CN108089433A - A kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID Controller and control method for direct current generator - Google Patents

A kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID Controller and control method for direct current generator Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108089433A
CN108089433A CN201711289321.8A CN201711289321A CN108089433A CN 108089433 A CN108089433 A CN 108089433A CN 201711289321 A CN201711289321 A CN 201711289321A CN 108089433 A CN108089433 A CN 108089433A
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China
Prior art keywords
fractional order
direct current
order pid
pid controller
current generator
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CN201711289321.8A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
史永胜
李娜
王雪丽
宁青菊
史禄培
魏浩
李珏
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Shaanxi University of Science and Technology
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Shaanxi University of Science and Technology
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Priority to CN201711289321.8A priority Critical patent/CN108089433A/en
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    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B11/00Automatic controllers
    • G05B11/01Automatic controllers electric
    • G05B11/36Automatic controllers electric with provision for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential
    • G05B11/42Automatic controllers electric with provision for obtaining particular characteristics, e.g. proportional, integral, differential for obtaining a characteristic which is both proportional and time-dependent, e.g. P.I., P.I.D.

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID Controller and control method for direct current generator, including buck converter, direct current motor system, Fractional Order PID Controller.Wherein buck converter is a kind of static power electronic circuit, fixed DC input voitage can be converted to variable dc output, due to the use of inductor and capacitor, DC/DC buck converters generate smooth DC output voltage and electric current, ripple is smaller, and noise reduces.Direct current generator is made of armature and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, and direct current generator is excited by exciting current and armature voltage.Due to the use of Fractional Order PID Controller, the present invention can provide more stably speed control, without additional component or circuit.In non-integer Fractional Order PID Controller is for integer systematic difference, adjust gain and phase characteristic ratio have greater flexibility when using integer fraction rank PID controller.It is powerful that this flexibility so that fractional order control has the advantages that in terms of robust control system is designed.

Description

A kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID Controller and control method for direct current generator
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID Controllers and control method for direct current generator.
Background technology
Direct current generator be widely used in need high-precision and density system or application in, such as electric car, steel rolling mills, Electric crane and high-precision digital instrument.In this applications, it is due to its accurate and linear electricity using direct current generator Flow torque characteristics.In general, motor is used for armature voltage control model, to realize stable speed responsive.Using based on pulsewidth tune The input voltage of system (PWM) is the driving most common method of direct current generator.DC/DC power supply changeover devices, which can be realized, more smoothly to be controlled Direct current generator processed.Particularly, due to the use of inductor and capacitor, DC/DC buck converters generate smooth direct current output electricity Pressure and electric current, ripple is smaller, and noise reduces.
It is preferably as its is simple in structure, and with less in many commercial Applications based on the control program of PID Settling time, the various advantages such as quick control and low cost application.Recently, this control program is had spread over using fraction The generalized form of calculation is related to differentiation and the integration of fractional order, to obtain the controllability of bigger and precision.
The content of the invention
The shortcomings that it is an object of the invention to overcome the above-mentioned prior art, provides a kind of independent digit for direct current generator Fractional Order PID Controller and control method.
In order to achieve the above objectives, the present invention is achieved by the following scheme:
A kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID control system for direct current generator, including buck converter, direct current generator system System and Fractional Order PID Controller;The output terminal of Fractional Order PID Controller passes through buck converter and direct current motor system phase Even, provided for direct current generator and stablize smooth input voltage;The input terminal input error signal of Fractional Order PID Controller, error Signal is the reference velocity of motor and the difference of actual speed.
Further improve of the invention is:
Buck converter includes low-pass filter circuit, and low-pass filter circuit includes full-controlled switch pipe IGBT, two pole of afterflow Pipe, filter inductance and capacitance;Capacitance both ends are connected in parallel on as output terminal on direct current generator;Full-controlled switch pipe as input terminal with The output terminal of Fractional Order PID Controller is connected.
Direct current generator drives direct current generator using input voltage based on pulsewidth modulation, including armature and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, encourages Magnetic winding is connected with the output terminal of buck converter.
Fractional Order PID Controller includes Fractional Order PID Controller and PWM module, and the input terminal of Fractional Order PID Controller is defeated Enter error signal, output terminal connection PWM module;PWM module is by gate driver by signal output to buck converter.
A kind of control method of independent digit Fractional Order PID control system for direct current generator, comprises the following steps:
1) register, timer, ADC ports and the GPIO port of Fractional Order PID Controller are initialized, input and error become Amount is allocated initial value;ADC ports obtain the actual speed reading of motor;
2) error between Continuous plus reference velocity and actual speed, and by Fractional Order PID Controller control variable most Smallization;
3) and then by the control signal of Fractional Order PID Controller PWM module is supplied to adjust full-controlled switch pipe IGBT Switch.
Its further improvement is:
Buck converter is analyzed with the modeling of direct current generator adoption status space average method, obtains transmission function;Fraction The transmission function C (s) of rank PID controller such as formulas (1):
C (s)=kp+kis+kdsβ, (α, β > 0) (1)
Wherein, kpIt is proportionality constant, kiIt is integral constant, kdIt is derivative constant, α and β are arithmetic numbers;
For fractional order operator discretization, frequency domain is fitted within continuous time, discrete approximation is then carried out and continuously transfers letter Number;Fractional order operator sαUsing the discrete method of Tustin approximation methods, 0.001 is selected as the sampling time and carries out discretization; Tustin approximation methods and Bilinear Method are related to s domains and z domains transmission function using as shown in formula (2) with lower aprons:
In continuous discrete conversion, the discretization C of continuous transmission function C (s)d(z) exported by formula (3);
Cd(z)=C (s ') (3)
Wherein,
In frequencies omegaL=1rad/s and ωHS in the desired frequency band of=10000rad/s0.2Digital fractional differentiator most Good zero algorithm of pole obtains pole and zero;Then digital fractional differentiator s is obtained0.2Bode diagram, be depicted near with Tustin Like the digital differentiator of method and continuous time differentiator tight fit;The design method phase of digital integrator and digital differentiator Together.
Output voltage is adjusted by changing the turn-on time of switch.
Fractional Order PID is using dynamic PSO methods come Optimal Parameters.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the advantages that:
The present invention is used for the independent digit Fractional Order PID Controller of direct current generator, and buck converter is used to drive direct current Machine using the control method of Fractional Order PID, improves the control accuracy of converter.In the situation of the FO-PID controllers of proposition Under, control DC MOTOR CONTROL speed (current requirements) is less than integer P ID Fractional Order PID Controller situations.This causes the party Case is energy saving, and can be controlled in fuel efficiency reactor, and robot application etc. is applied.Performance evaluation, which has been inferred, to be made With the Fractional Order PID Controller of proposition, optimum speed control is striven for by less, so as to improve control efficiency. Adjust gain and phase characteristic ratio of the present invention has greater flexibility when using integer fraction rank PID controller.It is this flexible Property allows fractional order control to improve the robustness of system.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is direct current generator closed speed control flow chart;
Fig. 2 is the integrated circuit figure that synchronous excitation direct current generator adds control;
Fig. 3 is control method flow chart.
Specific embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings:
Referring to Fig. 1-3, the present invention is used for the independent digit Fractional Order PID control system of direct current generator, including decompression transformation Device, direct current motor system and Fractional Order PID Controller;The output terminal of Fractional Order PID Controller is by buck converter and directly Stream electric system is connected, and is provided for direct current generator and stablizes smooth input voltage;The input terminal input of Fractional Order PID Controller misses Difference signal, error signal are the reference velocity of motor and the difference of actual speed;Control system is Fractional Order PID Controller, is needed Five parameters are adjusted, using optimisation technique come adjusting parameter { kp,ki,kd, α, β }, and it is fed to Fractional Order PID Controller Error signal is the reference velocity of motor and the difference of actual speed.For this five parameters, argument is carried out in five dimension superspaces Parameter optimization adjusts FO-PID controller parameters using dynamic PSO optimisation techniques.
The switch control of buck converter is operated by pwm pulse, and adjusts the armature voltage of direct current generator.Buck converter Including low-pass filter circuit, low-pass filter circuit includes full-controlled switch pipe IGBT, fly-wheel diode, filter inductance and capacitance; Capacitance both ends are connected in parallel on as output terminal on direct current generator;Full-controlled switch pipe is as input terminal and Fractional Order PID Controller Output terminal is connected;Direct current generator uses the input voltage driving direct current generator based on pulsewidth modulation (PWM), including armature and excitation Winding, Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection are connected with the output terminal of buck converter;Fractional Order PID Controller includes Fractional Order PID Controller and PWM Module, the input terminal input error signal of Fractional Order PID Controller, output terminal connection PWM module;PWM module is driven by door Device is by signal output to buck converter.
As shown in the figure, Fig. 1 is direct current generator closed speed control flow chart.It is fed to the error of Fractional Order PID Controller Signal is the reference velocity of motor and the difference of actual speed.And then the output of Fractional Order PID Controller adjusts buck converter Duty cycle (δ), and adjust the armature voltage of direct current generator.Using State-space Averaging Principle to buck converter and direct current generator into Row modeling analysis, and obtain its transmission function;
The transmission function of Fractional Order PID Controller can be expressed as:
C (s)=kp+kis+kdsβ, (α, β > 0)
Wherein, kpIt is proportionality constant, kiIt is integral constant, kdIt is derivative constant, α and β are arithmetic numbers.Five in Fractional Order PID Proportionality coefficient k in a parameterp, integral coefficient ki, differential coefficient kdIt is similar with three parameters in integer rank PID controller, Control action is also roughly the same, in addition more two parameter scores ranks integration order α and fractional order differential order β, control accuracy Higher.Fractional order operator sαUsing the discrete method of Tustin.The parameter optimization of Fractional Order PID uses intelligent optimization method, tool Body selects dynamic PSO methods to carry out Optimal Parameters.
It is for fractional order operator discretization first, i.e., frequency domain is fitted within continuous time, then carries out discrete approximation company Resume delivery function.In this work, 0.001 is selected as the sampling time using Tustin approximation methods and carries out discretization. Tustin and Bilinear Method with lower aprons using being related to s domains and z domains transmission function as shown in formula.
In continuous discrete conversion, the discretization C of continuous transmission function C (s)d(z) exported by following formula.
Cd(z)=C (s ')
Wherein,
In frequencies omegaL=1rad/s and ωHS in the desired frequency band of=10000rad/s0.2Digital fractional differentiator most Good zero algorithm of pole can obtain pole and zero.Then digital fractional differentiator s can be obtained0.2Bode diagram, tool has been depicted There are the digital differentiator of Tustin approximation methods and continuous time differentiator tight fit.Numerical fraction integrator is along similar to number The method design of word digital fractional differentiator.
DC wotor speed control feedback mechanism by controlling the armature voltage of direct current generator as shown in Fig. 2, control electricity The rotating speed of machine.The armature voltage is adjusted using buck converter, and the variation of wherein duty cycle adjusts the defeated of converter circuit Go out voltage.As previously mentioned, pulse-width signal is provided by PWM module, for operating the switch of buck converter.
Control method is based on DSP (TMS320F28027) and is used as the embedded platform for realizing numerical fraction rank PID controller And it realizes.Because it has, analog- and digital- input and output are compatible, the programmable storage of bigger, quick processing speed, And it is the cost-effective method for realizing control method.The working frequency of processor is 60MHz.It has built in 13 12 ADC channel can receive the signal in the range of 0-3V.It can be by specifying the quantity of analog input channel, sample frequency and logical Road change over order is programmed ADC ports.It has 22 general programmable input/output ports.The code of algorithm is compiled first It translates, then perform and is loaded into DSP.The flash memory of processor can be run in the independent mode, avoid the need of host It will.
As shown in figure 3, Fig. 3 method flow diagrams in order to control.Control register, timer, ADC and GPIO port are first first Beginningization.Input and error variable are allocated initial value.ADC obtains the actual speed reading of motor.Reference velocity and actual speed Between error Continuous plus, and minimized by control variable.Then the control signal of Fractional Order PID Controller is supplied to PWM module is to adjust the switch of MOSFET.In addition, adjust output voltage by changing the turn-on time of switch.
The present invention is applied to the Fractional Order PID Controller of the direct current generator actuating speed based on FO-PID, independent number FO-PID controllers are realized on TMS320F28027DSP.The result shows that by applying FO-PID controllers, direct current generator Speed responsive improves precision.
More than content is merely illustrative of the invention's technical idea, it is impossible to protection scope of the present invention is limited with this, it is every to press According to technological thought proposed by the present invention, any change done on the basis of technical solution each falls within claims of the present invention Protection domain within.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID control system for direct current generator, which is characterized in that including buck converter, Direct current motor system and Fractional Order PID Controller;The output terminal of Fractional Order PID Controller passes through buck converter and direct current Machine system is connected, and is provided for direct current generator and stablizes smooth input voltage;The input terminal error originated from input letter of Fractional Order PID Controller Number, error signal is the reference velocity of motor and the difference of actual speed.
2. the independent digit Fractional Order PID control system according to claim 1 for direct current generator, which is characterized in that Buck converter includes low-pass filter circuit, and low-pass filter circuit includes full-controlled switch pipe IGBT, fly-wheel diode, filtered electrical Sense and capacitance;Capacitance both ends are connected in parallel on as output terminal on direct current generator;Full-controlled switch pipe is as input terminal and Fractional Order PID The output terminal of controller is connected.
3. the independent digit Fractional Order PID control system according to claim 1 for direct current generator, which is characterized in that Direct current generator drives direct current generator using input voltage based on pulsewidth modulation, including armature and Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection, Exciting Windings for Transverse Differential Protection with The output terminal of buck converter is connected.
4. the independent digit Fractional Order PID control system according to claim 1 for direct current generator, which is characterized in that Fractional Order PID Controller includes Fractional Order PID Controller and PWM module, and the input terminal error originated from input of Fractional Order PID Controller is believed Number, output terminal connection PWM module;PWM module is by gate driver by signal output to buck converter.
5. a kind of control method of the independent digit Fractional Order PID control system for direct current generator described in claim 4, It is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
1) register, timer, ADC ports and the GPIO port of Fractional Order PID Controller, input and error variable quilt are initialized Distribute initial value;ADC ports obtain the actual speed reading of motor;
2) error between Continuous plus reference velocity and actual speed, and minimized by Fractional Order PID Controller control variable;
3) and then by the control signal of Fractional Order PID Controller PWM module is supplied to adjust opening for full-controlled switch pipe IGBT It closes.
6. control method according to claim 5, which is characterized in that buck converter and direct current generator adoption status space Method of average modeling is analyzed, and obtains transmission function;The transmission function C (s) of Fractional Order PID Controller such as formulas (1):
C (s)=kp+kis+kdsβ, (α, β > 0) (1)
Wherein, kpIt is proportionality constant, kiIt is integral constant, kdIt is derivative constant, α and β are arithmetic numbers;
For fractional order operator discretization, frequency domain is fitted within continuous time, then carries out the continuous transmission function of discrete approximation;Point Number rank operator sαUsing the discrete method of Tustin approximation methods, 0.001 is selected as the sampling time and carries out discretization;Tustin is near It is related to s domains and z domains transmission function like method and Bilinear Method using as shown in formula (2) with lower aprons:
<mrow> <mi>z</mi> <mo>=</mo> <msup> <mi>e</mi> <mrow> <msub> <mi>sT</mi> <mi>s</mi> </msub> </mrow> </msup> <mo>&amp;ap;</mo> <mfrac> <mrow> <mn>1</mn> <mo>+</mo> <msub> <mi>sT</mi> <mi>s</mi> </msub> <mo>/</mo> <mn>2</mn> </mrow> <mrow> <mn>1</mn> <mo>-</mo> <msub> <mi>sT</mi> <mi>s</mi> </msub> <mo>/</mo> <mn>2</mn> </mrow> </mfrac> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mo>-</mo> <mrow> <mo>(</mo> <mn>2</mn> <mo>)</mo> </mrow> </mrow>
In continuous discrete conversion, the discretization C of continuous transmission function C (s)d(z) exported by formula (3);
Cd(z)=C (s ') (3)
Wherein,
In frequencies omegaL=1rad/s and ωHS in the desired frequency band of=10000rad/s0.2Digital fractional differentiator optimal pole Zero algorithm obtains pole and zero;Then digital fractional differentiator s is obtained0.2Bode diagram, be depicted with Tustin approximation methods Digital differentiator and continuous time differentiator tight fit;Digital integrator is identical with the design method of digital differentiator.
7. control method according to claim 5, which is characterized in that adjust output by changing the turn-on time of switch Voltage.
8. control method according to claim 5, which is characterized in that Fractional Order PID optimizes ginseng using dynamic PSO methods Number.
CN201711289321.8A 2017-12-07 2017-12-07 A kind of independent digit Fractional Order PID Controller and control method for direct current generator Pending CN108089433A (en)

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