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自行配置的计算机系统的方法

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CN1083124C
CN1083124C CN 95107546 CN95107546A CN1083124C CN 1083124 C CN1083124 C CN 1083124C CN 95107546 CN95107546 CN 95107546 CN 95107546 A CN95107546 A CN 95107546A CN 1083124 C CN1083124 C CN 1083124C
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method
self
configuring
computer
system
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CN 95107546
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CN1128373A (zh )
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J·L·哈默
J·V·福特
L·B·考德威尔
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国际商业机器公司
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G06COMPUTING; CALCULATING; COUNTING
    • G06FELECTRICAL DIGITAL DATA PROCESSING
    • G06F9/00Arrangements for programme control, e.g. control unit
    • G06F9/06Arrangements for programme control, e.g. control unit using stored programme, i.e. using internal store of processing equipment to receive and retain programme
    • G06F9/44Arrangements for executing specific programmes
    • G06F9/4401Bootstrapping
    • G06F9/4411Configuring for operating with peripheral devices; Loading of device drivers

Abstract

一种自行配置计算机的方法,及无需用户或制造厂家参与就能将适当的软件配置和装入,以支持客户配置。本发明包括一个“询问”程序块,存储在系统上,在计算机第一次启时装入,该询问程序块扫描整个系统,询问需要特定软件运行的组成部分。询问程序块从这些组成部分获得识别数据,并由此启动程序块使其选择适当的软件。启动程序块还在系统第一次启动时执行配置软件,并选择适当版本的操作系统。

Description

自行配置计算机系统的方法

本发明涉及大规模销售的计算机系统,特别涉及一种启动时配置系统文件使其符合定做的成套软件和硬件特点的计算机。

出售给消费者的小型台式和手提式计算机通常包括基本系统硬件(中央处理机或CPU、标准分配的随机存取存储器或RAM、显示监视器、硬磁盘驱动器和软盘机)和软件(通常是可能装有用户图形接口的操作系统)。但视乎顾客的爱好而定,制造厂家可以将这种基本的组件扩充成包括其它一些硬件和软件元件的用户定做的系统。举例说,顾客可能要求加配打印机、特殊的音响显示板和只读光盘驱动机,以满足多媒体应用、附加存储器、加大或附加磁盘驱动机等的要求。制造厂家通过连同交付给顾客的系统供应这些部件,就使顾客无需分开购买和安装这些部件。

不幸的是,这样做确是方便了顾客,但却给制造厂家带来麻烦。每一个增设的部件,即使象磁盘机那样的常规硬件通常也需对基本的系统软件重新配置。象滑鼠指点器和专用的图象硬件之类的器件可能需要对个别软件模块进行安装。实际上,甚至连标准软件也可能按不同效能等级的多重版本供应,而可供用户使用的可能只有一种。定做的系统准备以“即可使用”的形式装运时,这些安装和再配置过程总要在工场中进行,需要对系统通电和进行人工操作。这个工序既费时,劳动强度又大。

硬件制造厂家还经常将第三方生产的软件与他们的系统“结合”在一起。这类软件通过例如配备一系列机载软件“驱动器”或其它接口可以使其在各种不同的硬件平台上发挥作用;选择和安装适当的驱动器完全由用户或硬件买方决定。同样,硬件制造厂家自己可能生产可以配置得使其可以在一系列出售的任何计算机上工作的通用软件版本。这里同样,若要使顾客收到的系统可以即刻使用,这个通用软件也必须经过人工装入工序,使其适用于所买到的系统。

综上所述,本发明的好处是使定做的计算机系统的制造厂家无需在装运之前人工配置系统。

本发明的另一个好处是方便了系统根据随系统供应的软件和硬件自动进行的配置过程。

本发明还有一个好处,即,使通用软件自动适应特定的硬件平台。

本发明的另一个好处是,方便顾客在计算机系统初次通电时即可使用它。

本发明的其它好处,一部分是显而易见的,一部分则稍后即将说明。因此本发明包括说明下列内容:各零部件的制造加工过程,本说明书所述各结构中例举的各种性能,若干工序和各工序之间的相互关系,和体现上述结构特点的设备,各元件的组合和适宜履行上述工序的各部件的配置,所有这些都以举例的方式在下面的摘要和详细说明中谈到,本发明的范围则在权利要求书中列出。

为达到上述目的,本发明制定了一种“询问”程序块,存储在系统磁盘上,在CPU第一次起动时装入,使其扫描整个系统,看看有否需要特殊软件使其工作的部件。询问程序块从这些部件获得识别数据,识别数据从一系列磁盘文件选取适当的软件。

所选取的软件经识别之后,往初始化文件上加上适当的“安装”或等效指令,从而使系统在每次上电后,指定的软件文件就处在大容量存储器中,然后转移到系统存储器中。

在本发明的第二种情况中,询问程序块扫描整个系统,看看有无标有特征识别图形的文件,并在CPU第一次起动时执行这些文件。这个特点支持自构软件,还使第一方系统部件制造厂家可以采用自己的初始配置软件。

在本发明的第三种情况中,系统至少在主系统磁盘上进行各种一次设定或配置操作,使主系统磁盘与操作系统兼容,并给买来的系统选取操作系统的适当版本。

根据本发明一种使包括一个处理机,至少一个大容量存储磁盘和一个图象显示器的数据处理系统在系统起动时自动配置的方法,该方法包括下列步骤:a.用电子学的方式将许多离散文件集存储在一个磁盘上,第一文件集含有能指导操作系统在不同的硬件平台上操作的处理指令,第二文件集含有能指导多个图象显示器工作的处理指令,第三文件集含有能指导多个硬件附加设备工作的处理指令;b.询问系统以确定与至少一个磁盘、图象显示器和系统附加设备有关的参数;c.每次处理机根据询问起动时永久指定的离散文件子集以供自动选择,各文件子集含有使磁盘、图象显示器和由探询模块加以识别的系统附加设备之一工作的处理指令。

d.在第一、第二和第三文件集至少之一中删除未经指定的文件。

结合附图参阅下面本发明的详细说明可以更容易理解上面所述的内容。附图中:图1是本发明实施例的计算机系统的方框图,图2A-2C共同示出了本发明一个具代表性的实施例的操作流程图。

参看图1,这是体现本发明的计算机系统或硬件平台的方框图。系统有一个中央处理机20在主易失性系统存储器22及其部件上进行操作并与其相互作用。系统还有至少一个大容量存储装置(最常用的是硬磁盘)26,里面存有信息永久件。(一般说来,计算机系统通常除硬磁盘外还配备有至少一个软盘机,硬磁盘的容量由顾客根据可供选择的一每系列标准选取,这里装置26是总的指整个系统磁盘驱动机)。系统的所有部件通过系统总线30相互通信。

系统还配备有便于与使用者交互作用的各种外围设备,这包括键盘32和位置检测装置(例如滑鼠器)34。这两种装置的输出可用以指定信息或选择图象或扁平面显示器36对应于系统待履行的功能的部位。其它的系统部件还有诸如视频超高速缓存、扩充常驻存储器、音响板、数学协处理器之类的内部中装置和诸如只读光盘驱动机之类的存储装置,还有其它象调制解调器和扫描器之类的外围设备。这些内部和外部装置以下总称为“附加设备”。

系统工作期间,主存储器22包含一个操作系统50,操作系统50是当使用者开机时由“引导程序”从大容量存储装置26(通常是硬磁盘)装入的。操作系统50指导诸如存储器分配、文件管理和存储装置26的操作之类的系统低级基本功能的执行过程。操作系统50还履行系统起动程序块52的指令,这些指令存储在特殊文件(在DOS系统中为CONF1G.SYS和AUTOEXEC.BAT文件)中。起动程序将一系列控制或支援各种系统部件和附加设备所需要的规定文件“安装”或装入系统存储器22,这类文件以下总称为“驱动程序”,用编号54表示。举列说,显示器36可以是EGA、VGA或Super VGA视频装置,任何这类视频装置都需要不同的显示驱动程序。象下面即将讨论的那样,系统第一次启动时,起动程序块52指导CPU20将询问程序块56装入系统存储器22中,询问程序块56的执行确保适当的驱动程序在以后系统通电过程中的装入过程。

按照本发明,存储装置26(最好是硬磁盘)存有一系列文件集601,602,603…60n,各文件集包括一系列驱动程序文件F1、F2等。各文件集对应于随系统本身的性能而异的各系统要求,整套的系统变量由组成文件集的各文件提供。例如,文件集可能对应于可取多重形式或方式、各个需要不同驱动程序的附加设备,也可能对应于操作系统50应用的或合并在操作系统50中且随系统的不同而异的系统参数文件,也可能对应于随系统或其要求的效能的不同而异的基本起动程序块52。组成文件集的各文件共同提供所有可供选择的合理系统或附加设备,举例说,若任由顾客选订EGA、VGA或Super VGA显示装置,则对应于显示驱动程序的文件集60就会包括相当于各个这类显示器类型的驱动程序文件F。

询问程序块56用电子学的方法识别系统参数和各种需要驱动程序的附加设备。接着,询问程序块56指定各文件集60中的一个(或多个)适当的文件,指定得确保每当系统再次起动时一定装入这些文件。指定功能是通过修改起动程序块52以极其直截了当的方式履行的。例如,在DOS环境下,询问程序块56可能会指定CONFIG.SYS系统文件中适当的文件使用“安装”指令。不然若对起动程序块52进行的修改由于某些原因而不实用,则可以重新命名所选取的文件F,使其符合起动程序块52中的通用标识。真正的询问过程是通过调用操作系统或直接访问检查各端口、寄存器和芯片规定值的内容进行的;这类操作的细节是受询问的具体附加设备专用的,本技术领域的行家们是不难进行这类操作的。

询问程序块56必要时还检验系统参数,装入文件F并/或修改现有的程序块。举例说,若顾客的系统中有相当多的常驻存储器,则可能装入各种不同版本的起动程序块较合适;而改变存储装置26的容量和组成时可能需要改变操作系统本身。

最后,询问程序块56扫描存储装置26,寻找具有特征名称或识别图形的文件,这些都是配置询问程序块56时没有配置得使其直接进行安装的软件的非标准初始化文件或配置文件。

现在参看图2A-2C,图中以流程图的形式共同示出了具代表性的询问程序块的工作过程所示实施例是IBM公司的PS/1型计算机系统及其典型的各步骤。流程从方框100开始,这时系统第一次启用,然后转入方框102。在此程序中,得出关于系统性能的资料。具体地说,本发明确定下列事项:系统存储器22的容量;专用视频存储器的容量;有没有“灵巧能量系统”(SES)硬件和软件组成部分(这些都起降低计算机能耗的作用);视频显示器的类型;系统硬磁盘的容量;与系统装在一起的软盘机的类型;有没有多媒体硬件(特别是音响板和只读光盘存在器驱动器)。

本发明采取的第一项措施(如方框104中所示)是重新配置硬(C:)驱动器,以利用改变仍然尚未压缩的逻辑驱动器H:的容量的磁盘压缩技术;H:驱动器含有表示C:驱动器的各种不能加以压缩的系统文件篇幅上经过压缩的文件。C:驱动器通过压缩扩大到其实际容量以上的有效容量,取决于篇幅经压缩的文件的容量,这类文件当然最终还是受到C:驱动器的实际容量(和需要保留某些未压缩的磁盘空间)的限制。因此,本发明测定C:驱动器的实际容量,再根据该容量确定篇幅经压缩的文件的容量。

然而,若C:驱动器的实际容量超过容许的最大篇幅经压缩的文件所需的容量,则需要增加更多的与篇幅经压缩的文件有关的逻辑驱动器。本发明在程序106进行了上述测定,在程序108产生另外的逻辑驱动器。具体地说,容许与PS/1系统连接的最大篇幅经压缩的文件为512兆字节(MB),大于标准342MB驱动器的磁盘可以容纳更多篇幅经压缩的文件空间,因而可产生另外的逻辑驱动器。若C:驱动器的实际容量小于342MB,则不产生另外的驱动器,如方框110所示。

此外,本发明也可以直截了当地进行配置,通过产生磁盘实际间隔分配磁盘空间,而不是重新确定现有驱动器的容量和产生逻辑驱动器。

根据专用图象存储器的容量,在程序102经过询问后,本发明就在程112确定指定是否大容量存储器(方框114)或512K存储器(方框116)图象驱动器。这两个驱动器文件都在系统硬磁盘上,本发明修改SYSTEm.INI文件,以指定合适的一个文件。同样,根据系统存储器的容量,本发明在程序118确定应使用AUTOEXEC.BAT和CONFIG.SYS两个合理版本中的哪一个版本(方框120,122)。选出的版本存储在硬驱动机上,代替本发明第一次起动时存在的版本。

若已安装多媒硬件(方框124),则在步骤126适当改存有SYSTEM.INI、CONFIG.SYS和AUTOEXEC.BAT文件的起动程序块,否则在步骤128擦除与多媒体硬件有关的所有文件。

若具有SES(方框132),则执行安装步骤(方框134),将SES项目加到信息系统程序和视窗程序管理屏幕上。

在步骤136,本发明扫描硬磁盘,看看有没有具特征命名图形的文件(特别是文件名以字符PS1HOOK开头的文件),并执行这些文件。

最后,本发明完成其任务后,删除所有询问程序块文件,通过此举自身退出系统(步骤138),同时再引导系统按其所引入的修改运行(步骤140)。

因此可以看出,上面的作法是系统无需制造厂家或用户插手自行配置的有效办法。这里所使用的术语和措词是为了说明而使用的,对本发明没有限制作用,这里完全没有因使用这类术语和措词而将这里所示和所述的全部或部分特征等效内容排除在外的意思,但认为各种不同的修改都可能属于本发明的范围。

Claims (12)

1.一种使包括一个处理机,至少一个大容量存储磁盘和一个图象显示器的数据处理系统在系统起动时自动配置的方法,该方法包括下列步骤:a.用电子学的方式将许多离散文件集存储在一个磁盘上,第一文件集含有能指导操作系统在不同的硬件平台上操作的处理指令,第二文件集含有能指导多个图象显示器工作的处理指令,第三文件集含有能指导多个硬件附加设备工作的处理指令;b.询问系统以确定与至少一个磁盘、图象显示器和系统附加设备有关的参数;c.每次处理机根据询问起动时永久指定的离散文件子集以供自动选择,各文件子集含有使磁盘、图象显示器和由探询模块加以识别的系统附加设备之一工作的处理指令。d.在第一、第二和第三文件集至少之一中删除未经指定的文件。
2.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,指定步骤在每次处理机起动时促使处理机将永久指定的文件子集装入一个易失性系统存储器中。
3.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,询问步骤包括一个子步骤,扫描至少一个磁盘,查看有没有处理机可执行的并且文件名称与预定的识别图形一致的文件。
4.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,通过将它们与起动文件对照加以识别,来指定文件子集。
5.如权利要求4所述的方法,其特征在于,各文件子集采用安装指令在CONF1G.SYS文件中加以指定。
6.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,各文件子集通过重新命名使它们符合起动文件的通用识别标志加以指定。
7.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,询问步骤必需检查各端口、寄存器和芯片设定的内容。
8.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,第二文件集包括用于一个显示设备的多个驱动器,每个驱动器被指定以一个不同的系统存储器容量工作。
9.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,它还包括根据询问步骤过程中确定的磁盘参数确定至少一个磁盘的容量的步骤。
10.如权利要求9所述的方法,其特征在于,它还包括产生至少一个装有未经压缩的磁盘文件和篇幅经压缩的文件的逻辑驱动器,以便于进行磁盘压缩的步骤。
11.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,它还包括将至少一个磁盘分成若干区的步骤。
12.如权利要求1所述的方法,其特征在于,询问步骤包括确定系统是否装有多媒体硬件的子步骤,此外还包括安装驱动器以支持其存在与否是在询问步骤过程中确定的多媒体硬件的步骤。
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US5668992A (en) 1997-09-16 grant
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WO1996004603A1 (en) 1996-02-15 application
EP0774136A1 (en) 1997-05-21 application
KR100209833B1 (ko) 1999-07-15 grant
JP3523936B2 (ja) 2004-04-26 grant
JPH0855018A (ja) 1996-02-27 application
CN1128373A (zh) 1996-08-07 application
CA2150742A1 (en) 1996-02-02 application

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