CN108225949A - A kind of experimental provision for being used to test catalase and calibration impact velocity and the method for loss of energy - Google Patents

A kind of experimental provision for being used to test catalase and calibration impact velocity and the method for loss of energy Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108225949A
CN108225949A CN201711463196.8A CN201711463196A CN108225949A CN 108225949 A CN108225949 A CN 108225949A CN 201711463196 A CN201711463196 A CN 201711463196A CN 108225949 A CN108225949 A CN 108225949A
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test
bar
energy
wave
oscillograph
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CN108225949B (en
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夏开文
徐颖
王帅
高龙山
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Tianjin University
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/30Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight
    • G01N3/307Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress by applying a single impulsive force, e.g. by falling weight generated by a compressed or tensile-stressed spring; generated by pneumatic or hydraulic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details
    • G01N3/06Special adaptations of indicating or recording means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N3/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N3/02Details
    • G01N3/06Special adaptations of indicating or recording means
    • G01N3/068Special adaptations of indicating or recording means with optical indicating or recording means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/003Generation of the force
    • G01N2203/0042Pneumatic or hydraulic means
    • G01N2203/0044Pneumatic means
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/0058Kind of property studied
    • G01N2203/006Crack, flaws, fracture or rupture
    • G01N2203/0067Fracture or rupture
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/06Indicating or recording means; Sensing means
    • G01N2203/0641Indicating or recording means; Sensing means using optical, X-ray, ultra-violet, infrared or similar detectors
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01NINVESTIGATING OR ANALYSING MATERIALS BY DETERMINING THEIR CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
    • G01N2203/00Investigating strength properties of solid materials by application of mechanical stress
    • G01N2203/02Details not specific for a particular testing method
    • G01N2203/06Indicating or recording means; Sensing means
    • G01N2203/067Parameter measured for estimating the property
    • G01N2203/0676Force, weight, load, energy, speed or acceleration

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of for testing the experimental provision of catalase and calibration impact velocity and the method for loss of energy, which mainly includes test specimen cabin, impact loading system and test system composition, more particulate rock test specimens is set in test specimen cabin;Impact loading system includes check bar, transmitting bar, transmitting casing, air compression system;Test system includes linear speed instrument, foil gauge, dynamic strain indicator, oscillograph.Calibration impact velocity and the method for loss of energy include:Utilize the impact velocity of linear speed instrument and oscillograph recording piston.The signal that Impulsive load wave and back wave change over time in check bar is recorded by dynamic strain indicator and oscillograph respectively.The energy loss during experiment is calculated by the data to acquisition.The present invention can be studied under different loading speeds, the relationship of rock-breaking effect and energy consumption by changing air pressure.The simulation test device has the characteristics that simple in structure, simulation authenticity is high, experiment process is reproducible.

Description

A kind of experimental provision for being used to test catalase and calibration impact velocity and loss energy The method of amount
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of for testing the experimental provision of catalase and the side of calibration impact velocity and loss of energy Method belongs to catalase development test technical field.
Background technology
Catalase is a very important link during mining and metal smelt.Its process usually utilizes a pair Hardening iron alloy surface crushes come the rock to bulk, so as to obtain tiny rock particles.According to statistics, the world gives birth to every year More than 30 hundred million tons of various metallic ores are produced, these ores will be usually carried out in boulder cracker after could being carried out after crushing Continuous processing.The broken subject for being not only theoretical research of rock, and be also the important topic of produce reality application study.It is real The quantization of Mechanical Crushing ability is usually resisted in the engineer application of border by the use of the crushability of rock as rock in judge shattering process Index is the Main Basiss of selection boulder cracker type and broken speed in current mining and metal smelt engineering.But The crushability of rock is there is no unified test specification, because the single load to sample can not be realized in test process, and The energy being lost during catalase can not accurately be measured.
The existing experimental study to rock crushability is mainly the Shock Compression Experiments only for individual particle rock, so And it comes with some shortcomings for the Cracking Mechanism research of more particulate rocks.First, existing apparatus does not consider that rock particles is closed with iron The extruding of gold surface and the extruding of neighbouring rock particles influence, and causing cannot anyway true catalase process well; Secondly, existing experimental rig does not consider function and effect of the equipment impact velocity for catalase.
Complexity and importance based on catalase have invented the experimental rig of rock breaking simulation and calibration impact speed The method of degree and loss of energy.The experimental rig have can simulation rock shattering process, and can record in shattering process simultaneously Impact velocity, loss of energy, for engineering determine breaking method, improve crusher design parameter (such as impact velocity and capacity), The offers such as crusher power consumption accurately believable test parameters is provided, is referred to for engineering and scientific research.
Invention content
An object of the present invention is to provide a kind of mould simple in structure, simulation authenticity is high, experiment process is reproducible Intend the experimental rig that more particulate rocks crush.The second purpose is to provide the calibration impact velocity of loading device and catalase process The computational methods of middle energy loss.
The present invention is to be realized by the following technical programs:
A kind of experimental provision for being used to test catalase, equipped with rock sample inside the setting of one end of test platform Rock sample can be placed, load and be recycled in test specimen cabin, test specimen cabin with one in its inner wall piston free to slide;In piston On the outside of disk, and a check bar on piston middle spindle is set, with piston air-tight fit, is testing the 1/2 of pole length Paste compression strain piece, compression strain piece connection dynamic strain indicator, dynamic strain indicator connection oscillograph in place;In the another of check bar End, away from the experiment rod end for 10cm~15cm locate, and on check bar same level axis axis, set a transmitting casing, this Emit a piece transmitting bar being slidably matched of configuration in casing, towards experiment rod end, the other end for emitting casing passes through the transmitting bar Valve is connected with gas tank, and gas tank is connected with air compressor machine.
The test specimen cabin includes horizontal hatch cover, sets hatchcover in the both sides of hatch cover, hatchcover is threadedly coupled with hatch cover, cabin Observation through-hole is provided on the inside of cover.
The linear speed instrument is made of laser emitter and laser pickoff, and respectively positioned at the both sides of peep hole, receiver connects Connect oscillograph.
More particulate rocks are set in test specimen cabin, and sample dimensions are 9.5~12.7mm, and weight is 170 ± 1g, in test specimen cabin institute The thickness accounted for is 14 ± 0.5mm.
It is preferred that the check bar is nickel chromium triangle Steel material, a diameter of 38mm, length 1500mm.
It is preferred that the transmitting bar is nickel chromium triangle Steel material, a diameter of 38mm, length 300mm.
It is preferred that the outer diameter of the transmitting casing is 50mm, length 800mm.
It is preferred that the operating pressure of the gas tank is 0.6~30MPa.
It is preferred that the foil gauge uses 1000 Ω resistance of precision standard, strain built-in testing is former using Wheatstone bridge test Reason.
Utilize the method for the experimental provision test catalase calibration impact velocity and loss of energy of the present invention;It is characterized in that Include the following steps:
1) starter, adjusting instrument, into trystate:
Start compressor, make gas tank stabilization in a certain operating pressure;Dynamic strain indicator, linear speed instrument and oscillograph is adjusted to be in Triggering state;
2) collecting test data:
(1) in given gas tank stabilization in a certain operating pressure P, opening valve emits transmitting bar, and transmitting bar is allowed to hit examination Bar is tested, passes through Impulsive load wave ε in deformeter and oscillograph recording check bariAnd back wave εr.By linear velocity tester and show Wave device records the displacement S of piston and time ts, so as to obtain the impact velocity value v of the operating pressure lower piston1=S/ts;Later Rock sample is taken out, completes primary experiment;
(2) method for being analyzed test data loss of energy during being tested;
Pass through the Impulsive load wave ε of check bariAnd back wave εr, the energy being lost during Test of rock cracking can be obtained Amount, wherein:
Impulsive load wave εiEntrained energy WiIt is acquired by formula 1:
In formula:
Elasticity modulus of the E for check bar, unit N/m2
Cross-sectional areas of the A for check bar, unit m2
Velocities of wave of the C for check bar, unit m/s;
T is the load time of Impulsive load wave;
εiFor strain, dimensionless group caused by incidence wave.
Back wave εrEntrained energy WrIt is acquired by formula 2:
εiFor strain, dimensionless group caused by incidence wave.
Loss of energy Δ W is acquired by formula 3 during experiment:
ΔWr=Wi-WrFormula 3.
The advantage of the invention is that the shattering process of more particulate rock single loads can be simulated, and record loading device Energy loss during impact velocity and catalase determines catalase method for engineering, improves crusher design parameter (such as impact velocity and capacity), improving the offer of crusher power consumption, accurately believable test parameters, the simulation test device have Simple in structure, the characteristics of simulation authenticity is high, experiment process is reproducible, there is experiment to refer to catalase engineering and scientific research Value and directive significance.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the wave system figure generated when transmitting bar with check bar during check bar collision.
In figure:1 is Impulsive load wave εi, 2 be back wave εr
Fig. 2 is the experimental rig structure connection figure of the present invention.
In figure:3 be test specimen cabin, and 4 be piston, and 5 be linear speed instrument, and 6 be oscillograph, and 7 be check bar, and 8 be dynamic strain indicator, 9 To emit bar, 10 be transmitting casing, and 11 be valve, and 12 be gas tank, and 13 be air compressor.
Fig. 3 is the structure diagram in Fig. 2 test specimens cabin 3.
In figure:3-1 is cabin rear cover, and 3-2 is hatch cover, and 3-3 is cabin protecgulum, and 3-4 is observation through-hole, and 4 be piston, and 7 be experiment Bar.
Specific embodiment
It is described in further details below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and to the specific embodiment of the invention:A kind of rock as shown in Figure 2,3 Stone crushes the experimental rig of simulation, which includes hydraulic test platform, inside the setting of one end of test platform Test specimen cabin 3 equipped with rock sample, the test specimen cabin 3 and one can its inner wall piston 4 free to slide come place, load and Recycle rock sample.Wherein the hardened metallic surface in Practical Project is simulated in the test specimen cabin 3 with piston 4.Outside piston disk Side, and a check bar 7 is set on piston middle spindle, with 4 air-tight fit of piston, pasted at the 1/2 of 7 length of check bar Compression strain piece, compression strain piece connection dynamic strain indicator 8, dynamic strain indicator 8 connect oscillograph 6;In the other end of check bar, Away from the experiment rod end for 10cm~15cm locate, and on check bar same level axis axis, setting a piece transmitting casing 10, in this Emit a piece transmitting bar 9 being slidably matched of configuration in casing, towards experiment rod end, the other end for emitting casing passes through the transmitting bar Valve 10 is connected with gas tank 13, which is connected with air compressor machine.
The test specimen cabin includes horizontal hatch cover 3-2, and cabin protecgulum 3-1 and cabin rear cover 3-2, hatchcover are set in the both sides of hatch cover 3-1 and 3-2 is threadedly coupled with hatch cover 3-2, is provided with an observation through-hole 3-4 on the inside of hatch cover, setting linear speed instrument 5, after linear speed instrument Connect oscillograph 6.More particulate rock sample dimensions in test specimen cabin are 9.5~12.7mm, and weight is 170 ± 1g, in test specimen cabin institute The thickness accounted for is 14 ± 0.5mm.
1. experiment is using the specification of instrument
This experimental rig test specimen cabin 3 is made of cabin rear cover 3-1, hatch cover 3-2, cabin protecgulum 3-3 and rock sample.Cabin rear cover 3- 1 size is 178 × 178 × 19mm;Hatch cover 3-2 sizes are 178 × 178 × 127mm, internal diameter 127mm;Cabin protecgulum 3-3 sizes For 178 × 178 × 13mm.Hatchcover is threadedly coupled with hatch cover 3-2.More particulate rock sample dimensions be 9.5~12.7mm, weight It is 14 ± 0.5mm in the thickness shared by test specimen cabin 3 for 170 ± 1g.
Check bar be nickel chromium triangle Steel material, a diameter of 38mm, length 1500mm.Above-mentioned transmitting bar 9 is nickel chromium triangle steel Material, a diameter of 38mm, length 300mm.It is made of nickel chromium triangle Steel material.Elastic modulus E is 200GPa.Wave velocity C is 5000m/s.The outer diameter for emitting casing is 50mm, and length 800mm is made of common iron.
Compression strain piece, compression strain piece connection dynamic strain indicator 8, dynamic strain are pasted at the 1/2 of 7 length of check bar Instrument connects oscillograph 6.
Using BZ2203 dynamic strain indicators, sensitivity 120mV/10 μ ε (BV=4V), dynamic strain indicator connection oscillograph shows Wave device uses WJ312A digital oscilloscopes, sample rate 2GS/s, and has 500kpts/Ch memories.
Gas tank 12 uses horizontal compressed air cylinder, design pressure 30MPa, volume 0.37m3
2. the process of experiment
The simulation test procedure that catalase is carried out with the device of above structure is as follows:
Dynamic strain indicator, oscillograph and linear velocity tester are connected, and in triggering state, into trystate. By taking gas tank pressure is the experiment under the conditions of 5.0MPa as an example, experiment process is:
Transmitting bar 9 is put into transmitting casing bottommost, 12 pressure of gas tank is adjusted, makes it stable in 5.0MPa, exact p-value After instrument is working properly, opening valve 11 emits transmitting bar.
It is recorded by linear speed instrument 5 and oscillograph 6, displacement distance of the piston 4 under given air pressure conditions changes connecing for laser The change of laser pick-off amount is converted into voltage signal by receipts amount, linear speed instrument 5, and the impact velocity of piston 4 can be obtained by oscillograph 6 For 1.0m/s.
Incidence wave ε in check bar 7 can record by oscillograph 6i1 and back wave εr2。
Impact incidence wave is obtained in the energy W that air pressure is 5MPa according to formula 1i
A is the cross-sectional area 1.134 × 10 of incident bar in formula-3m2;C is the velocity of wave 5000m/s of bar;E is the springform of bar Measure 200GPa;εiIncidence wave when for air pressure being 5MPa, is measured by dynamic strain indicator and oscillograph, for the variations of t at any time Strain signal.
The energy Wr of back wave carrying is obtained according to formula 2:
A in formula, C, meaning and the numerical value of E are same as above, εrFor back wave, measured by dynamic strain indicator and oscillograph, be with The strain signal of time t variations.
According to formula 3, loss of energy is during experiment:
ΔWr=Wi-Wr=12J
The invention discloses a kind of rock breaking simulation experimental rig and calibration impact velocity and loss of energy method, Device mainly includes test specimen cabin, impact loading system and test system composition, and more particulate rock test specimens are set in test specimen cabin; Impact loading system includes check bar, transmitting bar, transmitting casing, air compression system;Test system includes linear speed instrument, answers Become piece, dynamic strain indicator, oscillograph.Calibration impact velocity and the method for loss of energy include:Remembered using linear speed instrument and oscillograph Record the impact velocity of piston.Impulsive load wave and back wave are recorded in check bar at any time by dynamic strain indicator and oscillograph respectively Between the signal that changes.The energy loss during experiment is calculated by the data to acquisition.The present invention can be by changing gas Pressure, is studied under different loading speeds, the relationship of rock-breaking effect and energy consumption.The simulation test device has simple in structure, mould Intend the characteristics of authenticity is high, experiment process is reproducible.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of experimental provision for being used to test catalase, which is characterized in that be equipped with inside the setting of one end of test platform Rock can be placed, load and be recycled in the test specimen cabin of rock sample, test specimen cabin with one in its inner wall piston free to slide Test specimen;On the outside of piston disk, and a check bar on piston middle spindle is set, with piston air-tight fit, is being tested Compression strain piece, compression strain piece connection dynamic strain indicator, dynamic strain indicator connection oscillograph are pasted at the 1/2 of pole length; The other end of check bar, away from the experiment rod end for 10cm~15cm locate, and on check bar same level axis axis, setting one Emit casing, a transmitting bar being slidably matched is configured in the transmitting casing, which emits casing towards experiment rod end The other end is connected by valve with gas tank, and gas tank is connected with air compressor machine.
2. device as described in claim 1 it is characterized in that the test specimen cabin includes horizontal hatch cover, is set in the both sides of hatch cover Hatchcover, hatchcover are threadedly coupled with hatch cover, are provided with observation through-hole on the inside of hatch cover, and laser emitter and laser connect in linear speed instrument Receive the both sides that device is located at peep hole respectively, laser pickoff connection oscillograph.
3. device as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that set more particulate rocks in test specimen cabin, sample dimensions for 9.5~ 12.7mm, weight are 170 ± 1g, are 14 ± 0.5mm in the thickness shared by test specimen cabin.
4. device as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that the check bar is nickel chromium triangle Steel material, a diameter of 38mm, length For 1500mm.
5. device as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that the transmitting bar is nickel chromium triangle Steel material, a diameter of 38mm, length For 300mm.
6. device as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that the outer diameter of the transmitting casing is 50mm, length 800mm.
7. device as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that the operating pressure of the gas tank is 0.6~30MPa.
8. device as described in claim 1, it is characterized in that the foil gauge uses 1000 Ω resistance of precision standard, foil gauge is surveyed Pilot production Wheatstone bridge test philosophy.
9. the method for the experimental provision test catalase calibration impact velocity and loss of energy using claim 1;Its feature It is to include the following steps:
1) starter, adjusting instrument, into trystate:
Start compressor, make gas tank stabilization in a certain operating pressure;It adjusts dynamic strain indicator, linear speed instrument and oscillograph and is in triggering State;
2) collecting test data:
(1) in given gas tank stabilization in a certain operating pressure P, opening valve emits transmitting bar, allows and emit bar bump test bar, Pass through Impulsive load wave ε in deformeter and oscillograph recording check bariAnd back wave εr.Pass through linear velocity tester and oscillograph Record the displacement S of piston and time ts, so as to obtain the impact velocity value v of the operating pressure lower piston1=S/ts;It takes out later Rock sample completes primary experiment;
(2) method for being analyzed test data loss of energy during being tested;
Pass through the Impulsive load wave ε of check bariAnd back wave εr, the energy being lost during Test of rock cracking can be obtained, In:
Impulsive load wave εiEntrained energy WiIt is acquired by formula 1:
In formula:
Elasticity modulus of the E for check bar, unit N/m2
Cross-sectional areas of the A for check bar, unit m2
Velocities of wave of the C for check bar, unit m/s;
T is the load time of Impulsive load wave;
εiFor strain, dimensionless group caused by incidence wave.
Back wave εrEntrained energy WrIt is acquired by formula 2:
εiFor strain, dimensionless group caused by incidence wave.
Loss of energy Δ W is acquired by formula 3 during experiment:
ΔWr=Wi-WrFormula 3.
CN201711463196.8A 2017-12-28 2017-12-28 Experimental device for testing rock breaking and method for calibrating impact speed and energy loss Active CN108225949B (en)

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Cited By (3)

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CN108956887A (en) * 2018-07-23 2018-12-07 重庆交通大学 A kind of underwater reefs crushing test device
CN109100483A (en) * 2018-07-23 2018-12-28 重庆交通大学 A kind of underwater reefs crushing test method
CN109932248A (en) * 2019-02-01 2019-06-25 天津大学 A kind of pilot system simulated chamber face under differently stress condition and excavate transient unloading

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CN109932248A (en) * 2019-02-01 2019-06-25 天津大学 A kind of pilot system simulated chamber face under differently stress condition and excavate transient unloading

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