CN108148705B - Brewing method of hawthorn yellow wine and hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content - Google Patents

Brewing method of hawthorn yellow wine and hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content Download PDF

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CN108148705B
CN108148705B CN201810112822.7A CN201810112822A CN108148705B CN 108148705 B CN108148705 B CN 108148705B CN 201810112822 A CN201810112822 A CN 201810112822A CN 108148705 B CN108148705 B CN 108148705B
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hawthorn
wine
content
yellow wine
fermentation
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CN108148705A (en
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肖冬光
李博艺
郭学武
郭凯凯
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Tianjin University of Science and Technology
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Tianjin University of Science and Technology
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    • C12BIOCHEMISTRY; BEER; SPIRITS; WINE; VINEGAR; MICROBIOLOGY; ENZYMOLOGY; MUTATION OR GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • C12GWINE; PREPARATION THEREOF; ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES; PREPARATION OF ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES NOT PROVIDED FOR IN SUBCLASSES C12C OR C12H
    • C12G3/00Preparation of other alcoholic beverages
    • C12G3/02Preparation of other alcoholic beverages by fermentation

Abstract

The invention relates to a hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content and a brewing method of the hawthorn yellow wine, belonging to the technical field of wine brewing. The content of flavonoids in the hawthorn yellow wine is not less than 46.51 mg/L. The brewing method mainly comprises the steps of uniformly mixing steamed hawthorn powder and cultured and saccharified mash, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the grain raw material is 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, inoculating cultured secondary seeds of yeast wine according to the content of 600 ten thousand per mL of the total volume of fermentation liquor, supplementing soft water which is 1-1.8 times of the total weight of the raw materials, uniformly mixing, sealing, and fermenting at the low temperature of 15-25 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mash; filtering to obtain the hawthorn yellow wine. The flavone content of the hawthorn wine is increased from about 10mg/L of the traditional hawthorn wine to 46.51mg/L, so that the health-care effect of the hawthorn wine is improved. The addition of a proper amount of hawthorn leaves during fermentation, and the addition of the wine after fermentation can further improve the flavone content, so that the health-care effect is better.

Description

Brewing method of hawthorn yellow wine and hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content
Technical Field
The invention relates to a hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content and a brewing method of the hawthorn yellow wine, belonging to the technical field of wine brewing.
Background
Hawthorn (crataegus pinnatifida bge.) is a fruit of plants in the genus of crataegus of the family rosaceae, also called crimson fruit (crataegus pinnatifida bge. var. major. n.e.br.), and is called hawthorn fruit, sorb, haw fruit and the like in different regions. The hawthorn trees generally grow from valleys or mountain shrubs, have strong adaptability and are widely distributed in China, and main production areas comprise Liaoyang and Benxi in Liaoning province, Qingzhou and Taian in Shandong province, Xinglong and Qinglong in Hebei province, Jincheng in Shanxi province and the like.
The hawthorn is rich in nutrition, almost contains all the nutritional components of fruits, and particularly has high contents of organic acid, flavone and vitamin. Because of its excellent quality, hawthorn is currently available in many forms of foods, pharmaceuticals, wines and the like. With the development of industrial technologies, in recent years, various foods such as hawthorn vinegar and hawthorn beverage, and various health-care products such as hawthorn capsules, hawthorn toothpaste and hawthorn skin care products prepared by extracting flavone from hawthorn are developed. With the improvement of living standard and health care consciousness of people, the research and development of hawthorn products are receiving more and more attention.
At present, the manufacturing methods of the hawthorn wine mainly comprise two methods: firstly, a sugared fermentation method, wherein the hawthorn is taken as a main raw material by people such as Miao sweet osmanthus plum, Zhan Ru and the like, and is added with sugar water with the mass of 2 times after being crushed for fermentation. The fermentation alcohol content is controlled at 11-12% (V/V), the total acid content is higher than 10g/L, and the fermentation time is within 10-18 d. The blended hawthorn wine base needs to be subjected to the operations of deacidification, glue adding, freezing, filtering and the like, and the finished wine with good stability can be obtained (brewing, 2004, 31(6): 47-48.). Secondly, a method for preparing wine by soaking hawthorn, which is disclosed as 105441288A and is manufactured by the inventor: the invention of songbei and liuyanbo-haw wine and brewing process thereof discloses a haw wine obtained by soaking haw in edible alcohol: the raw materials comprise the following components in parts by weight: 200 parts of hawthorn, 200 parts of edible alcohol, and 380 parts of purified water. The method does not need to crush fructus crataegi, and has simple raw materials. The Gaofei Ningkuai wine is prepared by taking Kouzi wine as base wine, taking NaOH aqueous solution and alcohol as extracting agents, soaking high-quality hawthorn, taking high-quality honey, cane sugar and the like as ingredients, and extracting for multiple times. The alcohol content of the prepared hawthorn wine is 20-35% (V/V), the total acid is less than or equal to 1.0g/100mL (counted by acetic acid), the total ester is more than or equal to 1.5g/100mL, and the sugar content is more than or equal to 2g/100mL (brewing science and technology, 2006 (07): 80-82). 104877874A, the hawthorn yellow wine and the preparation method thereof, and the formula of the hawthorn yellow wine is prepared from the following raw materials in parts by weight: 500 parts of glutinous rice, 15 parts of distiller's yeast, 75 parts of dried hawthorn and 11.25 parts of pectinase, and the adopted materials are as follows: the three-step manufacturing process flow is that after yellow wine is respectively prepared and hawthorn juice is extracted, the hawthorn yellow wine is blended to prepare the health-care hawthorn yellow wine. 1919997A Hawthorn yellow wine health beverage disclosed in the invention, Hawthorn yellow wine health beverage and its production method, mainly comprises haw slices: 10 to 20 percent; yellow rice wine: 75-85%; white granulated sugar: 2.5 to 3.5 percent; sucrose ester: 0.15 to 0.25 percent; sodium alginate: 0.15-0.25%. The main process comprises the following steps: slicing fructus crataegi, oven drying, soaking in yellow wine for one month, and concocting.
Because the sugar content and the acid content of the hawthorn are low, the main problems of the hawthorn wine preparation are as follows: when sugar is added for fermentation, the fermentation of yeast is inhibited due to the excessively high sugar content, the alcohol content of the fermentation is generally 10-12% (V/V), and the flavone substance, which is the main functional component in the hawthorn, has higher mobility only when the alcohol content is higher (more than or equal to 15% (V/V)), so that the hawthorn wine obtained by the prior art has lower flavone content; secondly, because the organic acid content of the hawthorn is higher, the base wine after the hawthorn is added with sugar and fermented can be prepared into the hawthorn wine with proper taste only by the deacidification treatment, and a part of flavone is usually lost in the deacidification treatment process, so that the content of functional components in the finished wine is further reduced; thirdly, when the hawthorn wine is prepared by a soaking method, sugar is generally added for balancing the taste, the sugar content of the finished product wine is up to more than 15 percent, and the hawthorn wine with high sugar content is contrary to the nutrition and health care effects. The existence of these problems limits the health care effect of the hawthorn wine, and leads to the slow development of the hawthorn wine.
Disclosure of Invention
In order to solve the problems, the invention develops a brewing method of hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content, which mainly comprises the following steps: pretreating raw materials, culturing and saccharifying, preparing yeast, fermenting and filtering;
1. raw materials
Dried hawthorn: removing kernels of the hawthorn, and drying or baking the hawthorn in the sun to obtain dried hawthorn. No mildew or worm damage is required;
hawthorn leaves: drying or baking folium crataegi in the sun before and after mid-autumn festival to remove impurities and scab;
grain raw materials: mainly comprises rice, corn and sorghum, and can also be other grain raw materials used for brewing yellow wine; full granules, no impurities and no disease spots are required.
2. Pretreatment of raw materials
Pretreatment of hawthorn:
taking high-quality dried hawthorn as a raw material, crushing, and sieving with a 20-mesh sieve;
and (3) putting the crushed dried hawthorn into a steamer, steaming at normal pressure, steaming for 20-30min after circular steaming, and cooling for later use to obtain steamed hawthorn powder.
Grain raw material pretreatment:
cooking of cereal material
Cleaning rice, soaking at normal temperature for 24h, adding water at a weight ratio of 1:1.1, steaming for about 30min to make it fully gelatinized without white core, and cooling;
cleaning semen Maydis and jowar, soaking at room temperature for 24h, steaming by double steaming method, steaming for 30min after steaming by round steam, placing into cold water, sealing for 40-60min, taking out, steaming for 60-90min until more than 90% of the raw materials are suitable for flower formation, and air cooling for use.
3. Bacterial culture saccharification
Placing the steamed grains in a previously cleaned and sterilized culture tank, adding rhizopus koji in an amount of 0.4-1.0% of the weight of the raw materials, culturing and saccharifying at 30 deg.C for 24h, and allowing rhizopus to grow hypha to obtain culture saccharified substrate.
4. Preparation of yeast
Inoculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae (preferably CGMCC No 2.1952 (brewing science and technology, 2010, (5):36-41) into sterilized corn hydrolysate tube (20mL tube, liquid loading amount 10mL) from the slant tube under sterile environment, and standing and culturing at 30 deg.C for 24 hr to obtain primary seed of yeast; inoculating the primary seed into sterilized corn hydrolysate culture medium (500mL triangular flask, liquid content 200mL), and standing at 30 deg.C for 16-18h to obtain secondary seed of yeast.
5. Fermentation of
Uniformly mixing steamed hawthorn powder and cultured saccharification grains, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the grain raw material is 1:2, 1:3 and 1:4, inoculating cultured secondary seeds of yeast wine according to the content of 600 ten thousand/mL of the total volume of fermentation liquor, supplementing soft water 1-1.8 times of the total weight of the raw materials, uniformly mixing, sealing, and fermenting at the low temperature of 15-25 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mature mash;
preferably, hawthorn leaves can also be added in the fermentation; the addition amount is as follows: 1 to 5 percent of the total weight of the hawthorn and the grain raw materials.
6. Fermenting after adding distiller's grains
After the fermentation is finished, directly filtering the fermented mature mash obtained for the first time, preparing the low-alcohol hawthorn yellow wine from clear liquid, and distilling the vinasse to obtain 55-65% (V/V) vinasse wine;
the brewing method of the hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content can also add the wine into the fermented mature mash, adjust the degree of the fermented mature mash to 16-32% (V/V), and carry out after-fermentation for 7-28 days at 25 ℃.
7. Filtering and distilling
After the post-fermentation is finished, squeezing and filtering the fermented mash to obtain clear liquid, namely the hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content, wherein the alcohol content is 12-17.4% (V/V); distilling distiller's grains to obtain 55-65% (V/V) distiller's grains, and adding fermented mash of the next batch for post-fermentation.
The invention also provides the hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content, the wine color is pink to red brown, the hawthorn yellow wine is clear and transparent, the hawthorn yellow wine is glossy, the alcohol content is 12-32% (V/V), the hawthorn yellow wine is rich in flavone substances, the content of the flavone substances is not lower than 46.51mg/L, the sum of three main flavones of vitexin, rutin and quercetin is 56.56-63.97mg/L, the hawthorn yellow wine prepared by adopting a fermentation process after the addition of the wine grains is fermented, and the content of the hawthorn yellow wine fermented by adding the hawthorn leaves is 83.08-170.39 mg/L.
Advantageous effects
The hawthorn and the grain raw materials are jointly fermented, so that the content of saccharifiable fermentable substances (starch) in fermented mash is improved, the problem of low fermentable sugar content in hawthorn fruits is solved, the hawthorn is added after the grains are steamed and cultured, and the hawthorn yellow wine is produced by adopting a compound fermentation process of saccharifying and fermenting simultaneously, so that the inhibition effect of high osmotic pressure on yeast during sugaring fermentation can be eliminated, the alcohol content of the hawthorn yellow wine can reach 12-17.4% (V/V), the migration of effective functional components such as flavone in the hawthorn into wine bodies is facilitated, the flavone content is improved to 46.51mg/L from about 10mg/L of the traditional hawthorn wine, and the health-care effect of the hawthorn wine is improved; the addition of a proper amount of hawthorn leaves during fermentation, and the addition of the wine after fermentation can further improve the flavone content, so that the health-care effect is better. Adding a certain amount of hawthorn leaves in the fermentation process of the hawthorn yellow wine, fermenting the hawthorn, the hawthorn leaves and grains together, fusing the sour and sweet taste of the hawthorn, the cool and throat-moistening of the hawthorn leaves and the fermented flavor of the grains to form the unique flavor of the hawthorn yellow wine, wherein the flavone content in the hawthorn leaves is about 7 times of that of hawthorn fruits, and the content of flavone substances in the hawthorn yellow wine can be increased to 83.08-170.39mg/L by adding 1-5% of the hawthorn leaves, so that the hawthorn yellow wine has the effects of preventing and alleviating various physiological diseases such as blood pressure reduction, blood fat reduction, blood vessel softening, antibiosis, antioxidation and improvement of sub-health state; the vinasse obtained by distilling the vinasse is used for carrying out wine adding and post-fermentation, the vinasse obtained by distilling the vinasse is supplemented into the hawthorn yellow wine and then fermented, so that the migration rate of flavonoid substances in the hawthorn can be effectively improved, the vinasse supplementation enables the post-fermentation vinosity to be improved to 16-32% (V/V), and the migration rate of flavonoid substances in the hawthorn to wine bodies is improved from about 45% to more than 80%, so that the utilization efficiency of functional components of the hawthorn is greatly improved. The invention widens the idea for the development and utilization of hawthorn, enriches the varieties of hawthorn products and alcoholic beverages, and has positive significance for driving the development of related industries and improving the physical and mental health of consumers.
Description of the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a process flow diagram of the brewing method of hawthorn yellow wine in example 5.
The specific implementation mode is as follows:
example 1: comparison of Hawthorn yellow wine of different cereal materials
1. Raw materials
Hawthorn fruit: removing fruit stones, drying in the sun or baking, and requiring no mildew or worm damage;
grain raw materials: rice, corn, sorghum and the like, and the grains are required to be full, free of impurities and free of disease spots.
2. Pulverizing fructus crataegi
High-quality dried hawthorn is taken as a raw material, crushed and sieved by a 20-mesh sieve.
3. Steaming and boiling hawthorn raw material
Putting the crushed hawthorn into a steamer, steaming and boiling under normal pressure, steaming for 20-30min after circular steaming, and cooling for later use.
4. Cooking of cereal material
Cleaning rice, soaking at normal temperature for 24h, adding water at a ratio of 1:1.1, steaming for about 30min to obtain paste, and cooling.
Cleaning semen Maydis and jowar, soaking at room temperature for 24h, steaming for 30min, placing in cold water, soaking for 40-60min, taking out, steaming for 60-90min until more than 90% of the raw materials are suitable for flower, and air cooling for use.
5. Bacterial culture saccharification
Placing the steamed grains in a previously cleaned and sterilized culture tank, adding Rhizopus koji 0.5 wt% of the raw materials, culturing and saccharifying at 30 deg.C for 24 hr, and allowing Rhizopus to grow mycelia to obtain culture saccharified substrate.
6. Preparation of yeast
Under the aseptic environment, the saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC No 2.1952 is inoculated into a sterilized corn hydrolysate test tube (20mL test tube, the liquid loading amount is 10mL) from a slant test tube, and the standing culture is carried out for 24h at the temperature of 30 ℃ to obtain the primary seed of the yeast wine; inoculating the primary seed into sterilized corn hydrolysate culture medium (500mL triangular flask, liquid content 200mL), and standing at 30 deg.C for 16-18h to obtain secondary seed of yeast.
7. Fermentation of
Uniformly mixing the steamed hawthorn powder and the culture saccharification grains, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the grain raw material is 1:2, inoculating the cultured yeast secondary seeds according to the content of 600 ten thousand per mL of the total volume of the fermentation liquor, supplementing soft water 1.8 times of the total weight of the raw materials, uniformly mixing, sealing, and fermenting at the low temperature of 20 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mash.
8. Filtration
The fermented mash is squeezed and filtered, and the clear liquid is the hawthorn yellow wine, and the physical and chemical indexes of the hawthorn yellow wine obtained from different grain raw materials are shown in table 1. According to test results, the alcohol content, the total ester content and the flavone content of the hawthorn yellow wine obtained by co-fermenting the rice raw material and the hawthorn are obviously higher than those of the corn and sorghum raw materials, and the hawthorn yellow wine is most suitable for brewing; the high-grade alcohol content of the hawthorn yellow wine obtained by co-fermenting the sorghum raw material and the hawthorn is the lowest, and other physical and chemical indexes are between that of the rice raw material and the corn raw material, so that the hawthorn yellow wine is relatively suitable for brewing; the hawthorn yellow wine obtained by co-fermenting the corn raw material and the hawthorn has high residual starch content, low alcohol content, high alcohol content and relatively poor wine quality.
TABLE 1 fermentation physicochemical indexes of different cereal raw materials of Hawthorn yellow wine
Note: 1. the total ester is the sum of ethyl acetate, ethyl isoamyl ester, isobutyl acetate, ethyl lactate and ethyl butyrate; 2. the total higher alcohol refers to the sum of n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol; 3. the flavone content is the sum of three main flavones of vitexin, rutin and quercetin;
example 2: determination of water adding ratio of rice, hawthorn and yellow wine
1. Raw materials
Hawthorn fruit: removing fruit stones, drying in the sun or baking, and requiring no mildew or worm damage;
rice: full granules, no impurities and no disease spots are required.
2. Pulverizing fructus crataegi
High-quality dried hawthorn is taken as a raw material, crushed and sieved by a 20-mesh sieve.
3. Steaming and boiling hawthorn raw material
Putting the crushed hawthorn into a steamer, steaming and boiling under normal pressure, steaming for 20-30min after circular steaming, and cooling for later use.
4. Steamed rice
Cleaning rice, soaking at normal temperature for 24h, adding water at a ratio of 1:1.1, steaming for about 30min to obtain paste, and cooling.
5. Bacterial culture saccharification
Placing the steamed grains in a previously cleaned and sterilized culture tank, adding Rhizopus koji 0.4 wt% of the raw materials, culturing and saccharifying at 30 deg.C for 24 hr, and allowing Rhizopus to grow mycelia to obtain culture saccharified substrate.
6. Preparation of yeast
Under the aseptic environment, the saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC No 2.1952 is inoculated into a sterilized corn hydrolysate test tube (20mL test tube, the liquid loading capacity is 10mL) from a slant test tube, and the standing culture is carried out for 24h at the temperature of 30 ℃ to obtain the primary seed of the yeast wine; inoculating the primary seed into sterilized corn hydrolysate culture medium (500mL triangular flask, liquid content 200mL), and standing at 30 deg.C for 16-18h to obtain secondary seed of yeast.
7. Fermentation of
Uniformly mixing the steamed hawthorn fine powder and the culture saccharification grains, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the rice raw material is 1:3, inoculating the cultured yeast secondary seeds according to the content of 600 ten thousand per mL of the total volume of the fermentation liquor, supplementing soft water 1-1.8 times of the total weight of the raw materials, uniformly mixing, sealing, and fermenting at 15 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mash.
8. Filtration
Squeezing and filtering the fermented mash to obtain clear liquid, namely the hawthorn yellow wine. The physical and chemical indexes are shown in Table 2. According to test results, when the ratio of the materials to the water is 1:1.0, the content of residual starch in the hawthorn yellow wine is high, the alcohol content is low, and the fermentation is incomplete; when the material-water ratio is 120 percent of the weight of the raw materials, the alcohol content of the hawthorn yellow wine reaches 17.4 percent (V/V), the flavone content reaches 46.51mg/L, the content of residual starch and residual reducing sugar is relatively low, and the hawthorn yellow wine meets the national standard regulation of dry yellow wine (GB/T13662-; with the increase of the water supplement amount, the alcohol content of the hawthorn yellow wine is gradually reduced from 17.4% to 13.05%, the content of residual starch and residual reducing sugar is reduced, and the content of flavone is reduced to 13.74 mg/L. The rice hawthorn yellow wine is better than the rice hawthorn yellow wine added with water by 120-140% of the weight of the raw materials by combining the indexes of alcoholic strength, residual starch, flavone content and the like.
TABLE 2 optimization test data of material-water ratio of rice raw material, hawthorn yellow wine
Note: 1. the total ester is the sum of ethyl acetate, ethyl isoamyl ester, isobutyl acetate, ethyl lactate and ethyl butyrate; 2. the total higher alcohol refers to the sum of n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol; 3. the flavone content is the total of vitexin, rutin, and quercetin.
Example 3: determination of addition amount of hawthorn leaves
Recent researches show that the hawthorn leaves have the same effect as hawthorn fruits, the hawthorn leaves also contain abundant flavonoids and triterpenes, and many effects of the hawthorn leaves, such as blood circulation promoting, blood stasis removing, blood sugar and lipid reducing, atherosclerosis preventing and the like, are related to the flavonoids. The total flavone content of the hawthorn leaves reaches the highest in the last 10 th month days, namely after the fruits are harvested, and the growth of the fruits cannot be influenced by the leaves harvested at the moment, so the hawthorn leaves have great development and research values.
1. Raw materials
Hawthorn fruit: removing fruit stones, drying in the sun or baking, and requiring no mildew or worm damage;
hawthorn leaves: drying or baking folium crataegi in the sun before and after mid-autumn without impurities and disease spots;
rice: full granules, no impurities and no disease spots are required.
2. Pulverizing fructus crataegi
High-quality dried hawthorn is taken as a raw material, crushed and sieved by a 20-mesh sieve.
3. Steaming and boiling hawthorn raw material
Putting the crushed hawthorn into a steamer, steaming and boiling under normal pressure, steaming for 20-30min after circular steaming, and cooling for later use.
4. Steamed rice
Cleaning rice, soaking at normal temperature for 24h, adding water at a ratio of 1:1.1, steaming for about 30min to obtain paste, and cooling.
5. Bacterial culture saccharification
Placing the steamed grains in a previously cleaned and sterilized culture tank, adding rhizopus koji according to 1.0% of the weight of the raw materials, culturing and saccharifying at 30 ℃ for 24h, and growing hypha from the rhizopus to prepare the culture saccharified substrate.
6. Preparation of yeast
Under the aseptic environment, the saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC No 2.1952 is inoculated into a sterilized corn hydrolysate test tube (20mL test tube, the liquid loading amount is 10mL) from a slant test tube, and the standing culture is carried out for 24h at the temperature of 30 ℃ to obtain the primary seed of the yeast wine; inoculating the primary seed into sterilized corn hydrolysate culture medium (500mL triangular flask, liquid content 200mL), and standing at 30 deg.C for 16-18h to obtain secondary seed of yeast.
7. Fermentation of
Uniformly mixing steamed hawthorn powder and the culture saccharification mash, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the rice raw material is 1:4, adding crushed hawthorn leaves accounting for 1-5% of the total weight of hawthorn and rice, inoculating cultured yeast secondary seeds according to the content of 600 ten thousand per mL of the total volume of the fermentation liquor, supplementing soft water accounting for 120% of the total weight of the raw materials, uniformly mixing, sealing, and performing low-temperature fermentation at 25 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mash.
8. Filtration
The fermented mash is squeezed and filtered, and the clear liquid is the hawthorn yellow wine, and the experimental results are shown in tables 3 and 4. The result shows that the addition of the hawthorn leaves can effectively improve the content of the flavonoid compounds in the hawthorn yellow wine. The main flavonoid in fructus crataegi is rutin, and the main flavonoid in folium crataegi is vitexin. With the increase of the addition amount of the hawthorn leaves, the content of vitexin in the hawthorn yellow wine is obviously increased, the content of rutin is slightly reduced, and the addition of the hawthorn leaves has no obvious influence on the generation of higher alcohols and esters. When the addition amount of the hawthorn leaves is 1 percent of the total weight of the raw materials, the content of the main flavone is 83.08 percent, which is improved by 50.32 percent compared with the control, and the taste is more harmonious; when the addition amount of the hawthorn leaves is 3% of the weight of the raw materials, the content of the main flavone is 125.59mg/L, which is 2.3 times of that of a control, and the taste is harmonious; when the addition amount of the hawthorn leaves is 5% of the weight of the raw materials, the content of main flavone is 170.39mg/L, but too high content of flavone causes the wine body to have bitter taste and heavy foreign taste, and the comprehensive effect is not as good as that when the addition amount of the hawthorn leaves is 3% of the weight of the raw materials.
TABLE 3 influence of the addition of folium crataegi on the physicochemical indices of Hawthorn yellow wine
Note: 1. the total ester is the sum of ethyl acetate, ethyl isoamyl ester, isobutyl acetate, ethyl lactate and ethyl butyrate; 2. the total higher alcohol refers to the sum of n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, active amyl alcohol and phenethyl alcohol; 3. the main flavone content is the total of vitexin, rutin and quercetin.
TABLE 4 influence of the addition of folium crataegi on the content of main flavone in Hawthorn yellow wine
Example 4: determination of alcohol content and time of hawthorn yellow wine after fermentation
1. Raw materials
Hawthorn fruit: removing fruit stones, drying in the sun or baking, and requiring no mildew or worm damage;
rice: full granules, no impurities and no disease spots are required.
2. Pulverizing fructus crataegi
High-quality dried hawthorn is taken as a raw material, crushed and sieved by a 20-mesh sieve.
3. Steaming and boiling hawthorn raw material
Pulverizing fructus crataegi powder, steaming under normal pressure, steaming for 20-30min, and cooling.
4. Steamed rice
Cleaning rice, soaking at normal temperature for 24h, adding water at a ratio of 1:1.1, steaming for about 30min to obtain paste, and cooling.
5. Bacterial culture saccharification
Placing the steamed grains in a previously cleaned and sterilized culture tank, adding Rhizopus koji 0.5 wt% of the raw materials, culturing and saccharifying at 30 deg.C for 24 hr, and allowing Rhizopus to grow mycelia to obtain culture saccharified substrate.
6. Preparation of yeast
Under the aseptic environment, the saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC No 2.1952 is inoculated into a sterilized corn hydrolysate test tube (20mL test tube, the liquid loading amount is 10mL) from a slant test tube, and the standing culture is carried out for 24h at the temperature of 30 ℃ to obtain the primary seed of the yeast wine; inoculating the primary seed into sterilized corn hydrolysate culture medium (500mL triangular flask, liquid content 200mL), and standing at 30 deg.C for 16-18h to obtain secondary seed of yeast.
7. Fermentation of
Uniformly mixing the steamed hawthorn powder and the culture saccharification grains, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the rice raw material is 1:4, inoculating the cultured yeast secondary seeds according to the total fermentation liquid content of 600 ten thousand per mL, supplementing soft water accounting for 120% of the total weight of the raw materials, uniformly mixing, sealing, and fermenting at the low temperature of 20 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mash.
8. Fermenting after adding wine
After fermentation, adding the wine from the previous batch of distiller's grains, adjusting to 16-32% (V/V) of the cooked mash, and performing after-fermentation at 25 deg.C for 7-28 days.
9. Filtering and distilling
After the post-fermentation is finished, squeezing and filtering the fermented mash to obtain clear liquid, namely the hawthorn yellow wine; distilling the distiller's grains to obtain about 60% (V/V) distiller's grains, and adding the fermented mash of the next batch for post-fermentation.
The influence of the alcohol content of the fermented wine after adding wine on the flavone content and the migration rate of the hawthorn yellow wine is shown in table 5. From the results, the flavone content in the hawthorn yellow wine is reduced to some extent due to the dilution effect of the added wine grains when the post-fermentation is started; along with the prolonging of the post-fermentation time and the increase of the alcohol content, the content and the mobility of main flavonoid substances in the hawthorn wine are gradually improved; when the post-fermentation alcohol content reaches 28.0% (V/V) and the post-fermentation time is 28 days, the content and the mobility of the main flavone reach the highest values.
TABLE 5 influence of alcohol content of fermented hawthorn yellow wine after adding wine on flavone content of hawthorn yellow wine
Note: 1. the flavone content refers to the sum of three main flavones of vitexin, rutin and quercetin. 2. The migration rate is the percentage of the flavone content in the hawthorn fruit migrating into the hawthorn yellow wine.
Example 5: determination of fermentation time after adding hawthorn leaf and hawthorn yellow wine
1. Raw materials
Hawthorn fruit: removing fruit stones, drying in the sun or baking, and requiring no mildew or worm damage;
hawthorn leaves: drying or baking folium crataegi in the sun before and after mid-autumn without impurities and disease spots;
rice: full granules, no impurities and no disease spots are required.
2. Pulverizing fructus crataegi
High-quality dried hawthorn is taken as a raw material, crushed and sieved by a 20-mesh sieve.
3. Steaming and boiling hawthorn raw material
Pulverizing fructus crataegi powder, steaming under normal pressure, steaming for 20-30min, and cooling.
4. Steamed rice
Cleaning rice, soaking at normal temperature for 24h, adding water at a ratio of 1:1.1, steaming for about 30min to obtain paste, and cooling.
5. Bacterial culture saccharification
Placing the steamed grains in a previously cleaned and sterilized culture tank, adding Rhizopus koji 0.5 wt% of the raw materials, culturing and saccharifying at 30 deg.C for 24 hr, and allowing Rhizopus to grow mycelia to obtain culture saccharified substrate.
6. Preparation of yeast
Inoculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae from a slant test tube into a sterilized corn hydrolysate test tube (20mL test tube, liquid loading amount 10mL) in an aseptic environment, and performing static culture at 30 ℃ for 24h to obtain primary yeast seeds; inoculating the primary seed into sterilized corn hydrolysate culture medium (500mL triangular flask, liquid content 200mL), and standing at 30 deg.C for 16-18h to obtain secondary seed of yeast.
7. Fermentation of
Uniformly mixing steamed hawthorn powder and culture saccharification mash, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the rice raw material is 1:4, adding the total weight of hawthorn and rice and 3% of crushed hawthorn leaves, inoculating cultured yeast secondary seeds according to the total fermentation broth content of 600 ten thousand per mL, supplementing water until the water content reaches 120% of the total raw material weight, uniformly mixing, sealing, and fermenting at the low temperature of 20 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mash.
8. Fermenting after adding wine
After the fermentation is finished, adding the vinasse obtained by distilling the previous batch of vinasse, adjusting the content of the cooked mash to 28% (V/V), and performing after-fermentation for 7-28 days at 25 ℃.
9. Filtering and distilling
After the post-fermentation is finished, squeezing and filtering the fermented mash to obtain clear liquid, namely the hawthorn yellow wine; distilling the distiller's grains to obtain about 60% (V/V) distiller's grains, and adding the fermented mash of the next batch for post-fermentation. The results are shown in Table 6. From the results, in the fermentation process after the vinasse is added, the flavone content reaches the highest value of 136.45mg/L when the hawthorn yellow wine is fermented for 28 days after the addition of the wine, the mobility is also 79.03% which is the highest, the flavone content is improved by 8.6% compared with the hawthorn yellow wine (125.59mg/L) which is not fermented after the addition of the wine, and in the fermentation after the addition of the wine, the flavone content is improved, the acidity of the hawthorn yellow wine is diluted, and the taste is softer and more balanced.
TABLE 6 influence of alcohol content of fermented hawthorn yellow wine after adding wine on flavone content of hawthorn yellow wine
After fermentation time (d) 0 7 14 21 28 35
Flavone content (mg/L) 117.57 126.09 120.90 131.27 136.45 122.63
Mobility (%) 68.07 73.00 70.23 76.14 79.03 71.06
Note: 1. the flavone content refers to the sum of three main flavones of vitexin, rutin and quercetin. 2. The migration rate is the percentage of the flavone content in the hawthorn fruit migrating into the hawthorn yellow wine.
The main quality indexes of the hawthorn yellow wine prepared by different processes are shown in table 7:
TABLE 7 Main quality index of Hawthorn yellow wine

Claims (4)

1. A brewing method of hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content comprises the following steps:
crushing hawthorn fruit, and sieving with a 20-mesh sieve; steaming in a steamer under normal pressure for 20-30min, and cooling to obtain steamed fructus crataegi powder;
cleaning rice, soaking at normal temperature for 24h, adding water at a weight ratio of 1:1.1, steaming for about 30min to make it fully gelatinized without white core, and cooling;
placing steamed rice in a cleaned and sterilized culture tank, adding Rhizopus koji 0.5 wt% of the raw materials, culturing and saccharifying at 30 deg.C for 24 hr to allow the Rhizopus to grow mycelia, and making into culture saccharified substrate;
inoculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC No 2.1952 from the slant test tube into sterilized corn hydrolysate test tube under sterile environment, and standing at 30 deg.C for 24 hr to obtain primary seed of yeast; inoculating the primary seeds into a sterilized corn hydrolysate culture medium according to the volume of 5%, and performing static culture at 30 ℃ for 16-18h to obtain secondary seeds of the yeast;
uniformly mixing steamed hawthorn powder and culture saccharification mash, wherein the ratio of the hawthorn raw material to the rice raw material is 1:4, adding crushed hawthorn leaves accounting for 3 percent of the total weight of hawthorn and rice, inoculating cultured yeast secondary seeds according to the total fermentation liquor content of 600 ten thousand per mL, supplementing soft water accounting for 1.2-1.4 times of the total weight of the raw materials, uniformly mixing, sealing, and fermenting at the low temperature of 20 ℃ for 14 days to obtain fermented mash;
after fermentation, adding wine lees to adjust the alcohol content of the mature mash to 16-32% (V/V), and performing after-fermentation at 25 ℃ for 28 d;
after the post-fermentation is finished, the fermented mash is squeezed and filtered, and the clear liquid is the hawthorn yellow wine.
2. The method for brewing the hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content according to claim 1, wherein the wine is distilled from 55-65% (V/V) of vinasse obtained by filtering the fermented mature mash.
3. The hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content prepared by the brewing method of any one of claims 1-2, which is characterized in that the wine color is pink to red brown, clear and transparent, lustrous, 16-32% (V/V) of wine degree and not less than 90mg/L of flavone content.
4. The hawthorn yellow wine with high flavone content as claimed in claim 3, wherein the content of flavonoids is 90-170.39 mg/L.
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