CN108283875B - PM in iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process is improved2.5Method for removing efficiency - Google Patents

PM in iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process is improved2.5Method for removing efficiency Download PDF

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CN108283875B
CN108283875B CN201711457959.8A CN201711457959A CN108283875B CN 108283875 B CN108283875 B CN 108283875B CN 201711457959 A CN201711457959 A CN 201711457959A CN 108283875 B CN108283875 B CN 108283875B
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flue gas
temperature
sintering
flue
sintering machine
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CN108283875A (en
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季志云
甘敏
范晓慧
周志安
陈许玲
姜涛
李光辉
王兆才
刘水石
袁礼顺
吕薇
汪国靖
周阳
姚佳文
王壮壮
郑如月
肖永贤
王巧
黄柱成
杨永斌
郭宇峰
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Central South University
Zhongye Changtian International Engineering Co Ltd
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Central South University
Zhongye Changtian International Engineering Co Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/74General processes for purification of waste gases; Apparatus or devices specially adapted therefor
    • B01D53/76Gas phase processes, e.g. by using aerosols
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D53/00Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases, e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols
    • B01D53/34Chemical or biological purification of waste gases
    • B01D53/46Removing components of defined structure
    • B01D53/48Sulfur compounds
    • B01D53/50Sulfur oxides
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B03SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03CMAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS
    • B03C3/00Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapour, e.g. air, by electrostatic effect
    • B03C3/01Pretreatment of the gases prior to electrostatic precipitation
    • B03C3/014Addition of water; Heat exchange, e.g. by condensation
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B01PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL
    • B01DSEPARATION
    • B01D2251/00Reactants
    • B01D2251/10Oxidants
    • B01D2251/104Ozone

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for improving PM in an iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process2.5A method for removing efficiency. The method divides flue gas generated by sintering into sintering front sections (PM)2.5Low emission concentration and mainly composed of Fe, Ca and O), and sintering middle section (PM)2.5High emission concentration mainly composed of K, Na, Pb, Cl), and sintering rear section (PM)2.5The emission concentration is low, the smoke temperature is high), the smoke at the front section of sintering and the smoke at the middle section are respectively led into a low-temperature flue and a middle-temperature flue, the temperature of the low-temperature flue is regulated to be higher than the acid dew point and the temperature of the middle-temperature flue to be within the range of 180-220 ℃ through the smoke at the rear section of sintering, and meanwhile, a smoke modifier is sprayed into the middle-temperature flue; removing PM from flue gas of two flues by a conventional electrostatic dust collector2.5The PM in the flue gas is realized by sintering flue gas segmentation, flue temperature regulation and control and spraying of a modifying agent2.5The regulation and control of the components and the specific resistance, thereby improving the removal of PM by the electric dust collector2.5The efficiency of (c).

Description

PM in iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process is improved2.5Method for removing efficiency
Technical Field
The invention relates to a method for treating sintering flue gas, in particular to a method for improving PM in an iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process2.5A method of removing efficiency; belongs to the technical field of ferrous metallurgy flue gas treatment.
Background
PM2.5Refers to particles having an aerodynamic diameter of less than or equal to 2.5 μm that can enter the human alveoli and are therefore also referred to as accessible lung particles. The particle size is small, the specific surface area is large, and toxic and harmful substances such As heavy metals (Pb, Zn, As, Hg and the like), persistent organic pollutants (PCDD/Fs, PCBs and the like), germs and the like are easily loaded, so that the particle size seriously threatens the health of a human body. In recent years, the severe haze weather frequently appearing in large and medium-sized cities in China is mainly PM discharged by industrial waste gas, automobile exhaust gas and the like2.5Thereby causing the formation of the oxide layer.
The steel industry is PM besides coal-fired power generation, cement manufacturing and other industries2.5Is used as the primary stationary emission source. The iron ore sintering is used as a first high-temperature process in the whole iron and steel smelting process, a large amount of materials and energy are consumed, and the amount of discharged waste gas accounts for more than 40% of the total amount of the iron and steel industry, and is a main air pollution source of the iron and steel industry. The sintering flue gas contains not only COx, NOx, SOx and other gas pollutants, but also PM2.5The discharge amount of the ultrafine particle pollutants accounts for more than 40 percent of the total discharge amount in the steel industry. Therefore, the sintering process PM is effectively controlled2.5The discharge amount of the catalyst is significant for reducing the discharge of the ultrafine particle pollutants in the whole steel industry.
At present, electrostatic dust collectors are mainly adopted for removing dust of the head of a domestic sintering machine, the proportion reaches 84.2 percent, the removal efficiency of total particles in flue gas can reach more than 99 percent, and the ultrafine particles with the particle size of less than 2.5 mu m are easy to load KCl, NaCl and PbCl2Equal weight (alkali) chlorides, the specific resistance is usually as high as 1012-1013Omega cm, so that back corona and secondary dust raising are easy to generate in an electric field, and the removal efficiency is low. At present, the average emission concentration of flue gas and dust in sintering plants in China is about 102mg/m3Wherein 80 percent of dust is ultrafine particle pollutant, and the emission concentration is 50mg/m of the maximum concentration specified in the emission standard of atmospheric pollutants for the steel sintering and pelletizing industry3Has a large gap with the standard of 20mg/m specified in the standard repair order request draft3The difference of emission limits is larger, so that the PM of the sintering process is sintered2.5Emission reduction faces tremendous environmental pressures.
At present, PM is aimed at sintering smoke at home and abroad2.5Research report on emission reduction, PM2.5Research on emission control technologies has focused primarily on the coal burning area, and includes two types: firstly, a process adsorption control technology; ② particle agglomeration technology. Because of the defects that new impurities are introduced into the mixture or the sintering material layer is difficult to implement due to the addition of solid and gas adsorbents, the process adsorption technology cannot adapt to the sintering requirement; because the flow rate of sintering flue gas is large (about 3000-4300m is discharged from 1t of sintering ore)3Exhaust gas), PM2.5The discharge concentration is low, and the agglomeration pretreatment technology is difficult to be applied with high efficiency and low cost. Therefore, the control technologies are difficult to directly transplant into the iron ore sintering field, and practical sintering flue gas PM is lacked at present2.5And (5) treatment technology.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention aims to provide a method for improving PM in the iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process2.5Method for removing efficiency according to different stages of sintering
PM2.5Of the main chemical composition and emission concentration of the PM to be of different characteristics2.5Leading in different flues for separate treatment, adjusting the flue gas temperature of different flues and realizing PM2.5The chemical components and the specific resistance are regulated, so that the high-efficiency electrostatic precipitator is easy to remove efficiently by a conventional electrostatic precipitator.
In order to solve the technical problem, the invention provides a method for improving PM in an iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process2.5A method of removing efficiency comprising the steps of:
1) according to PM2.5、SO2Emission concentration, PM2.5Dividing sintering flue gas generated in a sintering machine into sintering machine front section flue gas, sintering machine middle section flue gas and sintering machine rear section flue gas according to chemical composition and temperature characteristics; PM in flue gas of front section of sintering machine2.5≤0.3×MAXPM,SO2<180mg/m3The temperature of the flue gas is less than or equal to 100 ℃, and PM2.5Comprises main components of Fe, Ca and O; PM in middle section flue gas of sintering machine2.5The discharge concentration is (0.3-1) x MAXPM、SO2≤MAXs,The temperature of the flue gas is less than or equal to 300 ℃, and PM2.5Comprises main components of K, Na, Pb and Cl; PM in flue gas of the rear section of the sintering machine2.5≤0.2×MAXPM、SO2≤0.3×MAXSThe temperature of the flue gas is 250-500 ℃; wherein, MAXPMFor PM in flue gas2.5Maximum emission concentration of, wherein MAXSIs SO in flue gas2Maximum emission concentration of (d);
2) leading the smoke gas at the front section of the sintering machine into a low-temperature dust removal flue, adjusting by introducing high-temperature waste gas at the rear section of the sintering machine to ensure that the smoke gas temperature of the low-temperature dust removal flue is higher than the acid dew point temperature by 110 ℃, and directly discharging after removing particles by an electric dust remover;
3) and (2) introducing flue gas in the middle section of the sintering machine into a medium-temperature dust removal flue, regulating the temperature of the flue gas in the medium-temperature dust removal flue to 180-220 ℃ by introducing high-temperature waste gas in the rear section of the sintering machine, removing particles by an electric dust remover, and introducing into a desulfurization process.
Preferably, PM in the flue gas of the front section of the sintering machine2.5The total mass percentage of Fe, Ca and O contained in the alloy is not less than 70 percent, and the total mass percentage of K, Na, Pb and Cl contained in the alloy is not more than 20 percent.
Preferably, PM in middle section flue gas of the sintering machine2.5The sum of the mass percentages of K, Na, Pb and Cl contained in the fertilizer is not less than 60 percent.
In the preferable scheme, the medium-temperature flue regulates and controls the specific resistance of particles to the working range 10 of the electric dust collector by spraying the conditioning agent4~1010Ω·cm。
In a preferred embodiment, the modifying agent is O generated by an ozone generator3Or a plasma generated by a plasma generator.
In a further preferred scheme, the mass percentage concentration of the conditioning agent is PM in low-temperature dust removal flue gas before dust removal2.5The mass percentage concentration is 0.05-0.10 times.
According to the preferred scheme, the flue gas temperature regulating method regulates and controls the temperature of the flue gas of the low-temperature flue and the flue gas of the medium-temperature flue by regulating and controlling the proportion of the high-temperature flue gas of a single bellows of the sintering and cooling section entering the two flues.
The flue gas in the sintering machine of the invention has the characteristics that: front section flue gas PM of sintering machine2.5、SO2Low in emission concentration, and PM2.5Mainly consists of Fe, Ca and O; middle section flue gas PM of sintering machine2.5、SO2High in emission concentration, and PM2.5Mainly consists of K, Na, Pb and Cl; flue gas PM of sintering machine rear section2.5、SO2The emission concentration is low, but the flue gas temperature is higher than that of the front section and the middle section. According to the characteristics of the flue gas, the flue gas at the front section of the sintering machine and the flue gas at the middle section of the sintering machine are skillfully and separately treated, meanwhile, the flue gas at the rear section of the sintering machine is respectively adopted to adjust the temperature, the main composition of the flue gas is not influenced, the flue gas at the front section of the sintering machine and the flue gas at the middle section of the sintering machine are respectively subjected to low-temperature dust removal and medium-temperature2.5The chemical components and the specific resistance are regulated, so that the high-efficiency electrostatic precipitator is easy to remove efficiently by a conventional electrostatic precipitator.
Compared with the prior art, the technical scheme of the invention has the following beneficial effects:
(1) PM mainly composed of Fe and Ca before sintering2.5And sintering PM mainly composed of K, Na, Pb and Cl in the middle section2.5Different flues are respectively introduced, which is beneficial to regulating and controlling PM in flue gas2.5Component (b) of (a), iron calcium type PM which is easy to remove2.5And the alkali metal chloride PM with higher harmfulness and control difficulty2.5The shunting treatment is also beneficial to the subsequent comprehensive recovery of the valuable components such as Fe, Ca, K, Na, Pb and the like in the dust.
(2) The high-temperature hot waste gas at the rear section of the sintering machine is introduced into the low-temperature flue, so that the temperature of the flue gas is higher than the acid dew point temperature, and PM mainly composed of Fe and Ca in the flue gas at the front section can be realized under the condition of keeping the dust removal equipment to move forward2.5Removing efficiently; regulating the temperature of the medium-temperature flue gas to 180-220 ℃, and oxidizing SO by combining with a flue gas conditioner2To SO3The adsorption on the surface of the particles improves the conductivity of the surface of the particles, and can realize that K, Na, Pb and Cl are used as main components to form PM2.5Specific resistance of from 1011~1013Omega cm is reduced to 10 in the range required by the high-efficiency dust removal of the electric dust remover4-1010Omega cm, realizing P in the sintering middle section flue gas by the electrostatic dust collectorM2.5The removal is efficient.
(3) After the sintering flue gas is segmented, the SO discharged at the front section of the sintering in low concentration is realized2PM with low concentration emissions2.5Together introduced into a low-temperature flue, and the middle section of the sintering is discharged with high concentration2PM with high concentration discharge2.5The flue gas is guided into the medium-temperature flue, which is beneficial to greatly reducing the flue gas treatment capacity entering the desulfurization process and realizing PM2.5、SO2The economic and high-efficiency comprehensive treatment.
Drawings
FIG. 1 shows the PM in different windboxes of the sintering pallet2.5、SO2The variation relationship between the emission concentration and the exhaust gas temperature;
(figure 2) is PM in different windboxes of the sintering trolley2.5The relationship of change in chemical composition.
Detailed Description
In order to facilitate an understanding of the present invention, the present invention will be described more fully and in detail with reference to the preferred embodiments, but the scope of the present invention is not limited to the specific embodiments described below.
Unless otherwise defined, all terms of art used hereinafter have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
Unless otherwise specified, the reagents and materials used in the present invention are commercially available products or products obtained by a known method.
Example 1
PM according to smoke emission in different air boxes of sintering trolley2.5、SO2Emission concentration (see FIG. 1) and PM2.5The chemical composition (see figure 2) change law divides the sintering flue gas into three sections, specifically: 1#Wind box to 12#The bellows is the sintering front section, 13#Wind box to 20#The bellows is divided into a sintered middle section, 21#Wind box 24#The bellows is the sintering back section. Will 1#-12#The flue gas of the wind box is guided into the low-temperature flue, andwill 13#-20#Introducing the smoke of the air box into a medium-temperature air box; adjustment 21#-24#The proportion of the high-temperature hot waste gas of the air box entering the middle-temperature flue enables the temperature of the flue gas to reach 180 ℃, and the rest high-temperature flue gas is guided into the low-temperature flue, so that the temperature of the flue gas is higher than the acid dew point temperature. Before the medium-temperature flue gas enters the electric dust collector, O is sprayed into the flue3The injection amount is controlled to be PM in the concentration of flue gas2.50.05 times the concentration. Removing PM from low-temperature and medium-temperature flue gas by adopting conventional electric dedusting gas2.5And the medium-temperature flue gas subjected to electric dust removal is guided into a desulfurization system for desulfurization. After the method is adopted, PM2.5The removal efficiency is improved by 31.3 percent.
Example 2
PM according to smoke emission in different air boxes of sintering trolley2.5、SO2Emission concentration (see FIG. 1) and PM2.5The chemical composition (see figure 2) change law divides the sintering flue gas into three sections, specifically: 1#Wind box to 12#The bellows is the sintering front section, 13#Wind box to 20#The bellows is divided into a sintered middle section, 21#Wind box 24#The bellows is the sintering back section. Will 1#-12#The flue gas of the wind box is guided into the low-temperature flue, and 13#-20#Introducing the smoke of the air box into a medium-temperature air box; adjustment 21#-24#The proportion of the high-temperature hot waste gas of the air box entering the middle-temperature flue enables the temperature of the flue gas to reach 200 ℃, and the rest high-temperature flue gas is guided into the low-temperature flue, so that the temperature of the flue gas is higher than the acid dew point temperature. Before the medium-temperature flue gas enters the electric dust collector, adding a plasma medium into the flue, wherein the addition amount is controlled to be PM in the flue gas2.50.07 times the concentration. Removing PM from low-temperature and medium-temperature flue gas by adopting conventional electric dedusting gas2.5And the medium-temperature flue gas subjected to electric dust removal is guided into a desulfurization system for desulfurization. After the method is adopted, PM2.5The removal efficiency of (2) is improved by 43.7%.
Example 3
PM according to smoke emission in different air boxes of sintering trolley2.5、SO2Emission concentration (see FIG. 1) and PM2.5The chemical composition (see figure 2) changes according to the lawThe smoke is divided into three sections, specifically: 1#Wind box to 12#The bellows is the sintering front section, 13#Wind box to 20#The bellows is divided into a sintered middle section, 21#Wind box 24#The bellows is the sintering back section. Will 1#-12#The flue gas of the wind box is guided into the low-temperature flue, and 13#-20#Introducing the smoke of the air box into a medium-temperature air box; adjustment 21#-24#The proportion of the high-temperature hot waste gas of the air box entering the middle-temperature flue enables the temperature of the flue gas to reach 220 ℃, and the rest high-temperature flue gas is guided into the low-temperature flue, so that the temperature of the flue gas is higher than the acid dew point temperature. Before the medium-temperature flue gas enters the electric dust collector, O is sprayed into the flue3The injection amount is controlled to be PM in the concentration of flue gas2.50.09 times the concentration. Removing PM from low-temperature and medium-temperature flue gas by adopting conventional electric dedusting gas2.5And the medium-temperature flue gas subjected to electric dust removal is guided into a desulfurization system for desulfurization. After the method is adopted, PM2.5The removal efficiency of (2) is improved by 62.5%.

Claims (6)

1. PM in iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process is improved2.5The method for removing efficiency is characterized in that: the method comprises the following steps:
1) according to PM2.5、SO2Emission concentration, PM2.5Dividing sintering flue gas generated in a sintering machine into sintering machine front section flue gas, sintering machine middle section flue gas and sintering machine rear section flue gas according to chemical composition and temperature characteristics; PM in flue gas of front section of sintering machine2.5≤0.3×MAXPM,SO2<180mg/m3The temperature of the flue gas is less than or equal to 100 ℃, and PM2.5Comprises main components of Fe, Ca and O; PM in middle section flue gas of sintering machine2.5The discharge concentration is (0.3-1) x MAXPM、SO2MAXs is less than or equal to, the flue gas temperature is less than or equal to 300 ℃, and PM2.5Comprises main components of K, Na, Pb and Cl; PM in flue gas of the rear section of the sintering machine2.5≤0.2×MAXPM、SO2≤0.3×MAXSThe temperature of the flue gas is 250-500 ℃; wherein, MAXPMFor PM in flue gas2.5Maximum emission concentration of, wherein MAXSIs SO in flue gas2Maximum emission concentration of (d);
2) leading the smoke gas at the front section of the sintering machine into a low-temperature dust removal flue, adjusting by introducing high-temperature waste gas at the rear section of the sintering machine to ensure that the smoke gas temperature of the low-temperature dust removal flue is higher than the acid dew point temperature by 110 ℃, and directly discharging after removing particles by an electric dust remover;
3) and (2) introducing flue gas in the middle section of the sintering machine into a medium-temperature dust removal flue, regulating the temperature of the flue gas in the medium-temperature dust removal flue to 180-220 ℃ by introducing high-temperature waste gas in the rear section of the sintering machine, removing particles by an electric dust remover, and introducing into a desulfurization process.
2. The method for improving PM of iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process according to claim 12.5The method for removing efficiency is characterized in that: PM in flue gas of front section of sintering machine2.5The total mass percentage of Fe, Ca and O contained in the alloy is not less than 70 percent, and the total mass percentage of K, Na, Pb and Cl contained in the alloy is not more than 20 percent.
3. The method for improving PM of iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process according to claim 12.5The method for removing efficiency is characterized in that: PM in middle section flue gas of sintering machine2.5The sum of the mass percentages of K, Na, Pb and Cl contained in the fertilizer is not less than 60 percent.
4. The method for improving PM of iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process according to any one of claims 1 to 32.5The method for removing efficiency is characterized in that: the medium-temperature flue regulates and controls the specific resistance of particles to the working range 10 of the electric dust collector by spraying a conditioning agent4~1010Ω·cm。
5. The method for improving PM of iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process according to claim 42.5The method for removing efficiency is characterized in that: the modifying agent is O generated by an ozone generator3Or a plasma generated by a plasma generator.
6. The method of claim 5PM in iron ore sintering flue gas electric precipitation process is improved2.5The method for removing efficiency is characterized in that: the mass percentage concentration of the conditioning agent is PM in low-temperature dust removal flue gas before dust removal2.5The mass percentage concentration is 0.05-0.10 times.
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CN104748567A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-07-01 中国科学院过程工程研究所 Sintering flue gas waste heat staged cyclic utilization and pollutant emission reducing process and system
CN106440840A (en) * 2016-11-30 2017-02-22 安徽工业大学 Selective emission reduction system and method for smoke PM10/2.5 in iron mine sintering process

Patent Citations (2)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104748567A (en) * 2015-03-27 2015-07-01 中国科学院过程工程研究所 Sintering flue gas waste heat staged cyclic utilization and pollutant emission reducing process and system
CN106440840A (en) * 2016-11-30 2017-02-22 安徽工业大学 Selective emission reduction system and method for smoke PM10/2.5 in iron mine sintering process

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Title
烧结烟气超细颗粒物排放规律及其物化特性;范晓慧等;《烧结球团》;20160630;第41卷(第3期) *

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