step, the soil The height on dam is 0.3m, and width is 1~1.5m.
4. caisson sinking construction method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In open caisson reinforcement construction step, institute It is first bottom girder to state the sequence that reinforcing bar is bound, and rear wall plate, first vertical bars, rear horizontal bar, reinforcing bar is using thread-ligating therapy control verticality, use Level meter controlled level degree controls spacing using the wooden just slide calliper rule, protective layer thickness is controlled using marble cushion block.
5. caisson sinking construction method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:In sinking preparation step, institute It is giant, centrifugal pump and immersible pump to state water supply installation, and the water outlet connection of described water supply pipe one end and centrifugal pump is another End is connect with giant, and the water inlet of the centrifugal pump is connect with immersible pump, and the immersible pump is placed in water intaking pond, the pumping Sand device is sand pump.
6. caisson sinking construction method according to claim 5, it is characterised in that:In well sinking step, to each Trave is carried out at the same time respectively washes away suction operation.
7. caisson sinking construction method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:It is blocked in step in relief well, it is described Relief well is suitable for reading to be higher by bottom concrete top surface 20cm, and is provided with bored plate.
CN201810020081.XA 2018-01-09 2018-01-09 Caisson sinking construction method Pending CN108331000A (en)

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CN111173037A (en) * 2019-12-23 2020-05-19 中国建筑第八工程局有限公司 Construction method of water inlet distribution well
CN111622252A (en) * 2020-04-24 2020-09-04 中交第二航务工程局有限公司 Intelligent control system and control method for whole process of large open caisson construction
CN111877381A (en) * 2020-06-28 2020-11-03 中国二十冶集团有限公司 Construction method for reserved hole of simple open caisson

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CN103343544B (en) * 2013-07-16 2015-07-15 江西建工第一建筑有限责任公司 Construction method for large-scale open caisson
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Cited By (3)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN111173037A (en) * 2019-12-23 2020-05-19 中国建筑第八工程局有限公司 Construction method of water inlet distribution well
CN111622252A (en) * 2020-04-24 2020-09-04 中交第二航务工程局有限公司 Intelligent control system and control method for whole process of large open caisson construction
CN111877381A (en) * 2020-06-28 2020-11-03 中国二十冶集团有限公司 Construction method for reserved hole of simple open caisson

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Application publication date: 20180727