CN108283125A - Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day - Google Patents

Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108283125A
CN108283125A CN201710326111.5A CN201710326111A CN108283125A CN 108283125 A CN108283125 A CN 108283125A CN 201710326111 A CN201710326111 A CN 201710326111A CN 108283125 A CN108283125 A CN 108283125A
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lotus
lotus root
water
temperature
centimetres
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蒋广洁
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蒋广洁
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Abstract

The invention discloses lotus implantation methods open during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, and specification is carried out to lotus production environment, cultivation management technology, means of agricultural production input;Suitable for 34 ° 25 ' 38 ° 23 ' of north latitude and Huang-Huai-Hai same latitude area.Main production process is as follows:Home environment air, irrigation water, soil environment quality meet production requirement, to plantation crops for rotation, kind lotus root selections, place, protect, heat, light filling, build pond, pour drainage facility, soil, base manure, field management, techniques of pest control progress specification.

Description

Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day
Technical field
The present invention relates to lotus implantation methods open during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day.
Background technology
According to resources advantage, development characteristic industry is the important content for developing highly efficient farming to provide greater and better yields and modern agriculture, And the important channel increased farmers' income at this stage.In recent years, Zaozhuang City was reinforced energetically using building wetland park as carrier Wet land protection is puted forth effort to make " north of the Changjiang River region of rivers and lakes ", " township of wetland ", effectively promotes local economy social development and conservation culture is built If.Zao Zhuanxi is on the point of the maximum fresh water lake in North China --- Weishan Lake, and there is Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal to wear border and mistake, domestic river, reservoir, the pool Dam is numerous, and annual rainfall is more than 800 millimeters, is the famous hydrous fluids in the north, plus for many years coal mining, quarrying cream formation it is a large amount of Waterlogged lowland is collapsed, these are all built for " wetland city " and provide advantageous natural advantage.Since 2007, Zaozhuang City has successively built up 29 wetland parks such as Taierzhuang District canal wetland park, wherein national wetland park 2, provincial wetland 6, park, city-level wetland park 4, wetland park at county level 22, foring 5th areas, one city all has the pattern of wetland park; 15521 hectares of the wetland park gross area, accounts for the 3.4% of Zaozhuang City's land area.
Under natural phenology environment, lotus is the ornamental plant of summer-flowering, and the requirement to main ecological cause is temperature 22 degree one 32 degree, humidity 75%~85%, sunshine duration 10~12 hours.It transplants rice seedlings before and after the Yangtze river basin is usually clear and bright, 60-70 It is just spent after it, this is normal season cultivation.China region is wide, and lotus is resourceful, is the distribution center of the world of lotus;From east Hainan Island is arrived to Beijing University, there is its trace from the shore of Dong Hai to Tibet plateau, is widely distributed or the world of lotus plants Training center;Naturally lotus is grown, the various regions open hour differ, and the whole nation visible lotus time is longer in 1 year, but in same all one's life State region, the lotus open hour are relatively short, and group is generally 1.5-2 months the florescence, on both sides of the Changjiang River up to 3-4 months, south China The regional viewing period for almost having half a year.Anniversary of lotus opens, except subtropical zone the coastal south can in addition to perpetual bloom, In other ecotope because the reason of weather, technology etc. could not be realized.At home and abroad in existing literature, also do not find about lotus Anniversary open technique research, integrated report, the research that this technology is especially carried out in north of the Changjiang River wetland landscape area are integrated and are answered With, there is not yet studies have reported that.Lotus rhizome whole body is precious, its root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit have economic value.In addition to lotus root and lotus seeds Edible outer, pollen, lotus leaf, lotus core etc. can also make dish or beverage and health food.General starch-containing 10 in lotus root~ 20%, protein 1~2%, starch and protein content in lotus seeds are up to 40~50% and 19~22% respectively, and all contain There are many vitamin, it is excellent aquatic vegetable and non-staple foodstuff good merchantable brand, can eats raw, prepared food, processing canning, make preserved fruit and lotus root starch Deng.Product compares storage tolerance and transport, at home and abroad has a great sale in the market, is the important goods of foreign exchange earning.Lotus rhizome is still The common drug of Chinese medicine, rhizoma nelumbinis, lotus root, lotus core, petal, stamen, lotus leaf etc. can all be used as medicine.Lotus, because her flower, leaf are gorgeous more Appearance, graceful faint scent go out mud without contaminating, and wash clear water without goblin, in lead to it is outer straight, it is neither spreading about nor branching out, indicate faithful pure.Realize lotus Anniversary open, be both the needs of the needs of production and living and the needs of socio-economic development or spiritual culture construction, But without reaching due effect the problem of same ecotope is because of technology.
It is integrated by the research of the condition, planting technology, facility that are opened to lotus etc., it realizes that the anniversary opens, especially exists Traditional festivals such as annual " Spring Festival on New Year's Day-" open, for promoting red-letter day celebrating atmosphere and tourism, leisure agriculture, wetland economy Development, water feature design arrangement and Lotus Culture show, propagate etc. it is significant.
Invention content
The object of the present invention is to provide lotus implantation methods open during relating to a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day.
To achieve the above object, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is:
Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, characterized in that main production process is as follows:
(1)Protection facility
In annual January to 2 months during the Spring Festival on New Year's Day, at this time exactly winter of China's most area, belong to nature phenology Hypothermic phase;This phase lotus opens, and needs heliogreenhouse or the overwintering stubble plantation of greenhouse;This implantation methods data source is in Shandong I, II, III, IV, V type heliogreenhouse or greenhouse and novel solar greenhouse or greenhouse are suitable for 34 degree 25 points of north latitude- 38 degree 23 points and Huang-Huai-Hai same latitude area;
(2)Home environment
(2.1)Environment
Soil environment quality meets the secondary standard in GB15618-1995;
Farmland irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of GB5084;
Ambient air quality meets the regulation of secondary standard and GB9137 in GB3095-1996;
(3)Plant crops for rotation
Demand of the lotus to environmental factor has happiness temperature, light, hygrophilous, the draughty biological characteristics of happiness, optimal temperature For 22-32 degree, sunshine is 10-12 hours/day, average relative humidity 75%-85%;General planting is planted from point to needs of blooming 55-70 days, bud, which is discharged 15 days, bloomed, and effective accumulated temperature is 1200-1500 degree, and sunshine time is 600-800 hours, individual plants Need 1200 hours;
Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, resident time are October 20 to November 5;At this point, conventional Lotus is planted, above-ground plant parts, which turns yellow, withers, and new lotus root is formed completely, initially enters overwintering rest period;
(4)Kind lotus root is selected
Open lotus implantation methods are divided into lotus root lotus, Zi Lian and Hua Lian three categories during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day;Wherein spend Nelumbo in Flowering marsh plants, lotus root lotus and sub- Nelumbo are in aquatic vegetable;This implantation methods takes into account ornamental and edible economic benefit;
Open lotus implantation methods can be divided into shallow water lotus and deep water lotus by the plantation water level depth during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day;
(4.1)Shallow water lotus
Suitable for 10-30 centimetres of plantation of the depth of water, Early-mid ripening kind Hubei Province lotus No. 1, E Lian 3, E Lian 5, military plant 2 are selected;
(4.2)Deep water lotus
Suitable for 30-60 centimetres of plantation of the depth of water, middle-late ripening variety Hubei Province lotus No. 2, E Lian 4, celestial beautiful lotus No. 1, celestial beautiful lotus No. 2 are selected;
(4.3)Lotus root kind
(4.3.1)Kind lotus root
It selects with this varietal character, lotus root is full, terminal bud is complete, lotus root body is loose, rhizoma nelumbinis is tiny, healthy and strong and bright in color mother Lotus root or fully ripe sub- lotus root;In order to extend group's florescence, suitable 1 row plants a kind, other kinds of not companion planting in same pond; Kind lotus root size is different because of kind, it is necessary to the end pin there are one the sturdy rhizoma nelumbinis of intact terminal bud, two sections and there are section;Terminal bud It is the growing point for stretching lotus root whip, the lotus root that all terminal buds are broken off cannot be cooked kind of a lotus root, otherwise more for the year not bloom;Internode is growing point It sprouts, growth lotus root whip offer nutrition, all terminal bud blackening, the general purple dizzy, hand of internode color of the leather pinch the sense for having softness, and mostly sick lotus root cannot Do kind of a lotus root;
(4.3.2)Young lotus root is selected to do kind or kind lotus root vernalization
Kind lotus root has obvious dormant trait, and dormant trait improves with the maturity of lotus root and enhanced;First, selecting young lotus root to plant, not only The suspend mode that can overcome the problems, such as kind of lotus root, emerges ahead of time, and can greatly reduce production cost;Suitable for dig, it is on-demand, with cultivation; Second is that carrying out kind of a lotus root vernalization before planting, plant first 20 days, kind of lotus root is placed in the warm interior of 20-25 degree, lotus root pad grass up and down is planted, according to day Gas situation is sprinkled water 1-2 times daily, is kept moistening, can be transplanted when lotus root bud grows to 10 centimetres;
(4.3.3)Main lotus root, sub- lotus root are separately planted
Whole lotus root makees kind since main lotus root and sub- lotus root are integrally attached to, and the effect of factor lotus root apical dominance keeps each bud growth of whole lotus root uneven, Cause field growing irregular, and then influences the regularity of lotus root stem;Main and sub lotus root, which separately makees kind, can make to form competition between plant The balance of power improves regularity and yield;
(5)Prepare before planting
(5.1)Site facility
The place of open lotus implantation methods is selected in that topography is flat, leeward place on the sunny side during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, near There is no shelter;
Facility is using I, II, III, IV, V type heliogreenhouse of Shandong or greenhouse and novel solar greenhouse or greenhouse, east West to;
Warm indoor location can detect common air themperature, air humidity, soil moisture, intensity of illumination and gas concentration lwevel Etc. parameters agricultural logical integrated monitoring;
The exhaust fan of greenhouse both sides installation and adjustment temperature;
Cable is heated in basin bottom discharge agricultural electric heating, is laid with according to the specification at every 8-12 centimetres of diatom interval, is wanted when spreading line The principle of the close intermediate gap in both sides is followed, strictly prevents heating wire from touching together, heating wire will stretch, and be careful not to the mistake pulled at Tightly, it and checks whether energization, then temperature controller or thermometer is installed;
Divide position suspension agricultural biological light filling sodium vapor lamp or high-pressure sodium lamp in top of greenhouse, supplements in heliogreenhouse or greenhouse Illumination;Using the agricultural sodium vapor lamps of 400w/220v or 450w/220v high-pressure sodium lamps;The 6 meters of settings in East and West direction interval, one light compensating lamp;Temperature Aluminum polyester minute surface Reflecting curtain is whitewashed or be arranged to the interior wall of room, and light filling is carried out using greenhouse internal reflection light;
Interior architecture rectangle hardens pond, and using heliogreenhouse or greenhouse north-south as length, East and West direction is 1.5 meters wide for internal diameter Degree;It is 20 centimetres thick to harden the pond surrounding ridge, 5 centimetres of base thickness, cement mortar and prefabricated section are built and built, 1.5 cm thick cement plasters;Stay into Each 1 of 13 centimetres of water outlet aperture, water inlet bottom edge are preferably higher than 20 centimetres of horizontal mud face, the preferably less than horizontal mud face in discharge outlet bottom edge 5 centimetres;It is for use after safe freezing period;
(5.2)Soil
Lotus can be grown in loam, husky earth scholar and clay loam, but most appropriate with the humus soil rich in mud;Plant lotus Colored soil, water ph value will be within 6-8, and best pH value is 6.5-7.2;It is 50 centimetres deep to plant shallow water lotus pond internal diameter, backfill 30 centimetres of soil;It is 70 centimetres deep to plant deep water lotus pond internal diameter, 30 centimetres of backfill;
(5.3)Base manure
Base manure accounts for the 70% of total dose;Detailed directions:2000-2500 kgs/acre of decomposed manure of application, 10 kilograms of urea/ 1.5 kgs/acre of zinc sulfate is applied in mu, 50-75 kgs/acre of calcium magnesium phosphate, 10 kgs/acre of potassium sulfate, zinc-deficiency plot;
(5.4)It pours water
It pours water and keeps 5 centimetres or more water layers 2 days, then draining is dried;Kind is turned over before planting lotus root, is flattened for use;
(6)Plantation
(6.1)One pond only plants a kind
To extend group's florescence, increase variety design effect, different ponds can transplant different kind respectively;In each planting bed Between, north-south plantation is embarked on journey, and East and West direction excavates kind of a planting ditch, 5-7 centimetres of ditch depth, more slightly longer than lotus root kind;Prevent the lotus root crown bud when sowing Expose soil layer, in order to avoid it is difficult to cause coach to grow, influences kind of lotus root and early send out;
(6.2)Level planting method
Kind of a lotus root is lain in ditch, section is slightly tilted after planting lotus root, 5-10 centimetres of fixation of earthing;
(6.3)Oblique hydroponics
The low tail height of kind of lotus root is tiltedly planted in 20-25 degree angle and is buried, 5-10 centimetres of earthing, tail end sticks up unearthed outer;
(7)Density
Intermediate in every pond plants 1 row kind lotus root, plants 70 centimetres of drains spacing, is advisable with 600/mu;When plant kind lotus root ditch act in accordance with to Triangle seeding, planting point cross arrangement on each row, the terminal bud of lotus root is opposite, is respectively facing between the strain of opposite row;
(8)Field management
(8.1)The sprout growth phase
Since sprouting kind of lotus root until first vertical leaf occurs, middle-late ripening variety needs 15-30 days;The blade that this phase grows is floating Leaf, water is deeper, and it is more to float leaf pumping;Water is shallow, and it is few to float leaf pumping;In entire growthdevelopmental stage, lotus rhizome is all accompanied by the pumping of floating leaf Growth, full-bloom stage are that floating leaf grows most periods;First floating leaf of pumping after field planting 5-7 days, pumping 3-4 pieces float Ye Houkai Beginning pumping founds leaf;Nutrition before vertical leaf pumping is mainly by kind of a nutrient for lotus root storage, and kind lotus root is looser, and fertile soil, water level is shallower, Soil temperature is higher, can promote early Sheng Liye, lay the first stone for vigorous growth;
(8.1.1)Temperature management
This phase based on sealing, adapts to the environment of opposite constant temperature, and temperature change drastically is unfavorable to growth, daytime indoor temperature It is maintained at 20-22 degree, night is not less than 16 degree;When 23 degree of daily mean temperature or more, canopy film ventilation is opened;Water temperature is less than 16 degree When open cable heating;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, it is aeration-cooling to open canopy film, exhaust fan;Covering and heat insulating quilt before fine day sunset, Insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming;
(8.1.2)Illumination management
This phase does not need artificially feed;
(8.1.3)Water management
5-10 centimetres of shallow water is kept, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, promotion sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome in lotus pool It endures cold;The precocious effect of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping;The special low temperature day such as≤16 Dus of Huo≤33 degree Gas, it is necessary to fill 15-20 centimetres of deep water protection;
(8.1.4)It goes out in time except water plants such as duckweed, water silk flosses
Not only shading is heat-insulated for the water plants such as duckweed, water silk floss, influences the raising of water and soil temperature early period, and inhales fertile oxygen consumption, influences lotus Lotus root grows, and should go out and remove in time;
(8.2)Vigorous period
Until after plant pumping goes out the 1st vertical leaf to appearance leaf, middle-late ripening variety lasts 40-60 days;This phase is lotus rhizome battalion The vigorous period of health length, while also with the reproductive growth process blossomed and beared fruit;This period is typically characterised by the vertical number of sheets The substantial increase of amount, average 7 Tiangeng shape Stem nematodes one section, to form a huge branching system;It is constantly grown in blade While, plant, which starts to budding, to bloom;Bloom number it is different due to kind, colored, sub- lotus is after growing 3-4 pieces and founding leaf, base It is a leaf one flower on this, and lotus root lotus is on the low side, or even without flower;
(8.2.1)Temperature management
This phase needs to gradually rise temperature, gradually accelerates nutrient growth;After growing 2 vertical leaves, stem starts branch, root, stem, leaf The comprehensive vigorous growth of equal organs, vertical leaf is gradually tall and big, on stem after pumping 6-7 vertical leaves, starts bud occur;Daytime Indoor Temperature Degree is maintained at 23-27 degree, and night is not less than 19 degree, can keep the single flower bud long period, 12-15 days;28 degree of daily mean temperature When above, canopy film ventilation is opened;Water temperature opens cable heating when being less than 19 degree;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, canopy film, air draft are opened It fans aeration-cooling;Covering and heat insulating quilt before fine day sunset, insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming, clears away canopy in time Face falls snow;
(8.2.2)Illumination management
Start after there is bud, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 8 when afternoon 17;After lotus opens, to keep lotus list The open hour are spent, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 9 when afternoon 15;
(8.2.3)Water management
Shallow water lotus keeps 5-10 centimetres of water layer, deep water lotus to keep 30-40 centimetres of water layer, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, rush Into sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome from enduring cold in lotus pool;The precocious work of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping With;Such as≤19 degree or≤33 degree of special low hot weathers, 15-20 centimetres of water layer protection is filled;
(8.3)The flower lotus root phase
Leaf is occurred until new lotus root is fully expanded from rear, is needed 50-90 days;Afterwards the appearance of leaf, rhizomatous apex is indicated Start oliquely downward to be stretched by level, internode shortens and expands section by section, accumulates nutrient, forms new lotus root;Each lotus root is from the beginning of Expand full lotus root expand sizing about need 30 days;While underground part stem and branch tie lotus root successively, overground part also it is corresponding successively It yields positive results, each flower needs 30-40 days from blooming, pollinating, by precise and penetrating lotus seeds maturation;
(8.3.1)Temperature management
This phase is in the winter low temperature phase, needs warming heat;Daytime, indoor temperature was maintained at 22-24 degree, and night is not less than 20 degree; Water temperature opens cable heating when being less than 20 degree;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, it is aeration-cooling to open canopy film, exhaust fan;Fine day sunset Preceding covering and heat insulating quilt, insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming, clears away canopy face in time and falls snow, in time cleaning canopy face Fall snow;
(8.2.2)Illumination management
Start after there is bud, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 8 when afternoon 17;After lotus opens, to keep lotus list The open hour are spent, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 9 when afternoon 15;
(8.2.3)Water management
Shallow water lotus keeps 5-10 centimetres of water layer, deep water lotus to keep 30-40 centimetres of water layer, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, rush Into sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome from enduring cold in lotus pool;The precocious work of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping With;Such as≤20 degree or≤33 degree of special low hot weathers, 15-20 centimetres of water layer protection is filled;
(8.2.4)Top dressing
The remaining fertilizer for accounting for total dose 30% is applied;Detailed directions:2000-2500 kgs/acre of decomposed manure, urea 5 Kg/acre, 20-30 kgs/acre of calcium magnesium phosphate, 5 kgs/acre of potassium sulfate spread fertilizer over the fields in planting bed;
(9)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
(9.1)Major Diseases
Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, it is to find that Common Diseases, which have spot blight, Phomopisis vexans, control method, Individual blades are caught an illness, can manual removal's burn-up;Morbidity uses medical treatment after increasing, and 1 is matched with 50% carbendazim and pulverized limestone: 10, it sprays on lotus leaf in the morning and evening, every 15-20 days 1 time, is used in conjunction 2-3 times;
(9.2)Major Pests
Open lotus implantation methods, common pests have the shallow leaf of lotus Rhopalosiphum spp, prodenia litura, lotus to shake during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day Mosquito, it is uniform with 2000-3000 times of 1000-1500 times of liquid of 40% flolimat, 2.5% decis liquid after control method is discovery Spraying, every 7-10 days 1 time, is used in conjunction 2 times.
Specific implementation mode
With reference to specific embodiment, the invention will be further described:
The present invention refers to the clause in the following files, every reference document with bearing date, all later modification list(It does not wrap Include the content of corrigenda)Or revised edition is not suitable for the present invention, every reference document without bearing date, latest edition is suitable for The present invention.
Soil environment quality meets the secondary standard in GB15618-1995
Farmland irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of GB5084
Ambient air quality meets the regulation of secondary standard and GB9137 in GB3095-1996
(1)Protection facility
In annual January to 2 months during the Spring Festival on New Year's Day, at this time exactly winter of China's most area, belong to nature phenology Hypothermic phase;This phase lotus opens, and needs heliogreenhouse or the overwintering stubble plantation of greenhouse;This implantation methods data source is in Shandong I, II, III, IV, V type heliogreenhouse or greenhouse and novel solar greenhouse or greenhouse are suitable for 34 degree 25 points of north latitude- 38 degree 23 points and Huang-Huai-Hai same latitude area.
(2)Home environment
(2.1)Environment
Soil environment quality meets the secondary standard in GB15618-1995;
Farmland irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of GB5084;
Ambient air quality meets the regulation of secondary standard and GB9137 in GB3095-1996;
(3)Plant crops for rotation
Demand of the lotus to environmental factor has happiness temperature, light, hygrophilous, the draughty biological characteristics of happiness, optimal temperature For 22-32 degree, sunshine is 10-12 hours/day, average relative humidity 75%-85%;General planting is planted from point to needs of blooming 55-70 days, bud, which is discharged 15 days, bloomed, and effective accumulated temperature is 1200-1500 degree, and sunshine time is 600-800 hours, individual plants Need 1200 hours;
Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, resident time are October 20 to November 5;At this point, conventional Lotus is planted, above-ground plant parts, which turns yellow, withers, and new lotus root is formed completely, initially enters overwintering rest period;
(4)Kind lotus root is selected
Open lotus implantation methods are divided into lotus root lotus, Zi Lian and Hua Lian three categories during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day;Wherein spend Nelumbo in Flowering marsh plants, lotus root lotus and sub- Nelumbo are in aquatic vegetable;This implantation methods takes into account ornamental and edible economic benefit;
Open lotus implantation methods can be divided into shallow water lotus and deep water lotus by the plantation water level depth during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day;
(4.1)Shallow water lotus
Suitable for 10-30 centimetres of plantation of the depth of water, Early-mid ripening kind Hubei Province lotus No. 1, E Lian 3, E Lian 5, military plant 2 are selected;
(4.2)Deep water lotus
Suitable for 30-60 centimetres of plantation of the depth of water, middle-late ripening variety Hubei Province lotus No. 2, E Lian 4, celestial beautiful lotus No. 1, celestial beautiful lotus No. 2 are selected;
(4.3)Lotus root kind
(4.3.1)Kind lotus root
It selects with this varietal character, lotus root is full, terminal bud is complete, lotus root body is loose, rhizoma nelumbinis is tiny, healthy and strong and bright in color mother Lotus root or fully ripe sub- lotus root;In order to extend group's florescence, suitable 1 row plants a kind, other kinds of not companion planting in same pond; Kind lotus root size is different because of kind, it is necessary to the end pin there are one the sturdy rhizoma nelumbinis of intact terminal bud, two sections and there are section;Terminal bud It is the growing point for stretching lotus root whip, the lotus root that all terminal buds are broken off cannot be cooked kind of a lotus root, otherwise more for the year not bloom;Internode is growing point It sprouts, growth lotus root whip offer nutrition, all terminal bud blackening, the general purple dizzy, hand of internode color of the leather pinch the sense for having softness, and mostly sick lotus root cannot Do kind of a lotus root;
(4.3.2)Young lotus root is selected to do kind or kind lotus root vernalization
Kind lotus root has obvious dormant trait, and dormant trait improves with the maturity of lotus root and enhanced;First, selecting young lotus root to plant, not only The suspend mode that can overcome the problems, such as kind of lotus root, emerges ahead of time, and can greatly reduce production cost;Suitable for dig, it is on-demand, with cultivation; Second is that carrying out kind of a lotus root vernalization before planting, plant first 20 days, kind of lotus root is placed in the warm interior of 20-25 degree, lotus root pad grass up and down is planted, according to day Gas situation is sprinkled water 1-2 times daily, is kept moistening, can be transplanted when lotus root bud grows to 10 centimetres;
(4.3.3)Main lotus root, sub- lotus root are separately planted
Whole lotus root makees kind since main lotus root and sub- lotus root are integrally attached to, and the effect of factor lotus root apical dominance keeps each bud growth of whole lotus root uneven, Cause field growing irregular, and then influences the regularity of lotus root stem;Main and sub lotus root, which separately makees kind, can make to form competition between plant The balance of power improves regularity and yield;
(5)Prepare before planting
(5.1)Site facility
The place of open lotus implantation methods is selected in that topography is flat, leeward place on the sunny side during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, near There is no shelter;
Facility is using I, II, III, IV, V type heliogreenhouse of Shandong or greenhouse and novel solar greenhouse or greenhouse, east West to;
Warm indoor location can detect common air themperature, air humidity, soil moisture, intensity of illumination and gas concentration lwevel Etc. parameters agricultural logical integrated monitoring;
The exhaust fan of greenhouse both sides installation and adjustment temperature;
Cable is heated in basin bottom discharge agricultural electric heating, is laid with according to the specification at every 8-12 centimetres of diatom interval, is wanted when spreading line The principle of the close intermediate gap in both sides is followed, strictly prevents heating wire from touching together, heating wire will stretch, and be careful not to the mistake pulled at Tightly, it and checks whether energization, then temperature controller or thermometer is installed;
Divide position suspension agricultural biological light filling sodium vapor lamp or high-pressure sodium lamp in top of greenhouse, supplements in heliogreenhouse or greenhouse Illumination;Using the agricultural sodium vapor lamps of 400w/220v or 450w/220v high-pressure sodium lamps;The 6 meters of settings in East and West direction interval, one light compensating lamp;Temperature Aluminum polyester minute surface Reflecting curtain is whitewashed or be arranged to the interior wall of room, and light filling is carried out using greenhouse internal reflection light;
Interior architecture rectangle hardens pond, and using heliogreenhouse or greenhouse north-south as length, East and West direction is 1.5 meters wide for internal diameter Degree;It is 20 centimetres thick to harden the pond surrounding ridge, 5 centimetres of base thickness, cement mortar and prefabricated section are built and built, 1.5 cm thick cement plasters;Stay into Each 1 of 13 centimetres of water outlet aperture, water inlet bottom edge are preferably higher than 20 centimetres of horizontal mud face, the preferably less than horizontal mud face in discharge outlet bottom edge 5 centimetres;It is for use after safe freezing period;
(5.2)Soil
Lotus can be grown in loam, husky earth scholar and clay loam, but most appropriate with the humus soil rich in mud;Plant lotus Colored soil, water ph value will be within 6-8, and best pH value is 6.5-7.2;It is 50 centimetres deep to plant shallow water lotus pond internal diameter, backfill 30 centimetres of soil;It is 70 centimetres deep to plant deep water lotus pond internal diameter, 30 centimetres of backfill;
(5.3)Base manure
Base manure accounts for the 70% of total dose;Detailed directions:2000-2500 kgs/acre of decomposed manure of application, 10 kilograms of urea/ 1.5 kgs/acre of zinc sulfate is applied in mu, 50-75 kgs/acre of calcium magnesium phosphate, 10 kgs/acre of potassium sulfate, zinc-deficiency plot;
(5.4)It pours water
It pours water and keeps 5 centimetres or more water layers 2 days, then draining is dried;Kind is turned over before planting lotus root, is flattened for use;
(6)Plantation
(6.1)One pond only plants a kind
To extend group's florescence, increase variety design effect, different ponds can transplant different kind respectively;In each planting bed Between, north-south plantation is embarked on journey, and East and West direction excavates kind of a planting ditch, 5-7 centimetres of ditch depth, more slightly longer than lotus root kind;Prevent the lotus root crown bud when sowing Expose soil layer, in order to avoid it is difficult to cause coach to grow, influences kind of lotus root and early send out;
(6.2)Level planting method
Kind of a lotus root is lain in ditch, section is slightly tilted after planting lotus root, 5-10 centimetres of fixation of earthing;
(6.3)Oblique hydroponics
The low tail height of kind of lotus root is tiltedly planted in 20-25 degree angle and is buried, 5-10 centimetres of earthing, tail end sticks up unearthed outer;
(7)Density
Intermediate in every pond plants 1 row kind lotus root, plants 70 centimetres of drains spacing, is advisable with 600/mu;When plant kind lotus root ditch act in accordance with to Triangle seeding, planting point cross arrangement on each row, the terminal bud of lotus root is opposite, is respectively facing between the strain of opposite row;
(8)Field management
(8.1)The sprout growth phase
Since sprouting kind of lotus root until first vertical leaf occurs, middle-late ripening variety needs 15-30 days;The blade that this phase grows is floating Leaf, water is deeper, and it is more to float leaf pumping;Water is shallow, and it is few to float leaf pumping;In entire growthdevelopmental stage, lotus rhizome is all accompanied by the pumping of floating leaf Growth, full-bloom stage are that floating leaf grows most periods;First floating leaf of pumping after field planting 5-7 days, pumping 3-4 pieces float Ye Houkai Beginning pumping founds leaf;Nutrition before vertical leaf pumping is mainly by kind of a nutrient for lotus root storage, and kind lotus root is looser, and fertile soil, water level is shallower, Soil temperature is higher, can promote early Sheng Liye, lay the first stone for vigorous growth;
(8.1.1)Temperature management
This phase based on sealing, adapts to the environment of opposite constant temperature, and temperature change drastically is unfavorable to growth, daytime indoor temperature It is maintained at 20-22 degree, night is not less than 16 degree;When 23 degree of daily mean temperature or more, canopy film ventilation is opened;Water temperature is less than 16 degree When open cable heating;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, it is aeration-cooling to open canopy film, exhaust fan;Covering and heat insulating quilt before fine day sunset, Insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming;
(8.1.2)Illumination management
This phase does not need artificially feed;
(8.1.3)Water management
5-10 centimetres of shallow water is kept, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, promotion sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome in lotus pool It endures cold;The precocious effect of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping;The special low temperature day such as≤16 Dus of Huo≤33 degree Gas, it is necessary to fill 15-20 centimetres of deep water protection;
(8.1.4)It goes out in time except water plants such as duckweed, water silk flosses
Not only shading is heat-insulated for the water plants such as duckweed, water silk floss, influences the raising of water and soil temperature early period, and inhales fertile oxygen consumption, influences lotus Lotus root grows, and should go out and remove in time;
(8.2)Vigorous period
Until after plant pumping goes out the 1st vertical leaf to appearance leaf, middle-late ripening variety lasts 40-60 days;This phase is lotus rhizome battalion The vigorous period of health length, while also with the reproductive growth process blossomed and beared fruit;This period is typically characterised by the vertical number of sheets The substantial increase of amount, average 7 Tiangeng shape Stem nematodes one section, to form a huge branching system;It is constantly grown in blade While, plant, which starts to budding, to bloom;Bloom number it is different due to kind, colored, sub- lotus is after growing 3-4 pieces and founding leaf, base It is a leaf one flower on this, and lotus root lotus is on the low side, or even without flower;
(8.2.1)Temperature management
This phase needs to gradually rise temperature, gradually accelerates nutrient growth;After growing 2 vertical leaves, stem starts branch, root, stem, leaf The comprehensive vigorous growth of equal organs, vertical leaf is gradually tall and big, on stem after pumping 6-7 vertical leaves, starts bud occur;Daytime Indoor Temperature Degree is maintained at 23-27 degree, and night is not less than 19 degree, can keep the single flower bud long period, 12-15 days;28 degree of daily mean temperature When above, canopy film ventilation is opened;Water temperature opens cable heating when being less than 19 degree;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, canopy film, air draft are opened It fans aeration-cooling;Covering and heat insulating quilt before fine day sunset, insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming, clears away canopy in time Face falls snow;
(8.2.2)Illumination management
Start after there is bud, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 8 when afternoon 17;After lotus opens, to keep lotus list The open hour are spent, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 9 when afternoon 15;
(8.2.3)Water management
Shallow water lotus keeps 5-10 centimetres of water layer, deep water lotus to keep 30-40 centimetres of water layer, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, rush Into sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome from enduring cold in lotus pool;The precocious work of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping With;Such as≤19 degree or≤33 degree of special low hot weathers, 15-20 centimetres of water layer protection is filled;
(8.3)The flower lotus root phase
Leaf is occurred until new lotus root is fully expanded from rear, is needed 50-90 days;Afterwards the appearance of leaf, rhizomatous apex is indicated Start oliquely downward to be stretched by level, internode shortens and expands section by section, accumulates nutrient, forms new lotus root;Each lotus root is from the beginning of Expand full lotus root expand sizing about need 30 days;While underground part stem and branch tie lotus root successively, overground part also it is corresponding successively It yields positive results, each flower needs 30-40 days from blooming, pollinating, by precise and penetrating lotus seeds maturation;
(8.3.1)Temperature management
This phase is in the winter low temperature phase, needs warming heat;Daytime, indoor temperature was maintained at 22-24 degree, and night is not less than 20 degree; Water temperature opens cable heating when being less than 20 degree;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, it is aeration-cooling to open canopy film, exhaust fan;Fine day sunset Preceding covering and heat insulating quilt, insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming, clears away canopy face in time and falls snow, in time cleaning canopy face Fall snow;
(8.2.2)Illumination management
Start after there is bud, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 8 when afternoon 17;After lotus opens, to keep lotus list The open hour are spent, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 9 when afternoon 15;
(8.2.3)Water management
Shallow water lotus keeps 5-10 centimetres of water layer, deep water lotus to keep 30-40 centimetres of water layer, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, rush Into sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome from enduring cold in lotus pool;The precocious work of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping With;Such as≤20 degree or≤33 degree of special low hot weathers, 15-20 centimetres of water layer protection is filled;
(8.2.4)Top dressing
The remaining fertilizer for accounting for total dose 30% is applied;Detailed directions:2000-2500 kgs/acre of decomposed manure, urea 5 Kg/acre, 20-30 kgs/acre of calcium magnesium phosphate, 5 kgs/acre of potassium sulfate spread fertilizer over the fields in planting bed;
(9)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
(9.1)Major Diseases
Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, it is to find that Common Diseases, which have spot blight, Phomopisis vexans, control method, Individual blades are caught an illness, can manual removal's burn-up;Morbidity uses medical treatment after increasing, and 1 is matched with 50% carbendazim and pulverized limestone: 10, it sprays on lotus leaf in the morning and evening, every 15-20 days 1 time, is used in conjunction 2-3 times;
(9.2)Major Pests
Open lotus implantation methods, common pests have the shallow leaf of lotus Rhopalosiphum spp, prodenia litura, lotus to shake during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day Mosquito, it is uniform with 2000-3000 times of 1000-1500 times of liquid of 40% flolimat, 2.5% decis liquid after control method is discovery Spraying, every 7-10 days 1 time, is used in conjunction 2 times.

Claims (1)

1. open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, characterized in that main production process is as follows:
(1)Protection facility
In annual January to 2 months during the Spring Festival on New Year's Day, at this time exactly winter of China's most area, belong to nature phenology Hypothermic phase;This phase lotus opens, and needs heliogreenhouse or the overwintering stubble plantation of greenhouse;This implantation methods data source is in Shandong I, II, III, IV, V type heliogreenhouse or greenhouse and novel solar greenhouse or greenhouse are suitable for 34 degree 25 points of north latitude- 38 degree 23 points and Huang-Huai-Hai same latitude area;
(2)Home environment
(2.1)Environment
Soil environment quality meets the secondary standard in GB15618-1995;
Farmland irrigation water water quality meets the regulation of GB5084;
Ambient air quality meets the regulation of secondary standard and GB9137 in GB3095-1996;
(3)Plant crops for rotation
Demand of the lotus to environmental factor has happiness temperature, light, hygrophilous, the draughty biological characteristics of happiness, optimal temperature For 22-32 degree, sunshine is 10-12 hours/day, average relative humidity 75%-85%;General planting is planted from point to needs of blooming 55-70 days, bud, which is discharged 15 days, bloomed, and effective accumulated temperature is 1200-1500 degree, and sunshine time is 600-800 hours, individual plants Need 1200 hours;
Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, resident time are October 20 to November 5;At this point, conventional Lotus is planted, above-ground plant parts, which turns yellow, withers, and new lotus root is formed completely, initially enters overwintering rest period;
(4)Kind lotus root is selected
Open lotus implantation methods are divided into lotus root lotus, Zi Lian and Hua Lian three categories during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day;Wherein spend Nelumbo in Flowering marsh plants, lotus root lotus and sub- Nelumbo are in aquatic vegetable;This implantation methods takes into account ornamental and edible economic benefit;
Open lotus implantation methods can be divided into shallow water lotus and deep water lotus by the plantation water level depth during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day;
(4.1)Shallow water lotus
Suitable for 10-30 centimetres of plantation of the depth of water, Early-mid ripening kind Hubei Province lotus No. 1, E Lian 3, E Lian 5, military plant 2 are selected;
(4.2)Deep water lotus
Suitable for 30-60 centimetres of plantation of the depth of water, middle-late ripening variety Hubei Province lotus No. 2, E Lian 4, celestial beautiful lotus No. 1, celestial beautiful lotus No. 2 are selected;
(4.3)Lotus root kind
(4.3.1)Kind lotus root
It selects with this varietal character, lotus root is full, terminal bud is complete, lotus root body is loose, rhizoma nelumbinis is tiny, healthy and strong and bright in color mother Lotus root or fully ripe sub- lotus root;In order to extend group's florescence, suitable 1 row plants a kind, other kinds of not companion planting in same pond; Kind lotus root size is different because of kind, it is necessary to the end pin there are one the sturdy rhizoma nelumbinis of intact terminal bud, two sections and there are section;Terminal bud It is the growing point for stretching lotus root whip, the lotus root that all terminal buds are broken off cannot be cooked kind of a lotus root, otherwise more for the year not bloom;Internode is growing point It sprouts, growth lotus root whip offer nutrition, all terminal bud blackening, the general purple dizzy, hand of internode color of the leather pinch the sense for having softness, and mostly sick lotus root cannot Do kind of a lotus root;
(4.3.2)Young lotus root is selected to do kind or kind lotus root vernalization
Kind lotus root has obvious dormant trait, and dormant trait improves with the maturity of lotus root and enhanced;First, selecting young lotus root to plant, not only The suspend mode that can overcome the problems, such as kind of lotus root, emerges ahead of time, and can greatly reduce production cost;Suitable for dig, it is on-demand, with cultivation; Second is that carrying out kind of a lotus root vernalization before planting, plant first 20 days, kind of lotus root is placed in the warm interior of 20-25 degree, lotus root pad grass up and down is planted, according to day Gas situation is sprinkled water 1-2 times daily, is kept moistening, can be transplanted when lotus root bud grows to 10 centimetres;
(4.3.3)Main lotus root, sub- lotus root are separately planted
Whole lotus root makees kind since main lotus root and sub- lotus root are integrally attached to, and the effect of factor lotus root apical dominance keeps each bud growth of whole lotus root uneven, Cause field growing irregular, and then influences the regularity of lotus root stem;Main and sub lotus root, which separately makees kind, can make to form competition between plant The balance of power improves regularity and yield;
(5)Prepare before planting
(5.1)Site facility
The place of open lotus implantation methods is selected in that topography is flat, leeward place on the sunny side during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day, near There is no shelter;
Facility is using I, II, III, IV, V type heliogreenhouse of Shandong or greenhouse and novel solar greenhouse or greenhouse, east West to;
Warm indoor location can detect common air themperature, air humidity, soil moisture, intensity of illumination and gas concentration lwevel Etc. parameters agricultural logical integrated monitoring;
The exhaust fan of greenhouse both sides installation and adjustment temperature;
Cable is heated in basin bottom discharge agricultural electric heating, is laid with according to the specification at every 8-12 centimetres of diatom interval, is wanted when spreading line The principle of the close intermediate gap in both sides is followed, strictly prevents heating wire from touching together, heating wire will stretch, and be careful not to the mistake pulled at Tightly, it and checks whether energization, then temperature controller or thermometer is installed;
Divide position suspension agricultural biological light filling sodium vapor lamp or high-pressure sodium lamp in top of greenhouse, supplements in heliogreenhouse or greenhouse Illumination;Using the agricultural sodium vapor lamps of 400w/220v or 450w/220v high-pressure sodium lamps;The 6 meters of settings in East and West direction interval, one light compensating lamp;Temperature Aluminum polyester minute surface Reflecting curtain is whitewashed or be arranged to the interior wall of room, and light filling is carried out using greenhouse internal reflection light;
Interior architecture rectangle hardens pond, and using heliogreenhouse or greenhouse north-south as length, East and West direction is 1.5 meters wide for internal diameter Degree;It is 20 centimetres thick to harden the pond surrounding ridge, 5 centimetres of base thickness, cement mortar and prefabricated section are built and built, 1.5 cm thick cement plasters;Stay into Each 1 of 13 centimetres of water outlet aperture, water inlet bottom edge are preferably higher than 20 centimetres of horizontal mud face, the preferably less than horizontal mud face in discharge outlet bottom edge 5 centimetres;It is for use after safe freezing period;
(5.2)Soil
Lotus can be grown in loam, husky earth scholar and clay loam, but most appropriate with the humus soil rich in mud;Plant lotus Colored soil, water ph value will be within 6-8, and best pH value is 6.5-7.2;It is 50 centimetres deep to plant shallow water lotus pond internal diameter, backfill 30 centimetres of soil;It is 70 centimetres deep to plant deep water lotus pond internal diameter, 30 centimetres of backfill;
(5.3)Base manure
Base manure accounts for the 70% of total dose;Detailed directions:2000-2500 kgs/acre of decomposed manure of application, 10 kilograms of urea/ 1.5 kgs/acre of zinc sulfate is applied in mu, 50-75 kgs/acre of calcium magnesium phosphate, 10 kgs/acre of potassium sulfate, zinc-deficiency plot;
(5.4)It pours water
It pours water and keeps 5 centimetres or more water layers 2 days, then draining is dried;Kind is turned over before planting lotus root, is flattened for use;
(6)Plantation
(6.1)One pond only plants a kind
To extend group's florescence, increase variety design effect, different ponds can transplant different kind respectively;In each planting bed Between, north-south plantation is embarked on journey, and East and West direction excavates kind of a planting ditch, 5-7 centimetres of ditch depth, more slightly longer than lotus root kind;Prevent the lotus root crown bud when sowing Expose soil layer, in order to avoid it is difficult to cause coach to grow, influences kind of lotus root and early send out;
(6.2)Level planting method
Kind of a lotus root is lain in ditch, section is slightly tilted after planting lotus root, 5-10 centimetres of fixation of earthing;
(6.3)Oblique hydroponics
The low tail height of kind of lotus root is tiltedly planted in 20-25 degree angle and is buried, 5-10 centimetres of earthing, tail end sticks up unearthed outer;
(7)Density
Intermediate in every pond plants 1 row kind lotus root, plants 70 centimetres of drains spacing, is advisable with 600/mu;When plant kind lotus root ditch act in accordance with to Triangle seeding, planting point cross arrangement on each row, the terminal bud of lotus root is opposite, is respectively facing between the strain of opposite row;
(8)Field management
(8.1)The sprout growth phase
Since sprouting kind of lotus root until first vertical leaf occurs, middle-late ripening variety needs 15-30 days;The blade that this phase grows is floating Leaf, water is deeper, and it is more to float leaf pumping;Water is shallow, and it is few to float leaf pumping;In entire growthdevelopmental stage, lotus rhizome is all accompanied by the pumping of floating leaf Growth, full-bloom stage are that floating leaf grows most periods;First floating leaf of pumping after field planting 5-7 days, pumping 3-4 pieces float Ye Houkai Beginning pumping founds leaf;Nutrition before vertical leaf pumping is mainly by kind of a nutrient for lotus root storage, and kind lotus root is looser, and fertile soil, water level is shallower, Soil temperature is higher, can promote early Sheng Liye, lay the first stone for vigorous growth;
(8.1.1)Temperature management
This phase based on sealing, adapts to the environment of opposite constant temperature, and temperature change drastically is unfavorable to growth, daytime indoor temperature It is maintained at 20-22 degree, night is not less than 16 degree;When 23 degree of daily mean temperature or more, canopy film ventilation is opened;Water temperature is less than 16 degree When open cable heating;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, it is aeration-cooling to open canopy film, exhaust fan;Covering and heat insulating quilt before fine day sunset, Insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming;
(8.1.2)Illumination management
This phase does not need artificially feed;
(8.1.3)Water management
5-10 centimetres of shallow water is kept, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, promotion sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome in lotus pool It endures cold;The precocious effect of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping;The special low temperature day such as≤16 Dus of Huo≤33 degree Gas, it is necessary to fill 15-20 centimetres of deep water protection;
(8.1.4)It goes out in time except water plants such as duckweed, water silk flosses
Not only shading is heat-insulated for the water plants such as duckweed, water silk floss, influences the raising of water and soil temperature early period, and inhales fertile oxygen consumption, influences lotus Lotus root grows, and should go out and remove in time;
(8.2)Vigorous period
Until after plant pumping goes out the 1st vertical leaf to appearance leaf, middle-late ripening variety lasts 40-60 days;This phase is lotus rhizome battalion The vigorous period of health length, while also with the reproductive growth process blossomed and beared fruit;This period is typically characterised by the vertical number of sheets The substantial increase of amount, average 7 Tiangeng shape Stem nematodes one section, to form a huge branching system;It is constantly grown in blade While, plant, which starts to budding, to bloom;Bloom number it is different due to kind, colored, sub- lotus is after growing 3-4 pieces and founding leaf, base It is a leaf one flower on this, and lotus root lotus is on the low side, or even without flower;
(8.2.1)Temperature management
This phase needs to gradually rise temperature, gradually accelerates nutrient growth;After growing 2 vertical leaves, stem starts branch, root, stem, leaf The comprehensive vigorous growth of equal organs, vertical leaf is gradually tall and big, on stem after pumping 6-7 vertical leaves, starts bud occur;Daytime Indoor Temperature Degree is maintained at 23-27 degree, and night is not less than 19 degree, can keep the single flower bud long period, 12-15 days;28 degree of daily mean temperature When above, canopy film ventilation is opened;Water temperature opens cable heating when being less than 19 degree;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, canopy film, air draft are opened It fans aeration-cooling;Covering and heat insulating quilt before fine day sunset, insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming, clears away canopy in time Face falls snow;
(8.2.2)Illumination management
Start after there is bud, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 8 when afternoon 17;After lotus opens, to keep lotus list The open hour are spent, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 9 when afternoon 15;
(8.2.3)Water management
Shallow water lotus keeps 5-10 centimetres of water layer, deep water lotus to keep 30-40 centimetres of water layer, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, rush Into sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome from enduring cold in lotus pool;The precocious work of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping With;Such as≤19 degree or≤33 degree of special low hot weathers, 15-20 centimetres of water layer protection is filled;
(8.3)The flower lotus root phase
Leaf is occurred until new lotus root is fully expanded from rear, is needed 50-90 days;Afterwards the appearance of leaf, rhizomatous apex is indicated Start oliquely downward to be stretched by level, internode shortens and expands section by section, accumulates nutrient, forms new lotus root;Each lotus root is from the beginning of Expand full lotus root expand sizing about need 30 days;While underground part stem and branch tie lotus root successively, overground part also it is corresponding successively It yields positive results, each flower needs 30-40 days from blooming, pollinating, by precise and penetrating lotus seeds maturation;
(8.3.1)Temperature management
This phase is in the winter low temperature phase, needs warming heat;Daytime, indoor temperature was maintained at 22-24 degree, and night is not less than 20 degree; Water temperature opens cable heating when being less than 20 degree;When temperature of shed is higher than 33 degree, it is aeration-cooling to open canopy film, exhaust fan;Fine day sunset Preceding covering and heat insulating quilt, insulation quilt is opened before sunrise;Overcast and rainy snowy day pays attention to warming, clears away canopy face in time and falls snow, in time cleaning canopy face Fall snow;
(8.2.2)Illumination management
Start after there is bud, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 8 when afternoon 17;After lotus opens, to keep lotus list The open hour are spent, turn on light light filling in the overcast and rainy snow day morning 9 when afternoon 15;
(8.2.3)Water management
Shallow water lotus keeps 5-10 centimetres of water layer, deep water lotus to keep 30-40 centimetres of water layer, is conducive to water temperature, soil temperature increases, rush Into sprout growth;Unsuitable solid carbon dioxide, prevents lotus rhizome from enduring cold in lotus pool;The precocious work of early hair can be played with water temperature adjustment technology by grasping With;Such as≤20 degree or≤33 degree of special low hot weathers, 15-20 centimetres of water layer protection is filled;
(8.2.4)Top dressing
The remaining fertilizer for accounting for total dose 30% is applied;Detailed directions:2000-2500 kgs/acre of decomposed manure, urea 5 Kg/acre, 20-30 kgs/acre of calcium magnesium phosphate, 5 kgs/acre of potassium sulfate spread fertilizer over the fields in planting bed;
(9)The prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
(9.1)Major Diseases
Lotus is planted to facilities protection, it is to find that individual blades are caught an illness that Common Diseases, which have spot blight, Phomopisis vexans, control method, can Manual removal burns up;Morbidity uses medical treatment after increasing, and 1 is matched with 50% carbendazim and pulverized limestone:10, it is sprayed in the morning and evening On lotus leaf, every 15-20 days 1 time, it is used in conjunction 2-3 times;
(9.2)Major Pests
Lotus is planted to facilities protection, it is to find that common pests, which have the shallow leaf midge of lotus Rhopalosiphum spp, prodenia litura, lotus, control method, Afterwards, with 2000-3000 times of 1000-1500 times of liquid of 40% flolimat, 2.5% decis liquid even spraying, every 7-10 days 1 It is secondary, it is used in conjunction 2 times.
CN201710326111.5A 2017-05-10 2017-05-10 Open lotus implantation methods during a kind of Spring Festival on New Year's Day Pending CN108283125A (en)

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Application publication date: 20180717