CN108318018A - Micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope - Google Patents

Micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108318018A
CN108318018A CN201810077010.3A CN201810077010A CN108318018A CN 108318018 A CN108318018 A CN 108318018A CN 201810077010 A CN201810077010 A CN 201810077010A CN 108318018 A CN108318018 A CN 108318018A
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China
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axis
oscillator
gyroscope
electrode
characterised
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CN201810077010.3A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN108318018B (en
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黄占喜
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珠海全志科技股份有限公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C19/00Gyroscopes; Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses; Turn-sensitive devices without moving masses; Measuring angular rate using gyroscopic effects
    • G01C19/56Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses, e.g. vibratory angular rate sensors based on Coriolis forces
    • G01C19/567Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses, e.g. vibratory angular rate sensors based on Coriolis forces using the phase shift of a vibration node or antinode
    • G01C19/5691Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses, e.g. vibratory angular rate sensors based on Coriolis forces using the phase shift of a vibration node or antinode of essentially three-dimensional vibrators, e.g. wine glass-type vibrators
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01CMEASURING DISTANCES, LEVELS OR BEARINGS; SURVEYING; NAVIGATION; GYROSCOPIC INSTRUMENTS; PHOTOGRAMMETRY OR VIDEOGRAMMETRY
    • G01C19/00Gyroscopes; Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses; Turn-sensitive devices without moving masses; Measuring angular rate using gyroscopic effects
    • G01C19/56Turn-sensitive devices using vibrating masses, e.g. vibratory angular rate sensors based on Coriolis forces
    • G01C19/5776Signal processing not specific to any of the devices covered by groups G01C19/5607 - G01C19/5719

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscopes, including a ring type vibrator (1), four supporting beams (3) and a universal joint (2), universal joint (2) is set to oscillator (1) center, oscillator (1) and universal joint (2) are connected by four supporting beams (3), oscillator (1) can carry out elastic vibration in x-axis and/or y-axis, and multiple oscillator electrode V are provided on oscillator (1) surfacedc(12), in oscillator electrode Vdc(12) the multiple fixed electrodes (4 11) of top arrangement, part is driving electrodes (4 7) in multiple fixed electrodes (4 11), part is detecting electrode (8 11), detecting electrode (8 11) is used to detect the angular speed of oscillator (1), driving electrodes (4 7) drive vibrator (1) work determines frequency vibration, the amplitude constant of vibration.The present invention uses simple oscialltor three-axis structure, and the compact-sized of gyroscope may be implemented so that gyroscope is small, detection precision is high and reduces the manufacturing cost of gyroscope.

Description

Micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of micro-mechanical gyroscope more particularly to a kind of micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscopes, belong to micro- The field Mechatronic Systems (MEMS).

Background technology

Gyroscope is a kind of important inertial sensor, in numerous areas extensive application.Gyroscope is by the detection number of axle It is divided into single shaft, twin shaft, three kinds of three axis, three-axis gyroscope is required in many application scenarios.In the low precision occasion such as consumer electronics Generally small size, low-power consumption are realized using more oscillator single-chip integrations;And the high-precision application scenario in, it is general only using three The method of single axis gyroscope Automatic manual transmission is found to realize three-axis gyroscope, but the gyroscope volume of this mode is larger, limits Its application scenario.Existing micromechanics three-axis gyroscope generally uses more oscillator single-chip integrations, and such gyroscope is small, essence It spends low, or is assembled using three uniaxial gyros, the volume of such gyroscope is big, of high cost.

Invention content

The purpose of the present invention is to provide the micromechanics simple oscialltor three axis accelerometers of a kind of small size, high-precision and low cost Instrument.

The micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope of the present invention, including one in x-axis and the symmetrical ring type vibrator of y-axis (1), more A supporting beam (3) and a universal joint (2), the universal joint (2) are set to the oscillator (1) center, pass through the multiple branch Support beam (3), which connects the oscillator (1) and the universal joint (2), the oscillator (1), to carry out bullet in the x-axis and the y-axis Property vibration, multiple oscillator electrode V are provided on the oscillator (1) surfacedc(12), in the oscillator electrode Vdc(12) top It arranges multiple fixed electrodes (4-11), the oscillator electrode Vdc(12) the multiple fixed electrode (4-11) arranged with its top It corresponds, part is driving electrodes (4-7) in the multiple fixed electrode (4-11), is partly detecting electrode (8-11), institute It states driving electrodes (4-7) and the detecting electrode (8-11) alternates distribution, the detecting electrode (8-11) is shaken for detecting Sub (1) in the angular speed of the x-axis, the y-axis and z-axis, driving electrodes (4-7) driving oscillator (1) is in the x-axis Make the frequency vibration of determining of certain frequency with the y-axis, the oscillator (1) makees the amplitude vibrated perseverance in the x-axis and the y-axis Fixed, the oscillator (1) makees the vibration frequency vibrated difference in the x-axis and the y-axis.

Further, the oscillator (1) is circular ring shape or polygonal annular.

Further, the supporting beam (3) is four.

Further, the detecting electrode (8-11) is grid-type electrode.

Further, the multiple fixed electrode (4-11) includes four driving electrodes Vx+(4)、Vx-(5)、Vy+(6)、Vy- (7)。

Further, the multiple fixed electrode (4-11) includes four detecting electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、 Vzy-(11)。

Further, the driving electrodes Vx+(4)、Vx-(5) and oscillator constitutes an x-axis angular oscillation resonator, is used for institute The x-axis driving for stating oscillator (1), drives the oscillator (1) in the vibration of the x-axis.

Further, the driving electrodes Vy+(6)、Vy-(7) and oscillator constitutes a y-axis angular oscillation resonator, is used for institute The y-axis driving for stating oscillator (1), drives the oscillator (1) in the vibration of the y-axis.

Further, the amplitude that the oscillator (1) is made to vibrate in the x-axis and the y-axis is identical or different.

Further, further include drive module, the drive module connection driving electrodes Vx+(4)、Vx-(5)、Vy+(6)、Vy- (7) and the oscillator (1).

Further, it when the drive module drives oscillator (1) vibration, generates by the oscillator (3) in z-axis angle speed Output quantity Zout caused by degree variation and driving resonant frequency, the detecting electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、Vzy- (11) and the oscillator electrode Vdc(12) capacitance between generates corresponding capacitance change Δ Czx+, Δ Czx-, Δ Czy+, Δ Czy-。

Further, the drive module has driving loop, and it includes x-axis angular oscillation resonator to drive loop to be (xResonator), the closed loop of trans-impedance amplifier (TIA), bandpass filter (BPF), automatic growth control module (AGC).

Further, the automatic growth control module (AGC) is by rectifier (Rectifier), low-pass filter (LPF), pi controller (LPF) forms.

Further, the oscillator (1) determines frequency vibration and passes through the automatic growth control module in the described of the x-axis (AGC) amplitude is locked.

Further, y-axis driving output output before the bandpass filter (BPF) of the driving loop Zout is measured, for detecting the z-axis angular speed.

Further, further include detection module, the capacitance change Δ Czx+, Δ Czx-, Δ Czy+, Δ Czy-, institute Output quantity Zout and the frequency are stated, the angular speed is obtained after detection module is handled.

The present invention uses simple oscialltor structure, oscillator to be driven on two vertical axis (xy axis) and do angular oscillation, can be to three The angular speed of axis is sensitive, and the locking of two drive shafts (xy axis) vibration amplitude, fixed frequency driving and frequency are different, in the detection that z-axis generates Amount can obtain xy axis angular rates by two frequency signal in-phase solution tune, and z-axis angular speed can generate response in two drive shafts, Carrying out demodulation filtering to drive shaft resonator output signal can be final to realize that three axis angular rate of simple oscialltor measures with z-axis angular speed.

Below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and specific implementation mode the present invention is described in further detail.

Description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope dynamical structure schematic diagram.

Fig. 2 is simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope structural schematic diagram.

Fig. 3 is simple oscialltor quadrature drive three axis accelerometer system structure diagram.

Fig. 4 is drive module system block diagram.

Fig. 5 is detection module system block diagram.

In figure:1, mechanical vibrator;2, universal joint;3, supporting beam;4, x drive shafts positive electrode Vx+;5, x drive shafts negative electrode Vx-;6, y drive shafts positive electrode Vy+;7, y drive shafts negative electrode Vy-;8, z-axis grid-type detecting electrode Vzx+;9, z-axis grid-type detection electricity Pole Vzy+;10, z-axis grid-type detecting electrode Vzx-;11, z-axis grid-type detecting electrode Vzy-;12, oscillator electrode Vdc

Specific implementation mode

The micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope of the present invention is detected using Coriolis effect to vibrating the effect of rigid body Three axis angular rates.As shown in Figure 1, a symmetrical rotary rigid body of circle is respectively I around the rotary inertia of xyz axisx,Iy,Iz, in carrier Angular speed in coordinate system is ωxyz, the angular speed of relative inertness coordinate system is Ωxyz, and Coriolis is imitated The torque that should be generated is Mx,My,Mz.When the angle of xy axis is changed with different frequency, and z-axis corner is very little, i.e. θx0xsinω1T, θy0ysinω2T, θz≈0(θ0x、θ0yFor angular oscillation amplitude, ω1、ω2Vibration is angular frequency), in low-angle line Property approximation in the case of can obtain Coriolis effect generation torque be:

The amplitude of xy axis can be locked by autocontrol method (AGC), the signal of resonator output includes two kinds of frequencies Ingredient, loop bandpass filter (BPF) only allow the frequency signal of the drive shaft to pass through, can inhibit other frequency interferences.And Resonator separately draws signal all the way and passes through bandpass filtering and in-phase solution tune, so that it may in the hope of z-axis angular velocity vector Ωz.In addition, z-axis is turned round Square MzIt will produce an angular response θz, this angle is by torque MzIt is determined with the property of oscillator structure itself, i.e.,

Wherein:IzIt is oscillator to the rotary inertia of z-axis;DzFor the damped coefficient of oscillator z-axis;KzFor the axis elasticity system of oscillator z Number.

As vibration frequency ω1、ω2It, can be in the hope of angle, θ when much larger than angle measurement velocity bandwidthzIt can be approximated to be stable state Solution:

Wherein:K is the gain of response;For the phase shift of response.

Angle, θz(or other physical quantitys caused by it, such as check capacitance), pass throughWith Demodulation can be obtained by the angular velocity vector Ω of xy axisxy

Micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope as shown in Figure 2, oscillator (1) are fixed on universal joint with four supporting beams (3) (2) on, oscillator (1) can do elastic vibration in x-axis or y-axis, and universal joint (2) is anchor point, and oscillator (1) is the axisymmetric annulus of xy Shape or polygonal annular, arrange above oscillator (1) multiple fixed electrodes, wherein electrode Vx+(4)、Vx-(5)、Vy+(6)、Vy-(7) it is Driving electrodes, grid-type electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、Vzy-(11) it is detecting electrode, oscillator electrode Vdc(12) it is fixed on On the disk of surface insulation, DC potential having the same.Electrode Vx+(4)、Vx-(5) it constitutes an x-axis angle with oscillator (1) and shakes Dynamic resonance device, electrode Vy+(6)、Vy-(7) and oscillator (1) constitutes a y-axis angular oscillation resonator, grid-type electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx- (9)、Vzy+(10)、Vzy-(11) and oscillator electrode Vdc(12) four detection capacitances are constituted, oscillator (1) z-axis angular displacement can be detected.

As shown in figure 3, drive module is connected to electrode Vx+(4)、Vx-(5)、Vy+(6)、Vy-(7) it on, is driven by determining frequency (ω12) and automatically control to lock amplitude, while y-axis drive ring pass goes out Zout for measuring z-axis angular speed, detects mould Block is connected to Zout, grid-type electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、Vzy-(11) on, pass through C-V transformation and double frequency in-phase solution Tune acquires three axis angular rates,.

As shown in figure 4, there are two independent loops to form for drive module.The reference signal of x-axis driving is sin ω1T, warp It is transported to automatic growth control module after crossing resonator (xResonator), trans-impedance amplifier (TIA), bandpass filter (BPF) (AGC), the signal that AGC modules generate is multiplied to obtain final drive signal with x-axis input signal.AGC is by rectifier (Rectifier), low-pass filter (LPF) and pi controller (PI Controller) composition, driving loop can lock Resonator amplitude.Y-axis driving is similar to x-axis driving, and the frequency of reference signal is ω2, in y-axis drive module, one is drawn from TIA A branch Zout is for measuring z-axis angular speed.

As shown in figure 5, detection module is connected to Zout, grid-type electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、Vzy-(11) on. Zout is ω with frequency after bandpass filtering (BPF)1Signal in-phase solution tune, low-pass filter (LPF) z-axis angle can be obtained Speed Ωz.Coriolis effect can be in z-axis torque MzIt will produce an angular response θz, this angle is by torque MzWith oscillator knot The property of structure itself determines, to detect capacitance be respectively C to corresponding four of four fixed electrodes on z-axis directionzx+、Czx-、Czy+、 Czy-, it is worth (Czx++Czx-)-(Czx++Czx-) directly proportional to z-axis corner.By variable V and four capacitance Czx+、Czx-、Czy+、Czy-Input To detection module, by C-V transformation, (reference frequency is respectively ω for demodulation12), filtering, compensation etc. can be waited for after processing Angular velocity Ωxy

For the micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope of the present invention using electrostatic drive, capacitance detecting, Fig. 2-5 is the gyroscope Drive testing principle schematic diagram.Drive module connection electrode Vx+(4)、Vx-(5)、Vy+(6)、Vy-(7) and oscillator (1), drive vibrator (1) frequency vibration is determined xy axis is affected, two drive shaft amplitude constants, frequency is different, while generating and being exported caused by z-axis angular speed Measure Zout, driving resonant frequency (ω12), when there is turning rate input, grid-type electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、 Vzy-(11) and corresponding oscillator electrode Vdc(12) capacitance between generate corresponding capacitance change Δ Czx+, Δ Czx-, Output quantity Zout, the frequency of Δ Czy+, Δ Czy-, capacitance change and driving loop generation, after detection module is handled To three axis angular rate output quantities.In xy axis, using fixed frequency, (frequency is respectively ω to oscillator (1)12) tentering driving, it is driven with reference to frequency is determined Dynamic signal is respectively sin ω1T and sin ω2t.The x-axis of oscillator (1) is driven through automatic growth control (Auto Gain Control, AGC) lock amplitude, AGC modules are by rectifier (Rectifier), low-pass filter (LPF), proportional integration control Device (PI Controller) composition processed.Oscillator (1) is equivalent to a resonator (xResonator), driving torque τ in x-axisxThrough It crosses and extraneous z-axis angular speed (size Ωz) caused by Coriolis effect torque can make xResonator generate an angle. X-axis resonator is by trans-impedance amplifier (Trans Impedance Amp, TIA), bandpass filter (LPF), AGC modules composition Closed loop can lock amplitude, and can lock amplitude with the closed loop of AGC modules composition, and amplitude size can pass through variable VxrefIt adjusts Section.Wherein LPF tolerance frequency ω1Pass through, angular displacement signal caused by Coriolis effect torque can be filtered out.Oscillator (1) Y-axis driving closed loop it is similar to x-axis, but export signal Zout before loop LPF and be used to detect z-axis angular speed.When two When a loop stability, two resonant frequencies of xy axis are respectively ω1And ω2, amplitude constant, at this point, x-axis angle be θx0xcos (ω1t+△φx), y-axis angular speed is θy0ycos(ω2t+△φy), z-axis angular speed Coriolis effect is generated in x-axis Torque is Ixω2θ0ycos(ω2t+△φy), it is I in the torque that y-axis generatesyω1θ0xcos(ω1t+△φx), wherein θox, θoyThe respectively angular oscillation amplitude of xy axis, △ φx,△φyRespectively xy axis angular displacements are differed with driving reference signal, Ix,Iy The respectively rotary inertia of xy axis.

It is above the preferred embodiment of the present invention, those skilled in the art are in the premise for not departing from the principle of the invention Under, improvement of the present invention or variation, it should be understood that still fall within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (16)

1. a kind of micromechanics simple oscialltor three-axis gyroscope, including one in x-axis and the symmetrical ring type vibrator of y-axis (1), multiple supports Beam (3) and a universal joint (2), the universal joint (2) are set to the oscillator (1) center, pass through the multiple supporting beam (3) The oscillator (1) and the universal joint (2) are connected, the oscillator (1) can carry out elastic vibration in the x-axis and the y-axis, Multiple oscillator electrode V are provided on the oscillator (1) surfacedc(12), in the oscillator electrode Vdc(12) top arrangement is multiple Fixed electrode (4-11), the oscillator electrode Vdc(12) the multiple fixed electrode (4-11) one arranged with its top is a pair of It answers, part is driving electrodes (4-7) in the multiple fixed electrode (4-11), is partly detecting electrode (8-11), the driving Electrode (4-7) and the detecting electrode (8-11) alternate distribution, and the detecting electrode (8-11) exists for detecting oscillator (1) The angular speed of the x-axis, the y-axis and z-axis, the driving electrodes (4-7) drive the oscillator (1) in the x-axis and the y Axis makees the frequency vibration of determining of certain frequency, and the oscillator (1) makees the amplitude constant vibrated in the x-axis and the y-axis, described to shake Sub (1) makees the vibration frequency vibrated difference in the x-axis and the y-axis.
2. gyroscope as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The oscillator (1) is circular ring shape or polygonal annular.
3. gyroscope as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The supporting beam (3) is four.
4. gyroscope as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The detecting electrode (8-11) is grid-type electrode.
5. gyroscope as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The multiple fixed electrode (4-11) includes four driving electricity Pole Vx+(4)、Vx-(5)、Vy+(6)、Vy-(7)。
6. gyroscope as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The multiple fixed electrode (4-11) includes four detection electricity Pole Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、Vzy-(11)。
7. gyroscope as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that:The driving electrodes Vx+(4)、Vx-(5) and oscillator constitutes one A x-axis angular oscillation resonator, the x-axis for the oscillator (1) drive, and drive the oscillator (1) in the vibration of the x-axis.
8. gyroscope as claimed in claim 5, it is characterised in that:The driving electrodes Vy+(6)、Vy-(7) and oscillator constitutes one A y-axis angular oscillation resonator, the y-axis for the oscillator (1) drive, and drive the oscillator (1) in the vibration of the y-axis.
9. gyroscope as described in claim 1, it is characterised in that:The oscillator (1) is shaken in the x-axis and the y-axis Dynamic amplitude is identical or different.
10. gyroscope as claimed in claim 7 or 8, it is characterised in that:Further include drive module, described in drive module connection Driving electrodes Vx+(4)、Vx-(5)、Vy+(6)、Vy-(7) and the oscillator (1).
11. gyroscope as claimed in claim 10, it is characterised in that:When the drive module drives oscillator (1) vibration, Generate output quantity Zout caused by being changed in z-axis angular speed by the oscillator (3) and driving resonant frequency, the detecting electrode Vzx+(8)、Vzx-(9)、Vzy+(10)、Vzy-(11) and the oscillator electrode Vdc(12) capacitance between generates corresponding capacitance variations Measure Δ Czx+, Δ Czx-, Δ Czy+, Δ Czy-.
12. gyroscope as claimed in claim 10, it is characterised in that:The drive module has driving loop, drives loop It includes x-axis angular oscillation resonator (xResonator), trans-impedance amplifier (TIA), bandpass filter (BPF), automatic gain control to be The closed loop of molding block (AGC).
13. gyroscope as claimed in claim 12, it is characterised in that:The automatic growth control module (AGC) is by rectifier (Rectifier), low-pass filter (LPF), pi controller (LPF) composition.
14. gyroscope as claimed in claim 13, it is characterised in that:The oscillator (1) determines frequency vibration in the described of the x-axis The amplitude is locked by the automatic growth control module (AGC).
15. gyroscope as claimed in claim 14, it is characterised in that:The band of the y-axis driving in the driving loop The output output quantity Zout before bandpass filter (BPF), for detecting the z-axis angular speed.
16. gyroscope as claimed in claim 15, it is characterised in that:Further include detection module, the capacitance change Δ Czx +, Δ Czx-, Δ Czy+, Δ Czy-, the output quantity Zout and the frequency, the angle is obtained after detection module is handled Speed.
CN201810077010.3A 2018-01-26 Micro-mechanical single-vibrator three-axis gyroscope CN108318018B (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201810077010.3A CN108318018B (en) 2018-01-26 Micro-mechanical single-vibrator three-axis gyroscope

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CN108318018A true CN108318018A (en) 2018-07-24
CN108318018B CN108318018B (en) 2020-05-19

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