CN108277449B - Heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching low-carbon alloy steel workpiece - Google Patents

Heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching low-carbon alloy steel workpiece Download PDF

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CN108277449B
CN108277449B CN201810156289.4A CN201810156289A CN108277449B CN 108277449 B CN108277449 B CN 108277449B CN 201810156289 A CN201810156289 A CN 201810156289A CN 108277449 B CN108277449 B CN 108277449B
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quenching
workpiece
carburizing
temperature
low
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CN108277449A (en
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郭亮乾
杉山辉阳
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HUNAN TECHNO THERMAL TREATMENT Co Ltd
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HUNAN TECHNO THERMAL TREATMENT Co Ltd
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C8/00Solid state diffusion of only non-metal elements into metallic material surfaces; Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive gas, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals
    • C23C8/06Solid state diffusion of only non-metal elements into metallic material surfaces; Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive gas, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals using gases
    • C23C8/08Solid state diffusion of only non-metal elements into metallic material surfaces; Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive gas, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals using gases only one element being applied
    • C23C8/20Carburising
    • C23C8/22Carburising of ferrous surfaces
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C21METALLURGY OF IRON
    • C21DMODIFYING THE PHYSICAL STRUCTURE OF FERROUS METALS; GENERAL DEVICES FOR HEAT TREATMENT OF FERROUS OR NON-FERROUS METALS OR ALLOYS; MAKING METAL MALLEABLE, e.g. BY DECARBURISATION OR TEMPERING
    • C21D1/00General methods or devices for heat treatment, e.g. annealing, hardening, quenching or tempering
    • C21D1/18Hardening; Quenching with or without subsequent tempering
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C8/00Solid state diffusion of only non-metal elements into metallic material surfaces; Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive gas, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals
    • C23C8/04Treatment of selected surface areas, e.g. using masks
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C23COATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; CHEMICAL SURFACE TREATMENT; DIFFUSION TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL; INHIBITING CORROSION OF METALLIC MATERIAL OR INCRUSTATION IN GENERAL
    • C23CCOATING METALLIC MATERIAL; COATING MATERIAL WITH METALLIC MATERIAL; SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC MATERIAL BY DIFFUSION INTO THE SURFACE, BY CHEMICAL CONVERSION OR SUBSTITUTION; COATING BY VACUUM EVAPORATION, BY SPUTTERING, BY ION IMPLANTATION OR BY CHEMICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION, IN GENERAL
    • C23C8/00Solid state diffusion of only non-metal elements into metallic material surfaces; Chemical surface treatment of metallic material by reaction of the surface with a reactive gas, leaving reaction products of surface material in the coating, e.g. conversion coatings, passivation of metals
    • C23C8/80After-treatment

Abstract

The invention discloses a heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching a low-carbon alloy steel workpiece, which comprises the following steps: (1) after the surface of the workpiece is cleaned, the surface of the non-working surface of the workpiece is subjected to anti-seepage treatment; (2) after heating to the temperature, preserving the heat for a period of time, and then performing carburization and diffusion treatment on the workpiece at the temperature; (3) then cooling and quenching for keeping; (4) directly discharging the part out of the furnace and air-cooling; (5) after turning a carbon layer and performing stress relief tempering, quenching the workpiece; (6) oil quenching the workpiece; (7) and finally, carrying out secondary low-temperature tempering. The process is characterized in that the workpiece processed and manufactured by the low-carbon alloy steel is subjected to surface carburization, so that the surface hardness of the workpiece is improved, the carbide of the product is reduced, and the service life of the product is prolonged. And the service performance of the product is improved by improving the carburizing and quenching process of the product. The invention overcomes the problem that the service life and the service performance of the product are influenced by excessive and overlarge carbides caused by the conventional heat treatment process, reduces the residual austenite on the surface of the product as much as possible on the premise of ensuring the performance of the product, and controls the deformation of the product.

Description

Heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching low-carbon alloy steel workpiece
Technical Field
The invention relates to a heat treatment method of a low-carbon alloy steel workpiece, in particular to a heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching the low-carbon alloy steel workpiece.
Background
As is known, the inner gear ring is a key part in mechanical equipment, has the advantages of accurate transmission, compact structure, long service life and the like, and plays a key role in mechanical synchronization. This makes the precision requirement of internal ring gear extremely high, and the influence of the slight deviation of internal ring gear precision is huge to mechanical equipment.
In the case of a large-sized internal gear ring, the surface load is large during operation, so that the surface hardness is required to be high and the depth of a hardened layer is required to be deep. When the workpiece works, the toughness requirement of the core part is high, and the core part of the product also has enough strength. Therefore, low carbon alloy steel is generally used, because the hardenability is lower than that of high and medium carbon steel, but the surface hardness after quenching is not very high, the low carbon alloy steel is subjected to surface carburization and then quenching, so that the surface hardness is improved, and the core hardness can reach an ideal level. Therefore, the use strength of the surface is ensured, and the use toughness of the workpiece is also ensured. This is the current mainstream treatment for such internal gear rings.
The general technological process of the whole large-sized inner gear ring comprises forging, normalizing, rough machining, carburizing (anti-seepage), carburizing, high-temperature tempering, carbon layer turning, stress-relief tempering, quenching, low-temperature tempering, finish machining and the like. For a large internal gear ring, the precision requirement is extremely high, so that the difficulty of controlling the size of a product is great. In the processing technology, the heat treatment process has the greatest difficulty in controlling the service performance and the deformation size of the product.
The main processes of the current heat treatment are as follows: the low-carbon alloy steel is subjected to surface carburization, high-temperature tempering and carbon layer turning, stress-relief tempering and quenching. The product is discharged from the furnace at the carburizing stage at the temperature lower than 500 ℃, the strong carburizing potential is 1.2 +/-0.05%, and the diffusion carburizing potential is 0.8 +/-0.05%. And quenching at 820-.
The process has the following defects: 1. when the low-carbon alloy steel is discharged from a furnace at a temperature lower than 500 ℃ after carburization, a large amount of carbides are easily generated in the product, and the product is easy to break when working under the condition that a large amount of carbides exist in the product. 2. The higher carburized carbon potential also brings the risk of too coarse carbides. 3. The temperature during quenching and heat preservation is too low, so that the core hardness of the product is difficult to improve, the service life of the product is reduced, and the residual austenite on the surface of the product is improved, the surface hardness of the product is reduced, and the deformation of the product is increased.
Disclosure of Invention
The technical problem to be solved by the invention is to overcome the defects and shortcomings in the background technology and provide a heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching a low-carbon alloy steel workpiece.
In order to solve the technical problems, the technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows:
a heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching a low-carbon alloy steel workpiece comprises the following steps:
(1) after the surface of the workpiece is cleaned, the surface of the non-working surface of the workpiece is subjected to anti-seepage treatment; the surface of the non-working surface of the workpiece is subjected to anti-seepage treatment because the non-working surface does not need to have too high strength and needs to keep certain toughness.
(2) After heating to a set temperature, preserving heat for a period of time, and then performing carburization and diffusion treatment on the workpiece at the temperature; and (5) carburizing the surface of the product.
(3) Then cooling to the quenching temperature for heat preservation;
(4) directly discharging the workpiece out of the furnace and air-cooling; the reason for directly discharging the parts from the furnace for air cooling is that the temperature reduction in the furnace is slow, and a large amount of carbide is easily formed.
(5) Turning a carbon layer and performing stress relief tempering on the workpiece;
(6) quenching the workpiece;
(7) oil quenching the workpiece;
(8) and finally, carrying out secondary low-temperature tempering to fully eliminate the residual stress of the product.
And (3) neutralizing in the step (2), and introducing methanol and liquefied gas in the whole process. Methanol acts as a diluent in the carburizing process, and liquefied gas acts as a carburizing agent in the carburizing process.
In the above method, preferably, the carbon potential of the carburizing treatment is 1.0 ± 0.05%; the carbon potential of the diffusion treatment was 0.7 ± 0.05%. The carburization and diffusion carbon potentials are lower than the typical carbon potential of such processes in order to control product carbides.
In the above method, preferably, the carburizing and diffusing temperature is 920 ± 5 ℃. The product has coarse crystal grains due to overhigh temperature, and the mechanical property of the product is reduced; too low a temperature will reduce the carburization rate and increase the production cost.
In the above method, the holding time before the carburizing and diffusing treatment is preferably 40 ± 5 minutes; the time ratio of the carburizing and the diffusion treatment is 3: 2. The carbon concentration on the surface of the product is reduced due to too long diffusion time, the technical requirement cannot be met, the carbon element cannot be diffused due to too short diffusion time, and carbide is formed on the surface of the product, so the time ratio of carburizing and diffusion treatment is optimal to be 3: 2. The heat preservation time can be adjusted according to the size of the product, and the purpose is to ensure that the whole temperature of the product is uniform.
In the method, the quenching temperature is preferably 860 +/-5 ℃, and the quenching is kept for 60 +/-5 minutes. The temperature is determined according to materials, the temperature is too low, the product cannot be completely austenitized, the required hardness is difficult to achieve after quenching, and the mechanical properties of the product are influenced by the coarse crystal grains of the product when the temperature is too high. The holding time is determined according to the size of the product.
In the above method, preferably, in the step (2) and the step (3), the flow rate of methanol introduced is 3.5 ± 0.5L/h.
In the above method, preferably, in the step (6), in the quenching process, firstly, a first soaking process is adopted, the temperature is kept at 600 ± 5 ℃ for 60 ± 5 minutes, and a preheating effect is achieved, so that the workpiece is thoroughly heated at an austenitizing temperature; secondly, soaking at 820 +/-5 ℃ for 150 +/-5 minutes for the second time to austenitize the product; finally, soaking at 840 +/-5 ℃ for three times, and keeping the temperature for 5 +/-1 min, so that the surface quenching temperature of the product is increased, the core part is not heated, and the hardness of the core part of the product is controlled.
In the method, preferably, the soaking is carried out at 600 +/-5 ℃ in one time, and is protected by nitrogen; methanol and liquefied gas are introduced in the whole process in the processes of secondary soaking at 820 +/-5 ℃ and tertiary soaking at 840 +/-5 ℃, and the introduction flow rate of the methanol is 3.5 +/-0.5L/h; in the processes of secondary soaking at 820 +/-5 ℃ and tertiary soaking at 840 +/-5 ℃, the carbon potential is 0.7 +/-0.05 percent, and the product is prevented from decarbonization.
In the above method, preferably, in the step (7), the temperature of the quenching oil is 60 ± 5 ℃, and the holding time in the oil is 30 ± 5 min. The oil temperature is too high, the hardenability of the product is reduced, the core part is difficult to meet the technical requirements, and the oil temperature is too low, the cooling speed is too fast, so that the product has the risk of hardening cracks during quenching.
In the above method, preferably, in the step (8), the parameters of the secondary low-temperature tempering are respectively: the temperature is 190 plus or minus 5 ℃, and the time is 360 plus or minus 5 min; the temperature is 170 +/-5 ℃, and the time is 240 +/-5 min. And low-temperature tempering is carried out, so that the use hardness of the product is ensured, and the stress generated during quenching of the product is eliminated.
The process is characterized in that the workpiece processed and manufactured by the low-carbon alloy steel is subjected to surface carburization, so that the surface hardness of the workpiece is improved, the carbide of the product is reduced, and the service life of the product is prolonged. And the service performance of the product is improved by improving the carburizing and quenching process of the product. The invention overcomes the problem that the service life and the service performance of the product are influenced by excessive and overlarge carbides caused by the conventional heat treatment process, reduces the residual austenite on the surface of the product as much as possible on the premise of ensuring the performance of the product, and controls the deformation of the product.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
1. the invention can effectively reduce the carbide of the product.
2. The invention reduces the deformation of the product as much as possible and ensures the performance requirement of the product by controlling the quenching temperature and the quenching heat preservation temperature.
3. The invention can effectively improve the service performance of the product and the service life of the product.
Drawings
In order to more clearly illustrate the embodiments of the present invention or the technical solutions in the prior art, the drawings used in the description of the embodiments or the prior art will be briefly introduced below, and it is obvious that the drawings in the following description are some embodiments of the present invention, and for those skilled in the art, other drawings can be obtained according to these drawings without creative efforts.
Figure 1 the first stage of the process of the present invention, the carburization process.
FIG. 2 is a second stage of the process of the present invention, the quenching process.
FIG. 3 is a photograph of the metallographic structure of the surface of a product treated by the process of the present invention. (surface texture without obvious carbide, magnification 200 times observation)
FIG. 4 is a photograph of the metallographic structure of the surface of a product treated by the process of the present invention. (surface texture without obvious carbide, 500 times magnification observation)
Detailed Description
In order to facilitate understanding of the invention, the invention will be described more fully and in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and preferred embodiments, but the scope of the invention is not limited to the specific embodiments below.
Unless otherwise defined, all terms of art used hereinafter have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art. The terminology used herein is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to limit the scope of the present invention.
Unless otherwise specifically stated, various raw materials, reagents, instruments, equipment and the like used in the present invention are commercially available or can be prepared by existing methods.
Example 1:
a large-sized internal gear ring produced by a certain company is carburized and quenched, the material is 18CrNiMo, after the large-sized internal gear ring is subjected to preliminary heat treatment and rough machining by the company, the surface of the large-sized internal gear ring is cleaned, and after the large-sized internal gear ring is cleaned, the surface of a non-working surface of the large-sized internal gear ring is subjected to anti-seepage treatment. And (3) carrying out a carburizing process, wherein the equipment is processed by a pit-type carburizing furnace as shown in figure 1, the carburizing temperature is 920 +/-5 ℃, and the temperature is kept for 40 minutes after the carburizing temperature is heated to the temperature, so that the integral temperature of the product is uniform. Then carburizing at 920 +/-5 ℃ for 1200 minutes, adjusting the carbon potential to 1.0 +/-0.05 percent, then performing diffusion treatment at the same temperature for 800 minutes (the time ratio of carburizing to diffusion is 3: 2), adjusting the carbon potential to 0.7 +/-0.05 percent, reducing the temperature to 860 ℃ after the carburizing and diffusion stage is finished, keeping the temperature for 60 minutes, and then directly discharging and air cooling at 860 ℃. In the carburizing and diffusing stage, methanol and liquefied gas are introduced in the whole course.
After the car carbon layer and the stress relief tempering are carried out in a client company, quenching treatment is carried out on the product, as shown in figure 2, the product is soaked at 600 +/-5 ℃ for 60 minutes, the temperature is protected by nitrogen at this stage, then soaked at 820 +/-5 ℃ for 150 minutes, finally soaked at 840 +/-5 ℃ for 5 minutes, methanol and liquefied gas are introduced into the two stages in the whole process, the carbon potential is 0.7 +/-0.05% in the processes of 820 +/-5 ℃ and 840 +/-5 ℃, the temperature of the quenching oil is 60 ℃, the quenching oil is kept for 30 minutes, and the product is stirred at a high speed in the oil. Finally, carrying out secondary low-temperature tempering at 190 ℃ for 360 min; the temperature is 170 ℃ and the time is 240 min.
The metallographic structure of the surface of the product treated by the process of the invention is shown in fig. 3 and 4.
The final detection result shows that the surface hardness is HRC61, the depth of a hardened layer is 2.55mm, the residual austenite martensite is grade 4, the core ferrite is grade 2, the carbide is grade 1, and the hot deformation of the product meets the requirements of customers.

Claims (7)

1. A heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching a low-carbon alloy steel workpiece is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) after the surface of the workpiece is cleaned, the surface of the non-working surface of the workpiece is subjected to anti-seepage treatment;
(2) after heating to a set temperature, preserving heat for a period of time, and then performing carburization and diffusion treatment on the workpiece at the temperature; the carbon potential of the carburization treatment is 1.0 +/-0.05%; the carbon potential of the diffusion treatment is 0.7 +/-0.05%; the heat preservation time before the carburizing and the diffusion treatment is 40 +/-5 minutes; the time ratio of the carburizing and the diffusion treatment is 3: 2;
(3) then cooling to the quenching temperature for heat preservation;
(4) directly discharging the workpiece out of the furnace and air-cooling;
(5) turning a carbon layer and performing stress relief tempering on the workpiece;
(6) quenching the workpiece; in the quenching treatment process, firstly soaking for 600 +/-5 ℃ for the first time, preserving heat for 60 +/-5 minutes, then soaking for 820 +/-5 ℃ for the second time, preserving heat for 150 +/-5 minutes, and finally soaking for 840 +/-5 ℃ for the third time, preserving heat for 5 +/-1 minutes;
(7) oil quenching the workpiece;
(8) finally, carrying out secondary low-temperature tempering;
and (3) neutralizing in the step (2), and introducing methanol and liquefied gas in the whole process.
2. The heat treatment process for carburizing and quenching a low carbon alloy steel workpiece according to claim 1, wherein in the step (2), the carburizing and diffusing temperature is 920 ± 5 ℃.
3. The heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching the low carbon alloy steel workpiece according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in the step (3), the quenching temperature is 860 ± 5 ℃, and the quenching is maintained for 60 ± 5 minutes.
4. The heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching the low-carbon alloy steel workpiece according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the flow rate of methanol introduced in the step (2) and the step (3) is 3.5 ± 0.5L/h.
5. The heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching the low-carbon alloy steel workpiece according to claim 1, characterized in that the workpiece is protected by nitrogen gas during one soaking at 600 ± 5 ℃; methanol and liquefied gas are introduced in the whole process in the processes of secondary soaking at 820 +/-5 ℃ and tertiary soaking at 840 +/-5 ℃, and the introduction flow rate of the methanol is 3.5 +/-0.5L/h; the carbon potential is 0.7 +/-0.05% in the processes of secondary soaking at 820 +/-5 ℃ and tertiary soaking at 840 +/-5 ℃.
6. The heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching the low carbon alloy steel workpiece according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in the step (7), the temperature of the quenching oil is 60 ± 5 ℃, and the holding time in the oil is 30 ± 5 min.
7. The heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching a low-carbon alloy steel workpiece according to claim 1 or 2, wherein in the step (8), the parameters of the secondary low-temperature tempering are respectively as follows: the temperature is 190 plus or minus 5 ℃, and the time is 360 plus or minus 5 min; the temperature is 170 +/-5 ℃, and the time is 240 +/-5 min.
CN201810156289.4A 2018-02-24 2018-02-24 Heat treatment method for carburizing and quenching low-carbon alloy steel workpiece Active CN108277449B (en)

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CN110387521A (en) * 2019-06-20 2019-10-29 苏州佳世捷机械有限公司 A kind of carburizing heat treatment method that metal skin hardness is modified
CN110184561A (en) * 2019-07-05 2019-08-30 晋江鹏发机械有限公司 A kind of carburizing heat treatment process of alloy steel casting
CN110408882B (en) * 2019-08-26 2021-10-01 山东亨格尔智能科技有限公司 Anti-carburizing treatment method
CN110938794B (en) * 2019-12-24 2022-03-18 南京宇能机械有限公司 Output gear carburizing process and device for wind power generation
CN111549314A (en) * 2020-05-21 2020-08-18 湖南特科能热处理有限公司 Carburizing process for low-carbon steel thin-wall part

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CN105238911A (en) * 2015-11-16 2016-01-13 南车戚墅堰机车车辆工艺研究所有限公司 Steel grain refining heat treatment method for heavy-load locomotive gear

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CN104894506A (en) * 2015-06-24 2015-09-09 南车戚墅堰机车车辆工艺研究所有限公司 Automobile transmission gear heat treatment method
CN105238911A (en) * 2015-11-16 2016-01-13 南车戚墅堰机车车辆工艺研究所有限公司 Steel grain refining heat treatment method for heavy-load locomotive gear

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