CN108104823B - A kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method - Google Patents

A kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108104823B
CN108104823B CN201711366636.8A CN201711366636A CN108104823B CN 108104823 B CN108104823 B CN 108104823B CN 201711366636 A CN201711366636 A CN 201711366636A CN 108104823 B CN108104823 B CN 108104823B
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tunnel
arch
construction
supporting
determined
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CN201711366636.8A
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CN108104823A (en
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于远祥
王赋宇
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西安科技大学
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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D11/00Lining tunnels, galleries or other underground cavities, e.g. large underground chambers; Linings therefor; Making such linings in situ, e.g. by assembling
    • E21D11/04Lining with building materials
    • E21D11/10Lining with building materials with concrete cast in situ; Shuttering also lost shutterings, e.g. made of blocks, of metal plates or other equipment adapted therefor
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D20/00Setting anchoring-bolts
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E21EARTH DRILLING; MINING
    • E21DSHAFTS; TUNNELS; GALLERIES; LARGE UNDERGROUND CHAMBERS
    • E21D9/00Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9/14Layout of tunnels or galleries; Constructional features of tunnels or galleries, not otherwise provided for, e.g. portals, day-light attenuation at tunnel openings

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction methods, comprising steps of one, country rock basic mechanical parameter determines;Two, Tunnel structure determination: tunnel sidewalls unstability judgement;Tunnel sidewalls are in stable state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and determine;Tunnel sidewalls are in the sliding failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown of drawing crack-and slide surface inclination angle, inside height, outside height and the collapsing width of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone determine;Tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and the collapsing width of side wall monocline face caving zone determines;Supporting construction determines;Three, tunnel excavation and Tunnel construction;Four, Tunnel Second Lining Construction;Five, next segmental construction;Six, step 5 is repeated several times, until completing tunnel whole work progress.The present invention judges that the supporting construction for consolidating support system to tunnel anchorage is designed according to tunnel sidewalls unstability, can be effectively controlled tunnel wall rock deformation destruction and construction cost is low.

Description

A kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method

Technical field

The invention belongs to technical field of tunnel construction, more particularly, to a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method.

Background technique

In recent years, developing by leaps and bounds with China's communication, a large amount of buried mountain tunnels will be travelling through rich water high-ground stress Area, construction faces prominent mud water burst, country rock squeezes large deformation and the serious problems such as even caves in, if supporting is not in time or mode is improper, Tunnel cross-section is easily led to reduce and supporting construction unstability, the rapid construction for seriously affecting tunnel and safe operation in the future.For a long time Since, numerous experts and scholars carry out the surrouding rock deformation mechanism and its support technology of soft rock tunnel (also referred to as Support System in Soft Rock Tunnels) Further investigation.What this country, high-ground stress tunnel, the ridge Deng Yimuzhai is engineering background, and analyzing tectonic stress, soft rock tunnel becomes off field Shape characteristic, energy accumulation, mechanical response and plastic zone rule;All skills etc. have inquired into meizoseismal area soft rock tunnel under different supporting schemes Vault settlement, perimeter convergence, ground settlement and structural internal force variation relation;Wang Bo etc. analyzes the big of meizoseismal area soft rock tunnel Deformation behaviour and its origin mechanism;Zhang Chaoqiang etc. is based on crustal stress measured result, analyzes the crustal stress of Soft Rock Tunnel Excavation phase Field distribution and failure and deformation of surrounding rocks feature;Chen Zhimin is ground by the field measurement to high ground stress soft rock stress tunnel crustal stress, theory Study carefully and numerical simulation, analyzes the mechanical mechanism of tunnel surrounding and supporting construction interaction;Wang Shuren etc. analyzes Wushao Ling The deformation mechanical mechanism of tunnel surrounding proposes the soft layer support technology of rigid gap;Li Hongbo etc. analyzes the mouth of a gorge by on-the-spot test The loading characteristic of high stressed soft rock Highway Tunnel Wall Rock deformation rule and structure proposes the branch of high stressed soft rock serious deformation Protect Design Countermeasure;Deng Botuan etc. establishes the strain softening constitutive model of Weak Rock highway Tunnel country rock.

Roof fall wall caving refers to that mine, tunnel, culvert excavation, lining cutting are improper because of excavation or supporting in the process, top or side wall Large area collapses the accident damaged.Wherein, tunnel sidewalls (also referred to as tunnel portion, side, tunnel-side or tunnel side wall) are in tunnel The phenomenon that being deformed under surrouding rock stress effect, destroying and fall off referred to as wall caving, also referred to as side wall disease;Tunnel top, which is caving, to be known as emitting Top.Before tunnel excavation, side wall rock mass is in three-dimensional stress original stable state.After tunnel excavation, cross suffered by tunnel sidewalls rock mass Become two dimensional stress state after being released to horizontal stress, compression strength significantly reduces;Meanwhile weight occurs for tunnel surrounding stress There is stress concentration in new distribution, periphery, and side wall rock mass stress increases, when side wall rock mass initial fissure tunnel roof (i.e. Tunnel upper rock mass) with the damage accumulation under tunnel floor (i.e. tunnel below rock mass) clamping action to certain magnitude when, tunnel Side wall will unstability, to the sliding failure by shear of drawing crack-or monocline face failure by shear occur.Wherein, it is deposited when in side wall rock mass At drawing crack face, the sliding failure by shear of drawing crack-as shown in Figure 2 will occur for tunnel sidewalls, at this time the tunnel of soft rock tunnel 1 The region that the sliding failure by shear of drawing crack-occurs in side wall country rock 2 is that side wall drawing crack slides caving zone 3-1, and q is tunnel roof work For the well-distributed pressure on tunnel sidewalls country rock 2;When drawing crack face is not present in side wall rock mass, tunnel sidewalls will occur such as to scheme The region of monocline face failure by shear occurs in the tunnel sidewalls country rock 2 of soft rock tunnel 1 at this time for monocline face failure by shear shown in 3 For side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2.

Although more research achievement is achieved in terms of soft rock tunnel surrouding rock deformation and support technology at present, about soft rock The research of Tunnel Landslide and pucking is also more deep, but still few for the research of tunnel wall caving disaster common in soft rock tunnel See, live wall caving handle measure still relies on construction experience, and regulation effect is also unsatisfactory.Especially to tunnel sidewalls unstability Soft rock tunnel for, almost without referential construction experience.

In addition, practice have shown that Pu Shi caving arch basic theories reflects objective the law of ground pressure to a certain extent, but be directed to Soft Rock Engineering still has following deficiency: the first, lacking the research to tunnel sidewalls (also referred to as tunnel portion, side) instability condition: research table Bright, the factors such as intensity, edpth of tunnel and tunnel excavation height of stability and rock mass itself of tunnel sidewalls are closely related: working as tunnel One timing of road side wall lithology and edpth of tunnel, tunnel height is bigger, and stability is poorer;Vice versa;Therefore, for a certain true For fixed tunnel sidewalls, there should be the critical altitude for making tunnel sidewalls unstability;The second, lack and tunnel sidewalls are not sympathized with The research of condition shearing slip: when tunnel sidewalls are unstable, failure by shear will occur for side wall, such as the sliding failure by shear of drawing crack- With monocline face failure by shear.Thus, it is past when calculating inbreak kiln crown using Pu Shi caving arch basic theories and determining pressure from surrounding rock Toward there are deviations, this directly affects the accuracy that tunnel support parameter determines.

Summary of the invention

In view of the above-mentioned deficiencies in the prior art, the technical problem to be solved by the present invention is that providing a kind of buried soft rock Method for tunnel construction, method and step is simple, realizes that convenient and using effect is good, is judged according to tunnel sidewalls unstability to tunnel anchorage Gu supporting construction used by support system is designed, and can be effectively controlled tunnel wall rock deformation destruction, and construction cost It is low.

In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is that: a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, It is characterized in that: dividing multiple segments to construct soft rock tunnel from the front to the back along tunnel longitudinal extension, multiple segments Construction method it is all the same;The soft rock tunnel is deep tunnel, and buried depth H >=2B of the soft rock tunnel, wherein B is soft rock tunnel The unit of the excavation width in road, H and B are m;When constructing for any segment, comprising the following steps:

Step 1: country rock basic mechanical parameter determines: by boring sample to scene and carrying out laboratory test, to currently being applied The country rock basic mechanical parameter of work segment is tested, and synchronizes record to test result;

Step 2: Tunnel structure determination: used Tunnel structure is the split molding tunnel of digging Road hole arch wall carries out the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure of supporting, and the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure is using bolt-mesh-spurting supporting side The preliminary bracing structure of method construction molding;The Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure include it is multiple along tunnel extending direction from the front to the back The tunnel anchorage being laid in the Tunnel consolidates support system, and the structure that multiple tunnel anchorages consolidate support system is all the same;

It is the first anchoring support system, the second anchoring support system or third anchoring body that the tunnel anchorage, which consolidates support system, System;

The first anchoring support system includes that the first tunnel arch supporting of supporting is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel System and the first tunnel sidewalls support system that supporting is carried out to the side wall of the Tunnel, first tunnel arch prop System and the first tunnel sidewalls support system are laid on same tunnel cross section;The first tunnel sidewalls support system packet Include the first side wall supporting unit that left and right two carries out supporting to the left and right side walls of the Tunnel respectively, two first sides Wall supporting unit is symmetrically arranged and the two is laid on same tunnel cross section;

First tunnel arch support system includes multiple the first arches for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right Portion's anchor pole;

Each first side wall supporting unit be on the Tunnel side wall side wall drawing crack slide caving zone into The asymmetric supporting construction of row supporting, the top of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone and the side wall top phase of the Tunnel Concordantly, the cross section of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone be right-angled trapezium and it include top drawing crack area and be located at the top Lower part slip region immediately below drawing crack area, the cross section in top drawing crack area are rectangle, the cross section of the lower part slip region For right angled triangle and upper part width and top drawing crack area it is of same size;Each first side wall supporting unit is equal Side wall shallow-layer supporting construction including side wall deep support structure and immediately below the side wall deep support structure;The side Wall deep support structure includes the side wall anchor cable that supporting is carried out in horizontal layout and to top drawing crack area, the side wall Shallow-layer supporting construction includes more the first side wall anchor poles that supporting is from top to bottom carried out to the lower part slip region, and more described the Side joist anchor bar is laid and it is tilted gradually downward from the inside to the outside in parallel;

The second anchoring support system includes that the second tunnel arch supporting of supporting is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel System and the second tunnel sidewalls support system that supporting is carried out to the side wall of the Tunnel, second tunnel arch prop System and the second tunnel sidewalls support system are laid on same tunnel cross section;The second tunnel sidewalls support system packet Include the second side wall supporting unit that left and right two carries out supporting to the left and right side walls of the Tunnel respectively, two described second side Wall supporting unit is symmetrically arranged and the two is laid on same tunnel cross section;

Second tunnel arch support system includes the tunnel arch that shallow-layer supporting is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel Shallow-layer supporting construction and the tunnel arch deep support structure that deep support is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel, tunnel arch Portion's shallow-layer supporting construction includes multiple the second arch anchor poles for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right, the tunnel arch Deep support structure includes multiple arch anchor cables for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right;

Each second side wall supporting unit is to carry out to the side wall monocline face caving zone on the Tunnel side wall The supporting construction of supporting, the top of side wall monocline face caving zone and the side wall top flush of the Tunnel, the side The cross section of wall monocline face caving zone is triangle;Each second side wall supporting unit includes more opposite sides from top to bottom Wall monocline face caving zone carries out second side joist anchor bar of supporting, and more second side joist anchor bars are in horizontal layout;

The third anchoring support system includes the more third arch anchors for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right Bar, more third arch anchor poles are laid on same tunnel cross section;

When being determined to the Tunnel structure, process is as follows:

Step 201, the judgement of tunnel sidewalls unstability: in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to FormulaCritical altitude h when tunnel sidewalls unstability is calculatedcr;Again will The critical altitude h being calculatedcrWith the side wall design height h of the Tunnel3It is compared: working as h3≤hcrWhen, judgement obtains The tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in stable state, and enter step 202;Work as hcr< h3≤h0maxWhen, judgement obtains described The tunnel sidewalls of Tunnel are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-, and enter step 203;Work as h3> h0maxWhen, judge The tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in monocline face failure by shear state out, and enter step 204;

Wherein, h0maxTunnel sidewalls by current construction segment are in upper under the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack- Limit for height degree and By the internal friction angle of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current construction segment, c By the cohesive strength of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current institute construction segment, γ by currently construction segment tunnel sidewalls country rock rock The volume-weighted average of body;The unit of c is Pa, and the unit of γ is N/m3, hcr、h3And h0maxUnit be m;

Step 202, tunnel sidewalls are in stable state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and determine: in conjunction with determined by step 1 Country rock basic mechanical parameter, and according to formulaIt is calculated and formed when tunnel sidewalls are in stable state emits naturally Fall the rise h of arch5

Wherein,F by current construction segment overlying rock solid coefficient;

Step 203, tunnel sidewalls are in the sliding failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown of drawing crack-and side wall is drawn Slide surface inclination angle, inside height, outside height and the collapsing width for splitting sliding caving zone determine: in conjunction with determined by step 1 Country rock basic mechanical parameter, and according to formulaTunnel sidewalls are calculated and are in drawing crack-cunning The rise h of the first limit caving arch is formed when shifting formula failure by shear1;Wherein, h4For the design excavation height of the Tunnel, h2+h3=h4, h2For the arch design height of the Tunnel, h1、h2And h4Unit be m;

Meanwhile in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to formulaIt calculates Obtain the slide surface inclination alpha of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone of current constructed segment;In formula, ψ is current construction segment The dilative angle of tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass;The slide surface inclination alpha of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone is that side wall drawing crack sliding is collapsed The angle to collapse between the slide surface and horizontal plane of lower part slip region described in area;

Further according to formula With Calculate separately the inside height h for obtaining the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone of current constructed segment0, outside height z and collapse wide Spend b, h0, z and b unit be m, 90 ° of α <;Wherein, q acts on tunnel sidewalls by the overlying rock of current construction segment Well-distributed pressure and q=γ on country rock0(h1+h2), γ0By the volume-weighted average of the overlying rock of current construction segment, γ0List Position is N/m3,

The height in top drawing crack area is z and its width is b, and the height of the lower part slip region is h0-z;

Step 204, tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and side wall monocline face collapses Collapse area collapsing width determine: in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to formulaIt is calculated when tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state and forms second limit The rise h of caving arch6

Meanwhile according to formulaThe collapsing of the side wall monocline face caving zone of current constructed segment is calculated Width b1;

Side wall monocline face caving zone upper width is b1;

Step 205, tunnel anchorage are consolidated supporting construction used by support system and are determined:

When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel be in stable state in step 201, according to true in step 202 The rise h of fixed natural caving arch5, supporting construction used by the third anchoring support system is determined;

When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-in step 201, According to the rise h of the first limit caving arch determined in step 2031, to used by the support system of first tunnel arch Supporting construction is determined;Meanwhile according to the slide surface inclination alpha of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone determined in step 203, inside Height h0, outside height z and collapsing width b, to side wall deep support structure and institute described in the first side wall supporting unit Supporting construction used by side wall shallow-layer supporting construction is stated to be determined respectively;

When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in monocline face failure by shear state in step 201, according to The rise h of the first limit caving arch determined in step 2031, to supporting used by the tunnel arch shallow-layer supporting construction Structure is determined;And according to the rise h of the second limit caving arch determined in step 2046, to the tunnel arch deep layer branch Supporting construction used by protection structure is determined;Meanwhile according to the collapsing width b1 determined in step 204, to described second Supporting construction used by side wall supporting unit is determined;

Step 3: tunnel excavation and Tunnel construction: excavating, open to current constructed segment from the front to the back The molding tunnel is dug according to the Tunnel structure identified in step 2 is split from the front to the back during digging Hole carries out preliminary bracing, and obtains the Tunnel structure of construction molding;

Step 4: Tunnel Second Lining Construction: split from the front to the back in step 3 to dig the molding Tunnel progress just In phase Bracing Process, on the inside of the Tunnel structure of construction molding, from the front to the back to current constructed segment Tunnel Second Lining is constructed;

Step 5: next segmental construction: repeating step 1 to step 4, construct to next segment;

Step 6: step 5 is repeated several times, until completing whole work progress of soft rock tunnel.

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: it is true to carry out country rock basic mechanical parameter in step 1 Before fixed, a segment is first chosen from current constructed segment and is excavated as test section;Country rock base is carried out in step 1 When this mechanics parameter determines, bore sample from the test section and carry out laboratory test, and test result obtained be excavate after when The country rock basic mechanical parameter of preceding constructed segment.

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: the first limit caving arch and step described in step 203 Caving arch when second limit caving arch described in rapid 204 is in state of limit equilibrium;

The longitudinal length of multiple segments is 10m~50m;

It is 0.8m~1.2m that the two neighboring tunnel anchorage in front and back, which consolidates the spacing between support system, in step 2.

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: to the third anchoring support system in step 205 When used supporting construction is determined, according to the rise h of the natural caving arch determined in step 2025To third arch anchor The length of bar is determined;The length of more third arch anchor poles is all the same, and the length of third arch anchor pole is not small In L4, wherein L4=l1+h5+l2, l1=0.1m~15cm, l2=0.3m~0.4m;

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the support system of first tunnel arch, according to step The rise h of the first limit caving arch determined in rapid 2031The length of first arch anchor pole is determined;More described first The length of arch anchor pole is all the same, and the length of first arch anchor pole is not less than L3, wherein L3=l1+h1+l2

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the tunnel arch shallow-layer supporting construction, according to step The rise h of the first limit caving arch determined in rapid 2031The length of second arch anchor pole is determined;More described second The length of arch anchor pole is all the same, and the length of second arch anchor pole is not less than L3

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the tunnel arch deep support structure, according to step The rise h of the second limit caving arch determined in rapid 2046The length of arch anchor cable is determined;Multiple arch anchor cables Length it is all the same, the length of the arch anchor cable is not less than L5, wherein L5=l1+h6+l2

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: first arch anchor pole and the second arch anchor pole Length be L3, the length of the arch anchor cable is L5

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: to the side wall deep support structure in step 205 When used supporting construction is determined, according in step 203 determine the opposite side outside height z joist anchor rope installation position into Row determines and is located at side wall anchor cable in top drawing crack area, is determined according to the length of the opposite side collapsing width b joist anchor rope And it extend out to the front end of side wall anchor cable on the outside of top drawing crack area;

When being determined to supporting construction used by the side wall shallow-layer supporting construction, according to slide surface inclination alpha to The tilt angle of side joist anchor bar is determined, according to inside height h0With outside height z and collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor The installation position of bar is determined and is laid in the more first side wall anchor poles from top to bottom on the lower part slip region, root It is determined according to length of the collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor pole and extend out to the front end of the every first side wall anchor pole On the outside of the lower part slip region.

A kind of above-mentioned buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: according to the length of the opposite side collapsing width b joist anchor rope into When row determines, the length L of the side wall anchor cable1=l1+L1+l2, wherein l1=0.1m~15cm, l2=0.3m~0.4m, L1 >= 1.5b;

When being determined according to length of the collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor pole, the length L of the first side wall anchor pole2 =l1+L2+l2, wherein L2 >=b and L2 < L1.

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method the, it is characterized in that: L1=3b~6b, the L2=1.5b ~3b;

The quantity of included first side wall anchor pole is three, described in three in the supporting construction of side wall shallow-layer described in step 2 First side wall anchor pole is in uniformly distributed;

Side wall anchor cable described in step 2 is located at the middle part in top drawing crack area, the side wall anchor cable and the Tunnel Side wall at the top of between spacing be

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: according to slide surface inclination alpha to the first side wall anchor pole When tilt angle is determined, 1=180 ° of-α-α of inclination angle alpha of the first side wall anchor pole0, α0For the first side wall anchor pole and side wall Drawing crack slides angle and 65 °≤α between the slide surface of lower part slip region described in caving zone0≤ 75 °, α 1 is the first side wall anchor Angle between bar and horizontal plane.

Above-mentioned a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterized in that: to the second side wall supporting unit in step 205 When used supporting construction is determined, according to the collapsing width b1 determined in step 204 to the length of second side joist anchor bar It is determined;The length of more second side joist anchor bars is all the same, and the length of second side joist anchor bar is not less than L6, wherein L6=l1+b1+l2, l1=0.1m~15cm, l2=0.3m~0.4m.

Compared with the prior art, the present invention has the following advantages:

1, construction method step is simple, realizes that convenient and input cost is low.

2, design is rationally and realization is convenient, carries out the clamped watch box of tunnel anchorage of supporting to Tunnel arch wall by rationally designing Supporting construction used by being, effectively reinforces soft rock tunnel, can effectively solve the surrouding rock deformation problem of soft rock tunnel.

3, support structure design used by tunnel arch is rationally and realization is convenient, can carry out to soft rock tunnel arch effective It reinforces, and can effectively solve because application Pu Shi caving arch basic theories calculates the inbreak pitch of arch and exists when determining pressure from surrounding rock inclined The low problem of official post tunnel support parameter accuracy, first judges tunnel sidewalls unstability, and according to tunnel sidewalls unstability Judging result chooses corresponding tunnel arch supporting scheme;Also, when determining tunnel arch supporting scheme, tunnel sidewalls are considered Monocline face shearing slip and tunnel sidewalls drawing crack-sliding shearing slip, thus can effectively ensure the effective of tunnel arch supporting Property and stability.That is, according to tunnel sidewalls unstability judging result, used tunnel arch supporting scheme area Not, under the premise of meeting stable supporting, reliable and safety, achieve the purpose that save the cost.

Wherein, when tunnel sidewalls are under stable state, tunnel arch uses suspension roof support structure, and without to tunnel side Wall carries out supporting;When tunnel portion, side plays pendulum down and is in tunnel sidewalls drawing crack-sliding failure by shear state, Tunnel arch uses suspension roof support structure, needs to synchronize to tunnel sidewalls progress supporting at this time, and be in shakiness according to tunnel sidewalls Determine inbreak kiln crown in tunnel under state to be determined tunnel arch supporting construction;Play pendulum down when tunnel portion, side and When in monocline face failure by shear state, tunnel arch needs to synchronize to tunnel at this time using anchor pole and Application of Combined Support with Anchor structure Side wall carry out supporting, and according to tunnel sidewalls play pendulum lower tunnel inbreak kiln crown to tunnel arch supporting construction into Row determines there is that economical, investment construction cost is lower, safe and reliable, thus can normally produce and be provided effectively for mine It ensures.

4, tunnel sidewalls support structure design is rationally and realization is convenient, when tunnel sidewalls play pendulum, to tunnel Unstable state locating for side wall is analyzed, and judges that tunnel sidewalls are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-, or single Inclined-plane failure by shear state is judged, and is determined according to judging result to tunnel sidewalls supporting construction.

Wherein, when tunnel sidewalls are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-, tunnel sidewalls supporting construction uses tunnel Side wall asymmetric supporting construction, each side wall supporting unit is all made of non-right up and down in tunnel sidewalls asymmetric supporting construction Title formula supporting construction when determining supporting scheme, considers the sliding shearing slip of the drawing crack-of tunnel sidewalls, and collapse according to side wall The slide surface inclination alpha in area, inside height h0, outside height z and collapsing width b be determined, can be to cutting in drawing crack-is sliding The tunnel sidewalls for cutting sliding mode are effectively reinforced, thus can effectively ensure the validity and stability of tunnel sidewalls supporting, In this way under the premise of meeting stable supporting, reliable and safety, achieve the purpose that save the cost, there is economic, investment to be constructed into The advantages that this is lower, safe and reliable, thus can be provided a strong guarantee for soft rock tunnel safe construction, it is asymmetric using tunnel sidewalls Formula supporting construction carries out effective support to tunnel sidewalls, and can be effectively controlled tunnel sidewalls failure and deformation of surrounding rocks, to tunnel sidewalls Effectively reinforced.

When tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state, monocline face failure by shear state is according to tunnel sidewalls The collapsing width of lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and side wall monocline face caving zone carries out supporting construction used by tunnel sidewalls true It is fixed, in this way under the premise of meeting stable supporting, reliable and safety, achieve the purpose that save the cost.

5, using effect is good, can be effectively controlled tunnel wall rock deformation destruction, can effectively be reinforced to soft rock tunnel, and Construction cost is low.

In conclusion the method for the present invention step is simple, realizes that convenient and using effect is good, judged according to tunnel sidewalls unstability Consolidate supporting construction used by support system to tunnel anchorage to be designed, and can be effectively controlled tunnel wall rock deformation destruction, and Construction cost is low.

Below by drawings and examples, technical scheme of the present invention will be described in further detail.

Detailed description of the invention

Fig. 1 is method flow block diagram of the invention.

Lane side mechanics model when sliding for the present invention the established tunnel sidewalls generation drawing crack-failure by shear of Fig. 2 Structural schematic diagram.

The structure of lane side mechanics model when Fig. 3 is the present invention established tunnel sidewalls generation monocline face failure by shear Schematic diagram.

Fig. 4 is the structural schematic diagram of the first anchoring support system of the invention.

Fig. 5 is the structural schematic diagram of the second anchoring support system of the invention.

Fig. 6 is the structural schematic diagram of third anchoring support system of the present invention.

Description of symbols:

1-soft rock tunnel;2-tunnel sidewalls country rocks;

3-1-side wall drawing crack slides caving zone;3-2-side wall monocline face caving zone;

4-side wall anchor cables;5-the first side wall anchor pole;6-the first arch anchor pole;

7-the second arch anchor pole;8-arch anchor cables;9-third arch anchor poles;

10-natural cavings arch;11-the first limit caving arch;

12-the second limit caving arch;13-second side joist anchor bars.

Specific embodiment

A kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method as shown in Figure 1, divides multiple from the front to the back along tunnel longitudinal extension Segment constructs to soft rock tunnel 1, and the construction method of multiple segments is all the same;The soft rock tunnel 1 is deep tunnel, Buried depth H >=2B of the soft rock tunnel 1, wherein B is the excavation width of soft rock tunnel 1, and the unit of H and B are m;For any When segment is constructed, comprising the following steps:

Step 1: country rock basic mechanical parameter determines: by boring sample to scene and carrying out laboratory test, to currently being applied The country rock basic mechanical parameter of work segment is tested, and synchronizes record to test result;

Step 2: Tunnel structure determination: used Tunnel structure is the split molding tunnel of digging Road hole arch wall carries out the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure of supporting, and the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure is using bolt-mesh-spurting supporting side The preliminary bracing structure of method construction molding;The Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure include it is multiple along tunnel extending direction from the front to the back The tunnel anchorage being laid in the Tunnel consolidates support system, and the structure that multiple tunnel anchorages consolidate support system is all the same;

It is the first anchoring support system, the second anchoring support system or third anchoring body that the tunnel anchorage, which consolidates support system, System;

As shown in figure 4, the first anchoring support system includes the first tunnel for carrying out supporting to the arch of the Tunnel Road arch support system and the first tunnel sidewalls support system that supporting is carried out to the side wall of the Tunnel, first tunnel Arch support system and the first tunnel sidewalls support system are laid on same tunnel cross section;First tunnel sidewalls Support system includes controlling two the first side wall supporting units for carrying out supporting to the left and right side walls of the Tunnel respectively, and two The first side wall supporting unit is symmetrically arranged and the two is laid on same tunnel cross section;

First tunnel arch support system includes multiple the first arches for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right Portion's anchor pole 6;

Each first side wall supporting unit is to slide caving zone 3-1 to the side wall drawing crack on the Tunnel side wall Carry out the asymmetric supporting construction of supporting, the top of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 and the side wall of the Tunnel Top flush, the cross section of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 be right-angled trapezium and it include top drawing crack area and position Lower part slip region immediately below top drawing crack area, the cross section in top drawing crack area are rectangle, the lower part sliding It is of same size with top drawing crack area that the cross section in area is right angled triangle and upper part width;Each first side wall Supporting unit includes side wall deep support structure and the side wall shallow-layer supporting immediately below the side wall deep support structure Structure;The side wall deep support structure includes the side wall anchor that supporting is carried out in horizontal layout and to top drawing crack area Rope 4, the side wall shallow-layer supporting construction include more the first side wall anchors that supporting is from top to bottom carried out to the lower part slip region Bar 5, more first side wall anchor poles 5 are laid and it is tilted gradually downward from the inside to the outside in parallel;

As shown in figure 5, the second anchoring support system includes the second tunnel for carrying out supporting to the arch of the Tunnel Road arch support system and the second tunnel sidewalls support system that supporting is carried out to the side wall of the Tunnel, second tunnel Arch support system and the second tunnel sidewalls support system are laid on same tunnel cross section;Second tunnel sidewalls Support system includes controlling two the second side wall supporting units for carrying out supporting to the left and right side walls of the Tunnel respectively, and two The second side wall supporting unit is symmetrically arranged and the two is laid on same tunnel cross section;

Second tunnel arch support system includes the tunnel arch that shallow-layer supporting is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel Shallow-layer supporting construction and the tunnel arch deep support structure that deep support is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel, tunnel arch Portion's shallow-layer supporting construction includes multiple the second arch anchor poles 7 for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right, the tunnel arch Portion's deep support structure includes multiple arch anchor cables 8 for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right;

Each second side wall supporting unit be to the side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2 on the Tunnel side wall into The supporting construction of row supporting, the top of side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2 and the side wall top flush of the Tunnel, institute The cross section for stating side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2 is triangle;Each second side wall supporting unit includes more by upper To the lower second side joist anchor bar 13 for carrying out supporting to side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2, more second side joist anchor bars 13 are in Horizontal layout;

As shown in fig. 6, the third anchoring support system includes more is laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right Third arch anchor pole 9, more third arch anchor poles 9 are laid on same tunnel cross section;

When being determined to the Tunnel structure, process is as follows:

Step 201, the judgement of tunnel sidewalls unstability: in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to FormulaCritical altitude h when tunnel sidewalls unstability is calculatedcr;Again will The critical altitude h being calculatedcrWith the side wall design height h of the Tunnel3It is compared: working as h3≤hcrWhen, judgement obtains The tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in stable state, and enter step 202;Work as hcr< h3≤h0maxWhen, judgement obtains described The tunnel sidewalls of Tunnel are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-, and enter step 203;Work as h3> h0maxWhen, judge The tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in monocline face failure by shear state out, and enter step 204;

Wherein, h0maxTunnel sidewalls by current construction segment are in upper under the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack- Limit for height degree and By the internal friction angle of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current construction segment, c By the cohesive strength of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current institute construction segment, γ by currently construction segment tunnel sidewalls country rock rock The volume-weighted average of body;The unit of c is Pa, and the unit of γ is N/m3, hcr、h3And h0maxUnit be m;

Step 202, tunnel sidewalls are in stable state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and determine: in conjunction with determined by step 1 Country rock basic mechanical parameter, and according to formulaIt is calculated and formed when tunnel sidewalls are in stable state emits naturally Fall the rise h of arch 105

Wherein,F by current construction segment overlying rock solid coefficient;

Step 203, tunnel sidewalls are in the sliding failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown of drawing crack-and side wall is drawn Slide surface inclination angle, inside height, outside height and the collapsing width for splitting sliding caving zone determine: in conjunction with determined by step 1 Country rock basic mechanical parameter, and according to formulaTunnel sidewalls are calculated and are in drawing crack-cunning The rise h of the first limit caving arch 11 is formed when shifting formula failure by shear1;Wherein, h4Height is excavated for the design of the Tunnel Degree, h2+h3=h4, h2For the arch design height of the Tunnel, h1、h2And h4Unit be m;

Meanwhile in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to formulaIt calculates Obtain the slide surface inclination alpha of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 of current constructed segment;In formula, ψ is segment of currently being constructed Tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass dilative angle;The slide surface inclination alpha of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 is sliding for side wall drawing crack Move the angle between the slide surface and horizontal plane of lower part slip region described in caving zone 3-1;

Further according to formula With Calculate separately the inside height h for obtaining the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 of current constructed segment0, outside height z and collapsing Width b, h0, z and b unit be m, 90 ° of α <;Wherein, q acts on tunnel side by the overlying rock of current construction segment Well-distributed pressure and q=γ on walled rock 20(h1+h2), γ0By the volume-weighted average of the overlying rock of current construction segment, γ0 Unit be N/m3,

The height in top drawing crack area is z and its width is b, and the height of the lower part slip region is h0-z;

Step 204, tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and side wall monocline face collapses Collapse area collapsing width determine: in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to formulaIt is calculated when tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state and forms second limit The rise h of caving arch 126

Meanwhile according to formulaIt is calculated the side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2's of current constructed segment Collapsing width b1;

Side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2 upper width is b1;

Step 205, tunnel anchorage are consolidated supporting construction used by support system and are determined:

When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel be in stable state in step 201, according to true in step 202 The rise h of fixed natural caving arch 105, supporting construction used by the third anchoring support system is determined;

When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-in step 201, According to the rise h of the first limit caving arch 11 determined in step 2031, first tunnel arch support system is used Supporting construction be determined;Meanwhile according to the slide surface inclination angle of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 determined in step 203 α, inside height h0, outside height z and collapsing width b, to side wall deep support knot described in the first side wall supporting unit Supporting construction used by structure and the side wall shallow-layer supporting construction is determined respectively;

When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in monocline face failure by shear state in step 201, according to The rise h of the first limit caving arch 11 determined in step 2031, prop up used by the tunnel arch shallow-layer supporting construction Protection structure is determined;And according to the rise h of the second limit caving arch 12 determined in step 2046, deep to the tunnel arch Supporting construction used by layer supporting construction is determined;Meanwhile according to the collapsing width b1 determined in step 204, to described Supporting construction used by second side wall supporting unit is determined;

Step 3: tunnel excavation and Tunnel construction: excavating, open to current constructed segment from the front to the back The molding tunnel is dug according to the Tunnel structure identified in step 2 is split from the front to the back during digging Hole carries out preliminary bracing, and obtains the Tunnel structure of construction molding;

Step 4: Tunnel Second Lining Construction: split from the front to the back in step 3 to dig the molding Tunnel progress just In phase Bracing Process, on the inside of the Tunnel structure of construction molding, from the front to the back to current constructed segment Tunnel Second Lining is constructed;

Step 5: next segmental construction: repeating step 1 to step 4, construct to next segment;

Step 6: step 5 is repeated several times, until completing whole work progress of soft rock tunnel 1.

Wherein, a is tunnel half-breadth.The arch wall includes arch and the left and right sides tunnel side wall of the Tunnel.

In the present embodiment, when being excavated in step 3 to current constructed segment, using full face tunneling method or step Method is excavated.

Also, used full face tunneling method or benching tunnelling method are conventional tunnel excavation method.

In the present embodiment, the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure further includes one layer of steel being mounted on the Tunnel arch wall Muscle net and one layer of concrete ejection layer being injected on the Tunnel arch wall, the steel mesh are fixed on the concrete ejection In layer.

In the present embodiment, the concrete layer is steel fiber concrete layer and its thickness is 20cm~30cm.

When constructing in step 3 to the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure, used construction method is conventional applies Work method.

In the present embodiment, the concrete layer is steel fiber concrete layer and its thickness is 20cm~30cm.

In the present embodiment, the longitudinal length of multiple segments is 10m~50m.

When practice of construction, according to specific needs, the longitudinal length of the segment is adjusted accordingly.

In the present embodiment, before progress country rock basic mechanical parameter determines in step 1, first from current constructed segment A segment is chosen to be excavated as test section;When progress country rock basic mechanical parameter determines in step 1, from the test Section, which is bored sample, carries out laboratory test, and test result obtained is by currently the country rock basic mechanical of construction segment is joined after excavation Number.

In the present embodiment, the test section is located at current constructed segment rear end and the length is 1m.

When progress country rock basic mechanical parameter determines in step 1, bores sample from the test section and carry out laboratory test, and Country rock basic mechanical parameter of the test result obtained by segment of currently constructing after excavation.

Also, the characteristics such as heterogeneous, the discontinuous and anisotropy in view of the tunnel surrounding of soft rock tunnel 1, mechanics ginseng Number must determine on the basis of test, to ensure that data are accurate and reliable, reduce and calculate error.

It should be noted that: the second limit caving arch described in the first limit caving arch 11 described in step 203 and step 204 12 caving arch when being in state of limit equilibrium.

In the present embodiment, in step 2 the two neighboring tunnel anchorage in front and back consolidate the spacing between support system for 0.8m~ 1.2m。

When practice of construction, according to specific needs, between the tunnel anchorage two neighboring to front and back is consolidated between support system Away from adjusting accordingly.

When progress country rock basic mechanical parameter determines in step 1, identified mechanics parameter includes current constructed segment The cohesive strength c of tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass, current constructed segment tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass internal friction angleCurrently The volume-weighted average of the volume-weighted average γ of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of constructed segment, the currently overlying rock of constructed segment γ0, current constructed segment tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass dilative angle ψ and the current robustness of constructed segment overlying rock Coefficient f.

Meanwhile also need the excavation width B to soft rock tunnel 1, current constructed segment overlying rock solid coefficient f, The arch design height h of the Tunnel2, the Tunnel design excavation height h4It is designed with the side wall of the Tunnel high Spend h3It is determined.

Wherein, the overlying rock of current constructed segment is also referred to as tunnel roof country rock, i.e., country rock above the described Tunnel, Also referred to as tunnel upper cover layer.

According to general knowledge known in this field, edpth of tunnel refer to top to the natural ground of tunnel excavation section it is vertical away from From.Herein, the buried depth H of the soft rock tunnel 1 is the vertical distance in the middle part of the arch of the Tunnel to natural ground.

The excavation width in tunnel refers to consider two linings, preliminary bracing, deformation allowance after the maximum of outline excavation excavate Width.Herein, the excavation width B of soft rock tunnel 1 is also referred to as span, refers to the maximum span of soft rock tunnel 1.

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the third anchoring support system, according to step 202 The rise h of the natural caving arch 10 of middle determination5The length of third arch anchor pole 9 is determined;More third arch anchors The length of bar 9 is all the same, and the length of third arch anchor pole 9 is not less than L4, wherein L4=l1+h5+l2, l1=0.1m~ 15cm, l2=0.3m~0.4m.

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the support system of first tunnel arch, according to step The rise h of the first limit caving arch 11 determined in rapid 2031The length of first arch anchor pole 6 is determined;More described The length of one arch anchor pole 6 is all the same, and the length of first arch anchor pole 6 is not less than L3, wherein L3=l1+h1+l2

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the tunnel arch shallow-layer supporting construction, according to step The rise h of the first limit caving arch 11 determined in rapid 2031The length of second arch anchor pole 7 is determined;More described The length of two arch anchor poles 7 is all the same, and the length of second arch anchor pole 7 is not less than L3

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the tunnel arch deep support structure, according to step The rise h of the second limit caving arch 12 determined in rapid 2046The length of arch anchor cable 8 is determined;Multiple arch anchors The length of rope 8 is all the same, and the length of the arch anchor cable 8 is not less than L5, wherein L5=l1+h6+l2

In the present embodiment, the length of first arch anchor pole 6 and the second arch anchor pole 7 is L3, the arch anchor cable 8 Length be L5

When practice of construction, according to specific needs, to third arch anchor pole 9, the first arch anchor pole 6, the second arch anchor pole 7 Length and the length of arch anchor cable 8 adjust accordingly respectively.

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the side wall deep support structure, according to step 203 The outside height of middle determinationzThe installation position of opposite side joist anchor rope 4 is determined and side wall anchor cable 4 is made to be located at top drawing crack area On, according to collapsing widthbThe length of opposite side joist anchor rope 4 is determined and the front end of side wall anchor cable 4 is made to extend out to the top and draws On the outside of split plot;

When being determined to supporting construction used by the side wall shallow-layer supporting construction, according to slide surface inclination angleαTo The tilt angle of side joist anchor bar 5 is determined, according to inside heighth0And outside heightzWith collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor The installation position of bar 5 is determined and is laid in the more first side wall anchor poles 5 from top to bottom on the lower part slip region, It is determined according to length of the collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor pole 5 and stretches the front end of the every first side wall anchor pole 5 Out to the lower part slip region outside.

For easy construction, when being determined according to the length of the opposite side collapsing width b joist anchor rope 4, the length of the side wall anchor cable 4 Spend L1=l1+L1+l2, wherein l1=0.1m~15cm, l2=0.3m~0.4m, L1 >=1.5b;

When being determined according to length of the collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor pole 5, the length of the first side wall anchor pole 5 L2=l1+L2+l2, wherein L2 >=b and L2 < L1.

Wherein, l1And l2Indicate that anchor pole is the length value for ensuring that valid bonding length is reserved to anchor pole or anchor cable both ends.It is practical In use, l1For any one numerical value within the scope of 0.1m~15cm, l2For any one numerical value within the scope of 0.3m~0.4m.

In the present embodiment, the L1=3b~6b, the L2=1.5b~3b.

In actual use, according to specific needs, the value size of L1 and L2 is adjusted accordingly.

When being determined according to tilt angle of the slide surface inclination alpha to the first side wall anchor pole 5, the first side wall anchor pole 5 inclines Rake angle α 1=180 °-α-α0, α0Lower part slip region described in caving zone 3-1 is slid with side wall drawing crack for the first side wall anchor pole 5 Angle and 65 °≤α between slide surface0≤ 75 °, angle of the α 1 between the first side wall anchor pole 5 and horizontal plane.

In the present embodiment, α0=69 °.

When practice of construction, according to specific needs, to α0Value size adjust accordingly.

In the present embodiment, the quantity of included first side wall anchor pole 5 is in the supporting construction of side wall shallow-layer described in step 2 Three, three first side wall anchor poles 5 are in uniformly distributed.

When practice of construction, according to specific needs, the cloth of quantity and each first side wall anchor pole 5 to the first side wall anchor pole 5 If position adjusts accordingly.

In the present embodiment, side wall anchor cable described in step 24 is located at the middle part in top drawing crack area, the side wall anchor cable 4 and the Tunnel side wall at the top of between spacing be

When practice of construction, according to specific needs, the installation position of opposite side joist anchor rope 4 is adjusted accordingly.

When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the second side wall supporting unit, according to step 204 The collapsing width b1 of middle determination is determined the length of second side joist anchor bar 13;The length of more second side joist anchor bars 13 All the same, the length of second side joist anchor bar 13 is not less than L6, wherein L6=l1+b1+l2, l1=0.1m~15cm, l2= 0.3m~0.4m.

In the present embodiment, the length of second side joist anchor bar 13 is L6

When practice of construction, according to specific needs, the length of second side joist anchor bar 13 is adjusted accordingly.

As shown in Fig. 2, side wall drawing crack sliding is collapsed when the tunnel sidewalls are in drawing crack-sliding failure by shear state Area 3-1 (i.e. right-angled trapezium ABCD) is the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass in state of limit equilibrium, and BC is potential slide surface, and α is Slip-crack surface inclination angle (the i.e. described slide surface inclination angle).Force analysis is carried out it is found that tunnel sidewalls by the country rock to side wall caving zone 3 Drawing crack-slide mass (i.e. side wall caving zone 3) be actually crucial weak structure body in tunnel surrounding, tunnel after unstability slides Effective width increases (tunnel sidewalls height is increase accordingly), and pole is unfavorable for the stabilization of tunnel vault;In addition, side wall surface wall caving is unloaded Its top concentrates pressure peak to shift to deep after load, increases the elastic plastic interphase formed after side wall deforms into tunnel The distance of the heart, so that the tunnel floor maximal destruction depth and its pucking amount that generate under side wall extruding dramatically increase.Therefore, right Side wall, which carries out timely and effectively supporting, has important engineering significance.

As shown in figure 3, side wall monocline face caving zone 3-2 is (i.e. when the tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state Triangle ABE) it is the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass in state of limit equilibrium, BE is potential slide surface, and α is slip-crack surface inclination angle (the i.e. described slide surface inclination angle).Tunnel effective width further increases (tunnel sidewalls height accordingly further increases), tunnel side Wall will become monocline face failure by shear state by the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-.

In the present embodiment, the average buried depth H=490m of constructed soft rock tunnel 1.The tunnel sidewalls of constructed soft rock tunnel 1 For vertical wall and its height is 4.88m, sagitta 7.2m, excavation width B=14.3m, thus h4=12.08m, h2=7.2m, h3= 4.88m。

It obtains after tested: the cohesive strength c=91kP of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current constructed segmenta=91 × 103Pa, the internal friction angle of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current constructed segmentIt is covered on current constructed segment The volume-weighted average γ of rock stratum0=21.6kN/m3=21.6 × 103N/m3, the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current constructed segment Dilative angle ψ=9 °.The solid coefficient f=7.8 of current constructed segment overlying rock.

Also, since constructed soft rock tunnel 1 is deep tunnel, the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of 1 two sides of soft rock tunnel by Power state is identical, thus country rock basic mechanical parameter is carried out in step 1 when determining, scene is bored sample from any one tunnel side Wall Rock Mass is taken out.In the present embodiment, the volume-weighted average γ of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current constructed segment= γ0=21.6 × 103N/m3

The method according to step 201 carries out the judgement of tunnel sidewalls unstability, obtains the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel In the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-.In intrinsic supporting scheme, tunnel sidewalls use length for the level note of 4.0m Slurry anchor pole is not able to satisfy surrouding rock deformation demand for control then, and the sliding failure by shear of drawing crack-inevitably occurs for tunnel sidewalls.

The rise h of first limit caving arch 11 of the Tunnel1

The overlying rock of current constructed segment acts on the well-distributed pressure (also referred to as evenly load) on tunnel sidewalls country rock 2 Q=γ0(h1+h2)=21.6 × 103× (7.2+2.1)=200.9kPa=200.9 × 103Pa。

The slide surface inclination angle of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 of current constructed segment

The inside height of the side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone 3-1 of current constructed segment

Outside height

Collapsing width

And originally tunnel sidewalls anchor pole employed in phase supporting scheme is in horizontal layout, such anchor pole and sliding in the tunnel Face angle theoretical value is 139 °, and angle is excessive, cannot give full play to the anti-shear ability of anchor rod body itself in this way;Also, Shearing slip after side wall drawing crack can not be limited.Also, due to collapsing width b=0.87m, former side wall rock-bolt length is designed as 4.0m is also theoretically unsound, and easily causes the huge waste of manpower and material resources.

In the present embodiment, the length of side wall anchor cable 4 is 5m, and the length of the first side wall anchor pole 5 is 2.5m, and the first side wall Anchor pole 5 and side wall drawing crack slide the angle α between the slide surface of lower part slip region described in caving zone 3-10=69 °, thus energy Give full play to the anti-shear ability of anchor rod body itself;Also, the Design of length of the first side wall anchor pole 5 and side wall anchor cable 4 is reasonable, First side wall anchor pole 5 matches the shearing slip after capable of effectively limiting side wall drawing crack with side wall anchor cable 4, and not will cause manpower The huge waste of material resources.

Also, the length L of first arch anchor pole 63According to formula L3=l1+h1+l2It is determined, meets tunnel arch Supporting demand.

The above is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, is not intended to limit the invention in any way, it is all according to the present invention Technical spirit any simple modification to the above embodiments, change and equivalent structural changes, still fall within skill of the present invention In the protection scope of art scheme.

Claims (10)

1. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method, it is characterised in that: divide multiple sections from the front to the back along tunnel longitudinal extension Section constructs to soft rock tunnel (1), and the construction method of multiple segments is all the same;The soft rock tunnel (1) is buried tunnel Road, buried depth H >=2B of the soft rock tunnel (1), wherein B is the excavation width of soft rock tunnel (1), and the unit of H and B are m;It is right When any segment is constructed, comprising the following steps:
Step 1: country rock basic mechanical parameter determines: laboratory test is carried out by boring sample to scene, to current section of constructing The country rock basic mechanical parameter of section is tested, and synchronizes record to test result;
Step 2: Tunnel structure determination: used Tunnel structure is the split molding Tunnel of digging Arch wall carries out the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure of supporting, and the Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure is to be applied using bolt-mesh-spurting supporting method The molding preliminary bracing structure of work;The Bolt net and jet preliminary bracing structure includes multiple laying from the front to the back along tunnel extending direction Tunnel anchorage in the Tunnel consolidates support system, and the structure that multiple tunnel anchorages consolidate support system is all the same;
It is the first anchoring support system, the second anchoring support system or third anchoring system that the tunnel anchorage, which consolidates support system,;
The first anchoring support system includes the first tunnel arch support system that supporting is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel With to the Tunnel side wall carry out supporting the first tunnel sidewalls support system, first tunnel arch support system and The first tunnel sidewalls support system is laid on same tunnel cross section;The first tunnel sidewalls support system includes a left side Right two carry out the first side wall supporting unit of supporting, two the first side wall branch to the left and right side walls of the Tunnel respectively Shield unit is symmetrically arranged and the two is laid on same tunnel cross section;
First tunnel arch support system includes multiple the first arch anchors for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right Bar (6);
Each first side wall supporting unit be on the Tunnel side wall side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone (3-1) into The asymmetric supporting construction of row supporting, the top of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone (3-1) and the side wall of the Tunnel Top flush, the cross section of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone (3-1) be right-angled trapezium and it include top drawing crack area and Lower part slip region immediately below top drawing crack area, the cross section in top drawing crack area are rectangle, and the lower part is sliding It is of same size with top drawing crack area that the cross section for moving area is right angled triangle and upper part width;Each first side Wall supporting unit includes side wall deep support structure and the side wall shallow-layer branch immediately below the side wall deep support structure Protection structure;The side wall deep support structure includes the side wall that supporting is carried out in horizontal layout and to top drawing crack area Anchor cable (4), the side wall shallow-layer supporting construction include more the first sides that supporting is from top to bottom carried out to the lower part slip region Joist anchor bar (5), more first side wall anchor poles (5) are laid and it is tilted gradually downward from the inside to the outside in parallel;
The second anchoring support system includes the second tunnel arch support system that supporting is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel With to the Tunnel side wall carry out supporting the second tunnel sidewalls support system, second tunnel arch support system and The second tunnel sidewalls support system is laid on same tunnel cross section;The second tunnel sidewalls support system includes a left side Right two carry out the second side wall supporting unit of supporting, two the second side wall branch to the left and right side walls of the Tunnel respectively Shield unit is symmetrically arranged and the two is laid on same tunnel cross section;
Second tunnel arch support system includes the tunnel arch shallow-layer that shallow-layer supporting is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel Supporting construction and the tunnel arch deep support structure that deep support is carried out to the arch of the Tunnel, the tunnel arch are shallow Layer supporting construction includes multiple the second arch anchor poles (7) for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right, the tunnel arch Deep support structure includes multiple arch anchor cables (8) for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right;
Each second side wall supporting unit is to carry out to the side wall monocline face caving zone (3-2) on the Tunnel side wall The supporting construction of supporting, the top of side wall monocline face caving zone (3-2) and the side wall top flush of the Tunnel, institute The cross section for stating side wall monocline face caving zone (3-2) is triangle;Each second side wall supporting unit include more by Up to the lower second side joist anchor bar (13) for carrying out supporting to side wall monocline face caving zone (3-2), more second side joist anchor bars It (13) is in horizontal layout;
The third anchoring support system includes the more third arch anchor poles for being laid in the Tunnel arch from left to right (9), more third arch anchor poles (9) are laid on same tunnel cross section;
When being determined to the Tunnel structure, process is as follows:
Step 201, the judgement of tunnel sidewalls unstability: in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to formulaCritical altitude h when tunnel sidewalls unstability is calculatedcr;It will calculate again The critical altitude h obtainedcrWith the side wall design height h of the Tunnel3It is compared: working as h3≤hcrWhen, judgement obtains described The tunnel sidewalls of Tunnel are in stable state, and enter step 202;Work as hcr< h3≤h0maxWhen, judgement obtains the tunnel The tunnel sidewalls in hole are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-, and enter step 203;Work as h3> h0maxWhen, judgement obtains institute The tunnel sidewalls for stating Tunnel are in monocline face failure by shear state, and enter step 204;
Wherein, h0maxTunnel sidewalls by current construction segment are in the limit level under the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack- And By the internal friction angle of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current construction segment, c is current The cohesive strength of the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of constructed segment, γ put down by the tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass of current institute construction segment Equal bulk density;The unit of c is Pa, and the unit of γ is N/m3, hcr、h3And h0maxUnit be m;
Step 202, tunnel sidewalls are in stable state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and determine: in conjunction with country rock identified in step 1 Basic mechanical parameter, and according to formulaTunnel sidewalls are calculated and are in formed natural caving arch when stable state (10) rise h5
Wherein,F by current construction segment overlying rock solid coefficient;
Step 203, tunnel sidewalls are in the sliding failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown of drawing crack-and side wall drawing crack is sliding Slide surface inclination angle, inside height, outside height and the collapsing width for moving caving zone determine: in conjunction with country rock identified in step 1 Basic mechanical parameter, and according to formulaTunnel sidewalls are calculated and are in drawing crack-sliding The rise h of the first limit caving arch (11) is formed when formula failure by shear1;Wherein, h4Height is excavated for the design of the Tunnel Degree, h2+h3=h4, h2For the arch design height of the Tunnel, h1、h2And h4Unit be m;
Meanwhile in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to formulaIt is calculated The slide surface inclination alpha of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone (3-1) of current constructed segment;In formula, ψ is current construction segment The dilative angle of tunnel sidewalls Rock Mass;The slide surface inclination alpha of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone (3-1) is sliding for side wall drawing crack Move the angle between the slide surface and horizontal plane of lower part slip region described in caving zone (3-1);
Further according to formula With Calculate separately the inside height h for obtaining side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone (3-1) of current constructed segment0, outside height z and collapse Collapse width b, h0, z and b unit be m, 90 ° of α <;Wherein, q acts on tunnel by the overlying rock of current construction segment Well-distributed pressure and q=γ on side wall country rock (2)0(h1+h2), γ0By the average appearance of the overlying rock of current construction segment Weight, γ0Unit be N/m3,
The height in top drawing crack area is z and its width is b, and the height of the lower part slip region is h0-z;
Step 204, tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state lower roof plate inbreak kiln crown and side wall monocline face caving zone Collapsing width determine: in conjunction with country rock basic mechanical parameter identified in step 1, and according to formulaIt is calculated when tunnel sidewalls are in monocline face failure by shear state and forms second limit The rise h of caving arch (12)6
Meanwhile according to formulaThe collapsing of the side wall monocline face caving zone (3-2) of current constructed segment is calculated Width b1;
Side wall monocline face caving zone (3-2) upper width is b1;
Step 205, tunnel anchorage are consolidated supporting construction used by support system and are determined:
When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel be in stable state in step 201, according to determination in step 202 Natural caving encircles the rise h of (10)5, supporting construction used by the third anchoring support system is determined;
When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in the sliding failure by shear state of drawing crack-in step 201, according to The rise h of the first limit caving arch (11) determined in step 2031, to used by the support system of first tunnel arch Supporting construction is determined;Meanwhile according to the slide surface inclination angle of side wall drawing crack sliding caving zone (3-1) determined in step 203 α, inside height h0, outside height z and collapsing width b, to side wall deep support knot described in the first side wall supporting unit Supporting construction used by structure and the side wall shallow-layer supporting construction is determined respectively;
When judgement show that the tunnel sidewalls of the Tunnel are in monocline face failure by shear state in step 201, according to step The rise h of the first limit caving arch (11) determined in 2031, to supporting used by the tunnel arch shallow-layer supporting construction Structure is determined;And according to the rise h of the second limit caving arch (12) determined in step 2046, deep to the tunnel arch Supporting construction used by layer supporting construction is determined;Meanwhile according to the collapsing width b1 determined in step 204, to described Supporting construction used by second side wall supporting unit is determined;
Step 3: tunnel excavation and Tunnel construction: excavating, excavated to current constructed segment from the front to the back In journey according to the Tunnel structure identified in step 2 from the front to the back it is split dig the molding Tunnel into Row preliminary bracing, and obtain the Tunnel structure of construction molding;
Step 4: Tunnel Second Lining Construction: split from the front to the back in step 3 to dig the molding Tunnel progress initial stage branch During shield, on the inside of the Tunnel structure of construction molding, from the front to the back to the tunnel of current constructed segment Secondary lining is constructed;
Step 5: next segmental construction: repeating step 1 to step 4, construct to next segment;
Step 6: step 5 is repeated several times, until completing whole work progress of soft rock tunnel (1).
2. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method described in accordance with the claim 1, it is characterised in that: carry out country rock in step 1 Before basic mechanical parameter determines, a segment is first chosen from current constructed segment and is excavated as test section;Step When progress country rock basic mechanical parameter determines in one, bores sample from the test section and carry out laboratory test, and test obtained It as a result is the country rock basic mechanical parameter of construction segment current after excavating.
3. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: described in step 203 Emitting when the second limit caving arch (12) described in the first limit caving arch (11) and step 204 is in state of limit equilibrium Fall arch;
The longitudinal length of multiple segments is 10m~50m;
It is 0.8m~1.2m that the two neighboring tunnel anchorage in front and back, which consolidates the spacing between support system, in step 2.
4. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: to institute in step 205 When stating supporting construction used by third anchoring support system and being determined, encircleed according to the natural caving determined in step 202 (10) rise h5The length of third arch anchor pole (9) is determined;The length of more third arch anchor poles (9) is homogeneous Together, the length of third arch anchor pole (9) is not less than L4, wherein L4=l1+h5+l2, l1=0.1m~15cm, l2=0.3m~ 0.4m;
When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the support system of first tunnel arch, according to step 203 The rise h of first limit caving arch (11) of middle determination1The length of first arch anchor pole (6) is determined;More described The length of one arch anchor pole (6) is all the same, and the length of first arch anchor pole (6) is not less than L3, wherein L3=l1+h1+l2
When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the tunnel arch shallow-layer supporting construction, according to step 203 The rise h of first limit caving arch (11) of middle determination1The length of second arch anchor pole (7) is determined;More described The length of two arch anchor poles (7) is all the same, and the length of second arch anchor pole (7) is not less than L3
When being determined in step 205 to supporting construction used by the tunnel arch deep support structure, according to step 204 The rise h of second limit caving arch (12) of middle determination6The length of arch anchor cable (8) is determined;Multiple arch anchors The length of rope (8) is all the same, and the length of the arch anchor cable (8) is not less than L5, wherein L5=l1+h6+l2
5. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 4, it is characterised in that: first arch anchor pole (6) and the length of the second arch anchor pole (7) is L3, the length of the arch anchor cable (8) is L5
6. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: to institute in step 205 When stating supporting construction used by side wall deep support structure and being determined, according to the opposite side outside height z determined in step 203 The installation position of joist anchor rope (4) is determined and is located at side wall anchor cable (4) in top drawing crack area, according to collapsing width b The length of opposite side joist anchor rope (4) is determined and extend out to the front end of side wall anchor cable (4) on the outside of top drawing crack area;
When being determined to supporting construction used by the side wall shallow-layer supporting construction, according to slide surface inclination alpha to the first side The tilt angle of joist anchor bar (5) is determined, according to inside height h0With outside height z and collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor The installation position of bar (5) is determined and the more first side wall anchor poles (5) is made from top to bottom to be laid in the lower part sliding Qu Shang is determined according to length of the collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor pole (5) and makes the every first side wall anchor pole (5) Front end extend out on the outside of the lower part slip region.
7. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 6, it is characterised in that: according to b pairs of collapsing width When the length of side wall anchor cable (4) is determined, the length L of the side wall anchor cable (4)1=l1+L1+l2, wherein l1=0.1m~ 15cm, l2=0.3m~0.4m, L1 >=1.5b;
When being determined according to length of the collapsing width b to the first side wall anchor pole (5), the length L of the first side wall anchor pole (5)2 =l1+L2+l2, wherein L2 >=b and L2 < L1.
8. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 7, it is characterised in that: the L1=3b~ 6b, the L2=1.5b~3b;
The quantity of included first side wall anchor pole (5) is three, described in three in the supporting construction of side wall shallow-layer described in step 2 First side wall anchor pole (5) is in uniformly distributed;
Side wall anchor cable described in step 2 (4) is located at the middle part in top drawing crack area, the side wall anchor cable (4) and the tunnel Spacing between at the top of the side wall in hole is
9. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 6, it is characterised in that: according to slide surface inclination alpha When being determined to the tilt angle of the first side wall anchor pole (5), 1=180 ° of-α-α of inclination angle alpha of the first side wall anchor pole (5)0, α0The folder between the slide surface of lower part slip region described in caving zone (3-1) is slid for the first side wall anchor pole (5) and side wall drawing crack Angle and 65 °≤α0≤ 75 °, angle of the α 1 between the first side wall anchor pole (5) and horizontal plane.
10. a kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: right in step 205 When supporting construction used by the second side wall supporting unit is determined, according to the collapsing width b1 determined in step 204 The length of second side joist anchor bar (13) is determined;The length of more second side joist anchor bars (13) is all the same, and described The length of two side wall anchor poles (13) is not less than L6, wherein L6=l1+b1+l2, l1=0.1m~15cm, l2=0.3m~0.4m.
CN201711366636.8A 2017-12-18 2017-12-18 A kind of buried soft rock tunnel construction method CN108104823B (en)

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