CN108275969A - 一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料及其制备方法 - Google Patents

一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料及其制备方法 Download PDF

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CN108275969A
CN108275969A CN201810098898.9A CN201810098898A CN108275969A CN 108275969 A CN108275969 A CN 108275969A CN 201810098898 A CN201810098898 A CN 201810098898A CN 108275969 A CN108275969 A CN 108275969A
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silicon carbide
carbide whisker
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composite ceramic
mullite
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CN108275969B (zh
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劳新斌
徐笑阳
李亚格
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Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石‑碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括基料和结合剂,所述基料的组成为铝硅酸盐矿物50~70wt%、石英粉5~25wt%、含硅和/或铝金属粉15~35wt%,所述结合剂的用量为基料的6~12wt%。此外,还公开了上述利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石‑碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的制备方法。本发明以天然矿物为主要原料,通过原位合成的方式引入莫来石和碳化硅晶须,有效发挥了碳化硅晶须的性能优势,从而显著提高了莫来石‑碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的性能。本发明原料易得、工艺简单、烧成温度低、成品率高,对于提高莫来石‑碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的品质、以及节约产品成本具有重要意义,有利于推广应用和行业技术的进步与发展。

Description

一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材 料及其制备方法
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及陶瓷材料技术领域,尤其涉及一种莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料 及其制备方法。
背景技术
[0002] Sic具有优异的高温力学性能、良好的导热性能、较小的热膨胀系数以及优良的抗 热震性;而莫来石具有耐火度高、抗高温蠕变性能优良、化学稳定性和热稳定性好等优点。 由于SiC和莫来石不仅性能互补,而且两者的热膨胀系数十分匹配(相差仅0.5x10-6 • IT1),因此莫来石-碳化硅复合材料具有更优良的综合性能,如抗热震性优于莫来石,但烧 成温度和成本比纯碳化硅更低,且抗氧化性比纯碳化硅更好。鉴于这些优点,莫来石-碳化 硅复合材料已广泛应用于耐火材料、冶金、日用及建筑陶瓷等领域。
[0003]目前,莫来石-碳化硅复合材料的生产技术,主要是以工业级莫来石和碳化硅为骨 料,加入其他原料作为基质进行结合,其中的大部分原料(如莫来石、碳化硅等)主要是人 工合成的,因而存在着以下技术问题:
[0004] 1、由于莫来石与碳化硅是两种固相之间的混合,不仅很难混合均匀,而且二者的 结合难以产生化学键合,因此容易造成产品质量不稳定、强度低等缺点,使得莫来石-碳化 硅复合材料的品质难以提升。
[0005] 2、使用工业级原料不易成型,产品成品率低。
发明内容
[0006]本发明的目的在于克服现有技术的不足,提供一种高性能、易成型、低成本的利用 天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,采用以天然矿物为主要原料,以便通 过原位合成方式引入莫来石和碳化硅晶须,从而有效发挥碳化硅晶须的性能优势,实现提 高材料性能的目的。本发明的另一目的在于提供上述碳化硅晶须原位复合莫来石陶瓷材料 的制备方法。
[0007] 本发明的目的通过以下技术方案予以实现:
[0008] 本发明提供的一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包 括基料和结合剂,所述基料的组成为铝硅酸盐矿物50〜70wt%、石英粉5〜25wt%、含硅和/ 或铝金属粉15〜35wt%,所述结合剂的用量为基料的6〜12wt%。
[0009] 进一步地,本发明所述铝硅酸盐矿物为高岭土、红柱石、硅线石、蓝晶石、铝矾土中 的一种或二种组合。所述含硅和/或铝金属粉为金属硅粉、金属铝粉、硅铝合金粉中的一种 或二种组合。
[0010] 上述方案中,本发明所述基料的粒度为180〜325目。所述结合剂为浓度5wt%的 PVA溶液。
[0011] 本发明的另一目的通过以下技术方案予以实现: 10012J本友明提供的上述利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的制 备方法如下:将所述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;压制成型、千燥后得到的生坯,进行 埋粉烧结,所述埋粉烧结采用碳源材料,烧成后即制得莫来石—碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。 [0013]进一步地,本发明制备方法所述干燥后的生坯其水分含量< 0 • 5 %。
[0014]上述方案中,本发明制备方法所述碳源材料为石墨粉、炭粉、碳黑中的一种或二种 组合。所述烧结温度为1400〜1600°c。
[0015]本发明具有以下有益效果:
[0016] (1)本发明以天然的铝硅酸盐矿物作为合成莫来石的主要原料,以石英粉、含硅 和/或铝金属粉作为合成碳化硅晶须的主要原料,通过气—液-固反应机制原位合成的方式 引入,使得碳化硅晶须能够均匀地分布在莫来石颗粒表面,不仅避免了现有技术直接使用 人工合成的、呈固相的莫来石和碳化硅为原料所带来的混合不匀等弊端,而且有效引入并 发挥了碳化硅晶须的性能优势,有利于极大地提高莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的性 能。
[0017] (2)本发明原位合成的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,具有良好的高温机械强 度、耐火性、抗热震性,其主要性能指标为:抗折强度5〇〜7〇MPa、天然添加量>50%、径向烧 成收缩<4%、热导率>8W/(m • K)、100(TC〜室温抗热震循环5次不开裂、1400°C下保温lh 不软化不变形。
[0018] (3)本发明主要使用的是天然矿物,具有良好的塑性,有助于提高成型性能,从而 能够显著提高产品的成品率;并且,所用天然矿物具有储量大、分布广、价格低廉等优势,有 助于降低产品成本。
[0019] ⑷本发明原料易得、工艺简单、烧成温度低,并且对于提高莫来石-碳化硅晶须复 合陶瓷材料的品质、以及节约产品成本具有重要意义,因而具有广阔的市场前景,有利于推 广应用和行业技术的进步与发展。
附图说明
[0020]下面将结合实施例和附图对本发明作进一步的详细描述:
[0021]图1是本发明实施例所制得的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的断面显微结构 图(扫描电镜二次电子像)。
具体实施方式 [0022] 实施例一:
[0023] 1、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括 基料和结合剂,基料的组成为高岭土 50wt%、石英粉15wt%、金属铝粉35wt%,各基料的粒 度均为325目;结合剂为浓度5wt %的PVA溶液,其用量为基料的8wt %。
[0024] 2、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的制备 方法如下:
[0025]将上述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;经搅拌、困料后,根据产品尺寸选择适 当的压力压制成型,在11(TC温度下干燥而得到生坯(入g水分<0.5%);然后埋石墨粉、在 150(TC温度下烧成2h,即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。
[0026] 实施例二:
[0027] 1、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括 基料和结合剂,基料的组成为高岭土25wt%、红柱石40wt%、石英粉15wt%、Si-20A1合金 粉20wt %,各基料的粒度均为325目;结合剂为浓度5wt %的PVA溶液,其用量为基料的 10wt% 〇
[0028] 2、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的制备 方法如下:
[0029]将上述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;经搅拌、困料后,根据产品尺寸选择适 当的压力压制成型,在110°c温度下干燥而得到生坯(入窑水分<0.5%);然后埋炭粉、在 1600°C温度下烧成2h,即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。
[0030] 实施例三:
[0031]本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括基 料和结合剂,基料的组成为高岭土40wt %、蓝晶石20wt %、石英粉10wt %、Si-20A1合金粉 30wt%,各基料的粒度均为325目;结合剂为浓度5wt%的PVA溶液,其用量为基料的9wt%。 [0032] 2、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石—碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的制备 方法如下:
[0033]将上述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;经搅拌、困料后,根据产品尺寸选择适 当的压力压制成型,在1HTC温度下干燥而得到生坯(入窑水分<0.5%);然后埋石墨粉、在 145(TC温度下烧成2h,即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。
[0034] 实施例四:
[0035] 1、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括 基料和结合剂,基料的组成为高岭土3〇wt%、铝矾土40wt%、石英粉15wt%、金属硅粉 15wt %,各基料的粒度均为325目;结合剂为浓度5被%的PVA溶液,其用量为基料的l〇wt %。 [0036] 2、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的制备 方法如下:
[0037]将上述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;经搅拌、困料后,根据产品尺寸选择适 当的压力压制成型,在1HTC温度下千燥而得到生坯(入窑水分<〇.5%);然后埋碳黑和石 墨混合粉、在l6〇0°C温度下烧成2h,即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。
[0038] 实施例五:
[0039] 1、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括 基料和结合剂,基料的组成为铝矾土 40wt%、硅线石20wt%、石英粉25wt%、金属硅粉 15wt%,各基料的粒度均为325目;结合剂为浓度5wt%的PVA溶液,其用量为基料的7wt%。 [0040] 2、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的制备 方法如下:
[0041]将上述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;经搅拌、困料后,根据产品尺寸选择适 当的压力压制成型,在110°C温度下干燥而得到生坯(入窑水分<0.5%);然后埋炭粉和碳 黑混合粉、在1540°C温度下烧成2h,即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。
[0042]实施例六:
[0043] 1、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括 基料和结合剂,基料的组成为高岭土3〇wt%、错巩土2f5wt%、石英粉20wt%、金属桂粉 15wt%、金属铝粉10wt%,各基料的粒度均为325目;结合剂为浓度5wt%的PVA溶液,其用量 为基料的7wt%。
[0044] 2、本实施例一种碳化硅晶须原位复合莫来石陶瓷材料的制备方法如下:
[0045]将上述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;经搅拌、困料后,根据产品尺寸选择适 当的压力压制成型,在ll〇°C温度下干燥而得到生坯(入窑水分<0.5%);然后埋石墨粉、在 1560°C温度下烧成2h,即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。
[0046] 实施例七:
[0047] 1、本实施例一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,包括 基料和结合剂,基料的组成为高岭土40wt%、红柱石30wt%、石英粉5wt%、金属硅粉 2〇wt%、金属铝粉5wt%,各基料的粒度均为325目;结合剂为浓度5wt%的PVA溶液,其用量 为基料的l〇wt%。
[0048] 2、本实施例一种碳化硅晶须原位复合莫来石陶瓷材料的制备方法如下:
[0049]将上述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;经搅拌、困料后,根据产品尺寸选择适 当的压力压制成型,在110°C温度下干燥而得到生坯(入窑水分<〇.5%);然后埋炭粉、在 140(TC温度下烧成2h,即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料。
[0050]如图1所示,本发明实施例制得的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,原位合成的 碳化硅晶须分布在莫来石晶粒之间,能够起到提高热导率和抗热震性能的作用。

Claims (9)

1. 一种利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,其特征在于:包括基 料和结合剂,所述基料的组成为铝硅酸盐矿物50〜70wt %、石英粉5〜25wt %、含硅和/或铝 金属粉15〜35wt%,所述结合剂的用量为基料的6〜12wt%。
2. 根据权利要求1所述的利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,其 特征在于:所述铝硅酸盐矿物为高岭土、红柱石、硅线石、蓝晶石、铝矾土中的一种或二种组 合。
3. 根据权利要求1所述的利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,其 特征在于:所述含硅和/或铝金属粉为金属硅粉、金属铝粉、硅铝合金粉中的一种或二种组 合。
4. 根据权利要求1所述的利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,其 特征在于:所述基料的粒度为180〜325目。
5. 根据权利要求1所述的利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料,其 特征在于:所述结合剂为浓度5wt %的PVA溶液。
6. 权利要求1-5之一所述利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的 制备方法,其特征在于:将所述基料混合后,加入结合剂混合均匀;压制成型、干燥后得到的 生坯,进行埋粉烧结,所述埋粉烧结采用碳源材料,烧成后即制得莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合 陶瓷材料。
7. 根据权利要求6所述的利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的 制备方法,其特征在于:所述干燥后的生坯其水分含量<0 • 5%。
8. 根据权利要求6所述的利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的 制备方法,其特征在于:所述碳源材料为石墨粉、炭粉、碳黑中的一种或二种组合。
9. 根据权利要求6所述的利用天然矿物为原料的莫来石-碳化硅晶须复合陶瓷材料的 制备方法,其特征在于:所述烧结温度为1400〜160(TC。
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