CN1080614C - Precision broaching method and cutter for spiral cylindrical gear - Google Patents

Precision broaching method and cutter for spiral cylindrical gear Download PDF

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Publication number
CN1080614C
CN1080614C CN99107099A CN99107099A CN1080614C CN 1080614 C CN1080614 C CN 1080614C CN 99107099 A CN99107099 A CN 99107099A CN 99107099 A CN99107099 A CN 99107099A CN 1080614 C CN1080614 C CN 1080614C
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China
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broaching
tooth
gear
broaching tool
flank
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Expired - Fee Related
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CN99107099A
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CN1275458A (en
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彭福华
彭倩
曾睦邦
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彭福华
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Abstract

The present invention relates to a precise broaching method and a cutter for helical cylindrical gears, belonging to the finish machining field of the tooth surfaces of involute helical cylindrical gears. The present invention adopts pairs of helical rack-shaped broaching cutters with linear blades, which are arranged at both sides of a helical gear tooth to be machined. In the reciprocating broaching process that gears and the broaching cutters make opposite spiral movement, the finish machining of all the wheel tooth surfaces of the helical gear is completed. The broaching cutter has simple structure and reasonable geometric angle. The broaching cutter can realize sharpening on a machine. The broaching cutter has the characteristics of high machining precision, high efficiency, steady cutting, easy shaping and simple machine tool.

Description

Accurate broaching method of helical gears and cutter
The invention belongs to involute helical gears flank of tooth fine finishining field.
Plurality of advantages such as broaching processing has high accuracy, high efficiency, cutter life is long, machine tool motion is simple.In batch, extensive use and obtain significant technology, economic benefit in a large amount of the production.Use broaching and add work gear, present rarely seen employing strip (single teeth groove of broaching, the monodentate calibration), fan-shaped (several teeth groove of broaching, count the tooth calibration) and tubular (whole teeth groove of broaching, unit needs calibration) the broaching tool broaching, its common feature is: broaching tool blade profile of tooth designs by forming process, processing gear number of teeth difference, the slot form difference, broaching tool is special-purpose and only can process spur gear.
The object of the present invention is to provide the accurate broaching method of helical gears and the simple diagonal-cut rack shape of the configuration broaching tool of a kind of efficient, high accuracy, the low-cost soft flank of tooth of broaching or the hard flank of tooth.
The objective of the invention is to finish by the following technical programs: adopt paired diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool broaching gear tooth two lateral tooth flanks that split the gear tooth both sides, gear is done relative screw with broaching tool, screw parameter p=r b/ tg β b, every along gear shaft once to reciprocal cutting, finish the fine finishining of the gear bilateral flank of tooth.
Be used for the diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool of the accurate broaching method special use of helical gears, it has the inclination angle and goes into=β bb-processed rolling circle helical angle) rectilinear edge, the corresponding successively corresponding gear teeth flank of tooth of cutting of every blade and with this helical gear flank of tooth---the straight line bus of spiral involute surface fits in the broaching, the broaching tool normal pitch equals processed gear Normal base pitch, and the broaching tool crest top land is rake face A γ, the broaching tool teeth groove side of the corresponding processing flank of tooth is back knife face A α, broaching tool non-working side teeth groove side is rear flank A c, broaching tool cutter tooth longitudinal section is a zigzag, its normal rake γ n, normal relief angle α n, all can select reasonable value for use according to cutting principle, Clearance angle α by concrete working condition c=30.40' is to strengthen cutter tooth intensity.
Each cutter tooth of diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool T shown in the accompanying drawing 1 (this figure simply illustrate to broach dextrorotation helical gear right flank, the left side processes roughly the same) have the inclination angle be into rectilinear edge, go into=β bb-processed rolling circle helical angle), the long l of rectilinear edge 〉=(ρ MaxMin)/Sin λ (ρ Max---processed gear teeth tips involute radius of curvature, ρ Min---processed gear involute starting point radius of curvature), the broaching tool tooth number Z o=Z (Z---the processed gear number of teeth), cutter tooth normal pitch P nEqual processed gear Normal base pitch, i.e. P n=π m nCos α n(m n---processed gear cyclotomy normal module, α n-processed gear normal pressure angle); Each rectilinear edge of broaching tool T is arranged in same plane (Q), and (Q) plane and processed tooth radius are r during installation bBase cylinder section (S) overlap and the broaching tool direction parallel with the axis of processed gear, in other words, the rectilinear edge at broaching tool tooth inclination λ angle must fit with the straight line generation line of gear G right side spiral involute surface, when broaching tool from top to bottom with When doing straight line broaching motion, gear G presses as shown Rotation counterclockwise, lathe need guarantee ω=vtg β b/ r b, that is to say that the relative motion relation between gear and the cutter is that the relative broaching tool T of gear G finishes screw, this screw helix parameter p=r b/ t gβ b, guarantee that the broaching tool rectilinear edge at every moment fits with the straight line generation line of spiral involute surface, thereby process the accurate helical gear flank of tooth.In gear rotates a circle many slightly processes, each cutter tooth of broaching tool correspondence successively enters the teeth groove processing flank of tooth, finish the fine finishining of the whole gear teeth right flank of whole gear, as stated above, corresponding left flank is installed another broaching tool and is done the relative screw of rightabout with processed gear and can finish the fine finishining of the whole gear teeth left flank of whole gear, in other words, in the broaching of the relative both sides of gear broaching tool round trip, finish the fine finishining of the gear bilateral flank of tooth.
The present invention provides a kind of tooth bar shape broaching tool with the simplest straight line formation cutter tooth blade, and processed relatively gear shaft is to doing rectilinear motion, and processed gear is attached with corresponding rotation in addition, the helical gear spiral involute surface flank of tooth of broaching.Broaching tool structure and machine tool motion are all very simple, realize the purpose of efficient, high accuracy, the low-cost accurate soft flank of tooth of broaching or hard flank of tooth helical gears.
Technical characterstic of the present invention and effect are as follows:
1, broaching tool adopts rectilinear edge, manufactures and designs simply, be easy to iron chains dress carbide alloy or other superhard cutter material blade, can realize the hardening flank of tooth fine finishining and the broaching flank of tooth do not produce the flank profil polygon and the teeth directional waviness of common envelope generate, guarantees the Gear Processing high accuracy, flank of tooth high-quality.
2, geometric angle is selected reasonable value for use, and every blade cutting at one time gets final product complete processing one lateral tooth flank, can improve tool life;
3, blade work is inclined cutting, and the blade active length withdraws from cutting from 0 → maximum → 0, and machining condition is good, stable working;
4, reface simply, when especially adopting zero anterior angle, each cutter tooth rake face is in same plane, can reface on the realization machine, deepens the gullet depth increase storage level of refacing, and improves the number of times of refacing, and guarantees the cutter high life;
5, blade grinds a little concave shape and realizes gear modification, improves meshing quality;
6, broaching machine motion is simple, back and forth cuts bilateral flank of tooth no-idle running, and productivity ratio is high and easily realize automation;
In sum, the present invention improves fine finishining quality and productivity ratio to different rows industry software, hard flank of tooth helical gear, aspect such as reduce cost, easy to use has plurality of advantages, and can further extend to the very big fine finishining such as automobile steering device gear, bull involute helicoid worm of helical angle.
Further specify particular content of the present invention and embodiment below in conjunction with accompanying drawing.
Accompanying drawing 1 is a broaching dextrorotation helical gear right flank schematic diagram;
Accompanying drawing 2 is 0 ° of profile angle helical rack cutter process principle figure of imagination;
Accompanying drawing 3 is broaching tool installation of the present invention, motion, meshing relation figure;
Accompanying drawing 4 is broaching tool structural parameters figure of the present invention, and wherein N-N is the normal tooth profile section;
Accompanying drawing 5 is broaching machine motion mode figure;
What at first need to specify is ooth-cutting tprinciple of the present invention.
Show as accompanying drawing 2: imaginary have inclination angle λ '=β b, normal pitch P n=π m nCos α n0 ° of profile angle helical rack T ' during with the helical gear engaged transmission, helical rack T ' along rolling circle post section (S) with speed Move, gear is with direction as shown Rotation, the relation of the pure rolling of rolling circle post is pressed in tooth bar, gear maintenance, tooth bar tooth top left side crest line MK etc. will be along the involute profile of gear teeth face from tooth top to the slippage of tooth root direction, if tooth bar T ' looked makees the then visual cutting edge of doing each cutter tooth such as MK of cutter, in engagement process, downcut smear metal and realize the fine finishining of the helical gear flank of tooth from gear teeth tips to tooth root.When the M point apart from working pitch point P apart from MP=ρ MaxWhen (gear teeth tips involute radius of curvature), blade begins cutting pinion upper surface tooth top, moves to K ' P=ρ MinWhen (gear involute starting point radius of curvature), blade cutting pinion lower surface tooth root finishes, and finishes a lateral tooth flank fine finishining, desires to add the whole gear teeth of work gear, and the tooth bar number of teeth should equal the gear number of teeth.Obviously, along with tooth bar moves, each cutter tooth blade also can continue to move through working pitch point after processing the corresponding flank of tooth, can not guarantee flank profil involute starting point tram and even produce undercut thereby be directed at; In addition, constitute cutter with so imaginary tooth bar, cutter tooth intensity is difficult to practical application a little less than too, if strengthen non-working side back of tooth intensity, after cutter passes through working pitch point, the back of tooth will produce with the non-truncated sides flank of tooth of gear interferes, and the present invention adopts accompanying drawing 1, the reinforcement back of tooth that accompanying drawing 4 shows, the diagonal-cut rack cutter of saw-tooth shaped cross section for this reason, and the tool motion direction is changed into move axially along gear and solve above-mentioned drawback.
Show that as accompanying drawing 3 the present invention adopts the diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool T that strengthens the back of tooth, with imaginary helical rack T ' have identical major parameter (λ=λ '=β b, P n=π m nCos α n), both position quadratures, broaching tool T installation site parallel with gear shaft O-O but the biasing, amount of bias B=ρ MinThe broaching tool translational speed Wherein Be equal to imaginary tooth bar T ' translational speed, promptly keep gear to press base cylinder pure rolling relation Gear angle of revolution speed omega=υ tg β b/ r b, | υ 1|=| υ |/Cos β bBe the sliding velocity of blade along the flank of tooth, so the present invention's cutting process belongs to inclined cutting, to improving edge strength, improving the cutwork angle, volume is considered to be worth doing, and chip removal improves the working angles stationarity and all brings favourable influence.In addition, each blade work length from 0 → maximum → 0 more helps alleviating the shock and vibration in the working angles.Because broaching tool biasing B, the broaching tool direction of motion is parallel with Gear axis, can guarantee flank profil involute starting point tram and avoid the interference of the non-truncated sides broaching tool back of tooth and the flank of tooth.According to the above description, broaching tool T cutting flank of tooth forming process of the present invention is equivalent to 0 ° of profile angle helical rack of the imagination engagement process that tangentially moves along gear, only is to have increased sliding velocity along the flank of tooth Can correctly cut the helical gear of gear shaper without theoretical errors fully.The present invention forms the same skiving of analysis classes from the flank of tooth, does broaching from cutter, machine cut mode are then visual.
What need in addition to specify is broaching tool structure and major parameter:
Show that as accompanying drawing 4 according to the broaching tool working condition, smear metal is from tooth bar end face A during cutting γFlow out A γBe rake face, the broaching tool teeth groove side A of the corresponding processing flank of tooth αBe back knife face, broaching tool non-working side teeth groove side A cBe rear flank.
1, rake face and anterior angle
Rake face can adopt simple plane, for guaranteeing edge strength and when avoiding cutting and the non-process side flank interference of gear, getting its width b o=m n, mark normal rake γ in broaching tool method section N-N n, γ nSelect reasonable value according to concrete working condition for use according to theory of metal cutting, the elected normal rake γ that uses nBe that 0 o'clock broaching tool structure is the simplest, each cutter tooth rake face A γBe same plane.The rake face of refacing is very simple, detachable broaching tool is down being refaced on the surface grinding machine and can not unloaded broaching tool and whet a knife on the additional bistrique realization machine on the broaching machine, not only make things convenient for use but also can exempt the loading, unloading cutter time and repeat to load and unload the error that causes, help enhancing productivity and machining accuracy.
2, back knife face and relief angle
Back knife face also can adopt simple plane, mark normal relief angle α in broaching tool method section N-N n, α nSelect reasonable value for use according to theory of metal cutting.
3, rear flank and Clearance angle
Rear flank also can adopt simple plane, mark Clearance angle α in broaching tool method section N-N cGet α c=30 °-40 ° when strengthening cutter tooth intensity and avoiding cutting and the non-process side flank interference of gear.
4, cutting edge shape, active length and inclination angle
By aforementioned theoretical cutter tooth blade is straight line, according to processed gear modification requirement, for needing correction of the flank shape to improve the gear of flank engagement contact zone, allows the blade sharpening is become the shape of a little indent, shown in F tooth in the accompanying drawing 4.Blade indent amount δ determines according to processed gear modification needs, in process, processed gear teeth tips, tooth root part will be by the blade of indent a little cross and cut into profile modification.By aforementioned edge tilted angle λ=β b, its direction is determined according to processed gear rotation direction, the minimum active length l=of blade (ρ MaxMin)/Sin λ gets broaching tool minimum widith W 〉=1Sin λ to satisfy the complete flank of tooth needs of processing, need determine by the broaching tool structural design.
5, cutter tooth normal pitch P nAnd groove depth h.
By aforementioned P n=π m nCos α NoTooth depth h oDifferent and different according to the mode of refacing, h when adopting the surface of refacing for the back knife face o=h (the processed gear fully teeth height of h-) adopts h when refacing rake face or alternately refacing back knife face, rake face o=h+ △ (△---the tooth depth direction is equipped with the mill amount).
6, broaching tool tooth number Z oAnd length overall L o
The broaching tool tooth number Z o=Z (the processed gear number of teeth of Z-)
Broach length L o=[P n(Zo+1)/Sin λ]+L (L-is according to structural design needs elongated portion)
7, cutting tip material and structure
Select different cutter materials and structure for use according to processed gear material, heat treatment situation.As process soft tooth flank gear and adopt high speed guiding principle monolithic construction, process the flank of tooth gear that hardens and adopt ultrafine gain size welding or iron chains toothing.
What also need to specify is the basic mode of broaching machine motion, adopts the broaching tool of the present invention helical gear broaching machine of broaching, and can be designed to multiple pattern.Accompanying drawing 5 is one of its motion basic mode.The broaching tool parallel along the corresponding two lateral tooth flank devices of Gear axis direction is amount of bias B=ρ with axle O distance respectively also MinBroaching tool T during work 1At first enter the operating position, gear is along its axially broaching and additional Revolution, the broaching right flank finish; Broaching tool T 1Withdraw from broaching tool T 2Enter the operating position, gear is oppositely along its axially broaching and oppositely additional Revolution, the broaching left flank finishes broaching tool T 2Withdraw from, finish the one action circulation.Many as the gear number of teeth, increase the gear compound graduation motion in one action circulation back.Can shorten broach length and broaching stroke.For example processing the gear tooth number Z is even number, gets the broaching tool number of teeth Finish then half gear teeth completion of processing of one action circulation.180 ° of gear compound graduations are finished second half gear teeth processing through the one action circulation again.
Below with regard to certain sedan gear-box gear preceding fine finishining (example 1) and certain the truck gearbox gear back fine finishining (example 2) of hardening of hardening calculate the broaching tool parameter as embodiment:
The gear initial parameter:
??m n ??α n ??Z ??β o ??h
Example 1 ??2.5 ??20° ??36 ?30°31′ 5.625
Example 2 ????5 ??20° ??25 ?26°33′54″ ??11.25
The broaching tool design parameter:
λ Z o l p n γ n α n α c b h o W L B Structure
Example 1 18°30′2?″ 36 13.554 7.38 10° 35° 2.5 6 30 600 8 High-speed steel integral body
Example 2 24°51′ 25 29.078 14.761 -20° 10° 35° 5 11.5 70 950 6.5 Carbide alloy iron chains tooth

Claims (4)

1, the accurate broaching method of helical gears is characterized in that adopting the paired diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool broaching helical gears flank of tooth that splits the gear tooth both sides, and gear is done relative screw with broaching tool, screw parameter p=r b/ tg β b, every along gear shaft once to reciprocal broaching, finish the fine finishining of the gear bilateral flank of tooth.
2, be used for the diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool of the accurate broaching method special use of the described helical gears of claim 1, it is characterized in that having inclination angle λ=β bb-processed rolling circle helical angle) rectilinear edge, the corresponding successively corresponding gear teeth flank of tooth of cutting of every blade and fit in the broaching with the straight edge line of this helical gear flank of tooth one spiral involute surface; The broaching tool normal pitch equals processed gear Normal base pitch, and the broaching tool crest top land is rake face (A γ), the broaching tool teeth groove side of the corresponding processing flank of tooth is back knife face (A α), broaching tool non-working side teeth groove side is rear flank (A c), broaching tool cutter tooth longitudinal section is a zigzag, normal rake γ n, relief angle α nSelect reasonable value by concrete working condition for use according to cutting principle, Clearance angle α c=30 °-40 °, to strengthen cutter tooth intensity.
3, diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool according to claim 2 is characterized in that according to processed gear modification requirement, allows blade is worn into a little concave shape.
4, diagonal-cut rack shape broaching tool according to claim 2 is characterized in that as normal rake γ nBe 0 o'clock, each cutter tooth rake face A γBe same plane.
CN99107099A 1999-05-28 1999-05-28 Precision broaching method and cutter for spiral cylindrical gear Expired - Fee Related CN1080614C (en)

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN99107099A CN1080614C (en) 1999-05-28 1999-05-28 Precision broaching method and cutter for spiral cylindrical gear

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Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
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Families Citing this family (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US7465134B2 (en) * 2006-06-06 2008-12-16 Gm Global Technology Operations, Inc. Broaching apparatus and method for producing a gear member with tapered gear teeth
FR3001646B1 (en) * 2013-02-01 2015-09-11 Turbomeca SPINDLE PIN AND METHOD FOR PARTS SUCH AS TURBINE ROTOR DISKS OR TURBOMACHINE COMPRESSOR DISKS
CN104384619A (en) * 2014-09-17 2015-03-04 陕西航空电气有限责任公司 Spiral gear tooth form turning method
CN105149668A (en) * 2015-09-29 2015-12-16 东方电气集团东方汽轮机有限公司 Semi-finish milling cutter for slot of rotor of steam turbine
DE102015219855A1 (en) * 2015-10-13 2017-04-13 Zf Friedrichshafen Ag Ring gear with internal toothing and crown toothing, as well as method for its production and manual transmission with such ring gear
CN106216778B (en) * 2016-08-31 2018-08-17 三一重型能源装备有限公司 Chamfered edge cutter tooth, chamfering edge tool, chamfering tool and chamfering machine
CN107131283B (en) * 2017-06-09 2019-05-31 江苏大学 It is a kind of meter and back of tooth contact performance roller gear bidentate face correction method

Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1328952A (en) * 1971-01-12 1973-09-05 Cincinnati Milacron Inc Broaching tools
JPS6322216A (en) * 1986-07-14 1988-01-29 Nachi Fujikoshi Corp Spline broach
CN1072363A (en) * 1991-11-19 1993-05-26 宋振才 helical spline broach

Patent Citations (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
GB1328952A (en) * 1971-01-12 1973-09-05 Cincinnati Milacron Inc Broaching tools
JPS6322216A (en) * 1986-07-14 1988-01-29 Nachi Fujikoshi Corp Spline broach
CN1072363A (en) * 1991-11-19 1993-05-26 宋振才 helical spline broach

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