CN108046520A - A kind of low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost - Google Patents

A kind of low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost Download PDF

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Publication number
CN108046520A
CN108046520A CN201711323657.1A CN201711323657A CN108046520A CN 108046520 A CN108046520 A CN 108046520A CN 201711323657 A CN201711323657 A CN 201711323657A CN 108046520 A CN108046520 A CN 108046520A
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aquaculture
water
low
shrimp
pond
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CN108046520B (en
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罗国芝
谭洪新
蒙浩炎
刘文畅
樊利鹏
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Shanghai Maritime University
Shanghai Ocean University
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F9/00Multistage treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F1/66Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by neutralisation; pH adjustment
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F1/00Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F2001/007Processes including a sedimentation step
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2101/00Nature of the contaminant
    • C02F2101/10Inorganic compounds
    • C02F2101/16Nitrogen compounds, e.g. ammonia
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2103/00Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated
    • C02F2103/20Nature of the water, waste water, sewage or sludge to be treated from animal husbandry
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F2301/00General aspects of water treatment
    • C02F2301/08Multistage treatments, e.g. repetition of the same process step under different conditions
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C02TREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02FTREATMENT OF WATER, WASTE WATER, SEWAGE, OR SLUDGE
    • C02F3/00Biological treatment of water, waste water, or sewage
    • C02F3/28Anaerobic digestion processes
    • C02F3/2846Anaerobic digestion processes using upflow anaerobic sludge blanket [UASB] reactors
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture methods of low cost, it is every 72 it is small when from the floc sedimentation and cultivation water of bioflocculation aquaculture pond bottom discharge 1/4 1/3 to sedimentation basin, the floc sedimentation and water of discharge stood in sedimentation basin 40 50 it is small when, dissolved oxygen is made to be reduced to below 0.2mg/L;The new water that addition preparing pool has been handled well from top while aquaculture pond discharges floc sedimentation and cultivation water;By the cultivation water discharged in sedimentation basin and floc sedimentation by peristaltic pump into UASB, UASB reactors needs pre-actuate, and after finishing, receive the mixed liquor come out from sedimentation basin, room temperature, when hydraulic detention time 10 is small;After nitrate concentration in UASB is stablized, when precipitation 2 is small, supernatant water returns to preparing pool, aeration, supplement sodium acid carbonate to 300mg/L CaCO3Basicity remains to return to aquaculture pond after temperature adjustment.The present invention can reduce addition sodium bicarbonate, quick lime etc. and adjust the cost of bioflocculation aquaculture system water body basicity and the stimulation to cultivated animals.

Description

A kind of low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost
Technical field
The present invention relates to bioflocculation-aquaculture technology more particularly to a kind of low stimulating organism flocculations of low cost Aquaculture method.
Background technology
Intensive manufacture mode makes the breeding density of aquaculture and the injected volume of high protein feed substantially increase.Ammonia nitrogen is The final product of protein metabolism.It is estimated that ammonia nitrogen yield about feeds the 9.2% of feed protein.The accumulation meeting of ammonia nitrogen Directly inhibit the growth of cultivated animals, reduce its survival rate.Non-ionic ammonia in breeding water body is provided in China's water quality standard for fishery Concentration is no more than 0.02mg/L.Therefore, ammonia nitrogen is one of key index of cultivation water environment control.
The measure of different breeding scheme control ammonia nitrogen accumulation is different.Pond culture is mainly by nitrifying process by ammonium oxidation For nitrate, the photoautotrophy of algae can also directly assimilate ammonia nitrogen and nitrate.Typical recycling water cultivating system utilizes biology Membrane reactor is by Autotrophic nitrification process by mineralized nitrogen into directly discharge or denitrification after nitrate into nitrogen.Biological flocculation- Aquaculture pattern promotes heterotrophicy bacteria dominant growth by regulating and controlling carbon (Carbon, C)/nitrogen (Nitrogen, N) (C/N, w/w) And the ammonia nitrogen in water body is assimilated into microbial biomass, it is further formed by bacterium, organic granular, extracellular polymeric and protozoan The biological flocculation of composition, biological flocculation can cultivate object by filter-feeding and directly eat, and not only eliminate water purification equipment, but also can It realizes the recycling for feeding protein in feed, has been demonstrated:It can realize Tilapia mossambica (Oreochromis niloticus)(44.5kg/m3), litopenaeus vannamei (Litopenaeus vannamei) (10kg/m3) etc. aquatic livestocks compared with Highdensity closed culture can significantly improve the digestion power and immunocompetence of cultivation object, can significantly improve feed Utilization ratio of protein etc..China aquatic products researcher by biological flocculation technology be applied to carp (Cyprinus carpio), Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), crucian (Carassius auratus) and sea cucumber (Holothuroidea) etc. in filter-feedings and omnivorousness cultivation object, preferable result of study is achieved.
The technological core of biological flocculation-aquaculture is exactly to improve C/N to promote heterotrophicy bacteria dominant growth, makes ammonia nitrogen same Change without being nitrified.But researcher has found, even if dissolved organic carbons of the C/N of input more than 15 or in water body (Dissolved Organic Carbon, DOC)/total ammonia nitrogen (Total Ammonium Nitrogen, TAN) is raw more than 10 The accumulation of apparent nitrate is still likely to occur in object floc sedimentation-aquaculture system, apparent Autotrophic nitrification has occurred in this explanation Process.Research shows in bioflocculation-Tilapia mossambica cultivating system that Autotrophic nitrification rate can reach 3mg/L, Nitrate Accumulation rate It is to reach 15kg/m3, for operation 6-7 after a month, nitrate can run up to 600-700mg N/L;The budget analysis of nitrogen shows 45% N exists with nitrate salts in feed, and 24% N is in the Tilapia mossambica of harvest, and 31% N is in sludge.
The assimilation of ammonia nitrogen heterotrophism and/or Autotrophic nitrification can occur in bioflocculation-aquaculture system operational process, both Consume basicity.The ammonia nitrogen heterotrophism assimilation process (NH of bacterium4 ++1.18C6H12O6+HCO3 -+2.06O2→C5H7O2N+6.06H2O+ 3.07CO2) in, often convert 1g ammonia nitrogens consumption 3.57g basicity (0.86g inorganic carbon);Nitrifying process (NH4 +-N+1.83O2+ 1.97HCO3→0.0244C5H7O2N+0.976NO3+1.86CO2+2.90H2O+0.1CH2O) oxidation 1g ammonia nitrogens need to consume 7.14g Basicity.So the decline of pH caused by the consumption therewith of basicity is clearly, it is necessary to periodically in bioflocculation-aquaculture system Sodium acid carbonate or quick lime are supplemented to supplement basicity to breeding water body, otherwise can influence heterotrophism assimilation process and Autotrophic nitrification mistake Journey causes ammonia nitrogen and nitrous acid that can accumulate, and influences to cultivate the growth and survival of object;And add the adjustings such as sodium bicarbonate, quick lime The cost of bioflocculation-aquaculture system water body basicity is higher, while is also very important lack to the stimulation of cultivated animals It falls into.
The content of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the invention are to provide a kind of low cost low stimulating organism in view of the deficiencies of the prior art Flocculate aquaculture method.
Technical scheme is as follows:
A kind of low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost, it is every 72 it is small when from bioflocculation-aquaculture pond bottom row The floc sedimentation and cultivation water for going out 1/4-1/3 (without specially settling, are expelled directly out) to sedimentation basin, and the floc sedimentation and water of discharge are in sedimentation basin It is middle standing 40-50 it is small when, dissolved oxygen is made to be reduced to below 0.2mg/L;From top while aquaculture pond discharge floc sedimentation and cultivation water Add in the new water that preparing pool has been handled well;By the cultivation water discharged in sedimentation basin and floc sedimentation by peristaltic pump to upflow type anaerobic In sludge bed reactor (UASB), UASB reactors needs pre-actuate, and after finishing, receive the mixed liquor come out from sedimentation basin, Room temperature, when hydraulic detention time 10 is small;After in UASB nitrate concentration stablize after, precipitation 2 it is small when, supernatant water return to preparing pool, Aeration, supplement sodium acid carbonate to 300mg/L CaCO3Basicity remains to return to aquaculture pond after temperature adjustment.
The low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of the low cost, the working volume of sedimentation basin is the 1/4- of aquaculture pond 1/3。
The low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of the low cost, UASB working volumes are the 1/2 of breeding water body.
The low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of the low cost, UASB reactor bottoms sludge row's part are stayed A part, the row of decision, the standard for the amount stayed:TSP concentration in reactor is 5500mg/L.
The low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of the low cost, for the cultivation of bioflocculation-litopenaeus vannamei.
The low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of the low cost, shrimp ponds HDPE film shop fixtures is 25 meters long, 2.5 meters wide, Bottom is equipped with drainpipe, 50-80 centimetres of fluctuation of water table, then 31.25 cubes -50 cubes of shrimp ponds effective volume, and vault is covered in shrimp ponds Top-type hyaline membrane, with heat preservation and light transmission, shrimp ponds afterbody sets dirt collection, mudhole, and lapping piece in pond face is escaped to avoid shrimp.
The low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of the low cost, gauze is packed by poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) particle In bag, regularly replaced in breeding process according to service condition;PHB places density:Every 5 square metres, one is hung for 10 centimetres apart from bottom of pond Bag, 200g PHB particles are filled in every bag.
The low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of the low cost, after water sterilization, the full and uniform exposure of Roots blower Gas does not deposit any dead angle, and shrimp feed is added in after 3 days and is ground, and pond is added according to the amount of the TSP concentration of 100mg/L In, whole 28-30 DEG C of water temperature control, salinity 10, regular replenishment calcium and magnesium;Treat that inspection does not measure apparent ammonia nitrogen, nitrite in water body, The litopenaeus vannamei seedling of the PL 20 desalinated is taken from shrimp care of young pond (salinity 10), is added in shrimp ponds;350 tail of breeding density/ m3;According to the situation adjustment daily ration, feeding quantity of ingesting of shrimp in breeding process, initial feeding volume is 10%, is gradually reduced to 5%;Feed shrimp Feed;Day feeds twice, morning 7:00 and afternoon 6:00.
The method of the present invention can reduce addition sodium bicarbonate, quick lime etc. and adjust bioflocculation-aquaculture system water body The cost of basicity and the stimulation to cultivated animals;Make denitrifying carbon source using extra biological flocculation, extra nitre can be removed Hydrochlorate improves the recycling rate of waterused of cultivation water, realizes the recycling of the biological flocculation of discharge system;It is extra periodically to discharge Flco can consume excessive basicity to avoid the advantage of Autotrophic nitrification approach caused by biological flocculation excessive concentration.
Specific embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is described in detail.
By taking the cultivation of bioflocculation-litopenaeus vannamei as an example, 3 shrimp-cultivation pools make experimental group, shrimp ponds HDPE film shop fixtures, 25 meters Long, 2.5 meters wide, bottom is equipped with drainpipe, 50-80 centimetres of fluctuation of water table, then 31.25 cubes -50 cubes of shrimp ponds effective volume, shrimp Dome-shaped hyaline membrane is covered on pond, with heat preservation and light transmission, shrimp ponds afterbody sets dirt collection, mudhole, pond face lapping piece, to avoid shrimp Escape.
Poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid (poly- β-hydroxybutyrate, PHB) particle is fitted into gauze bag, in breeding process It is regularly replaced according to service condition.PHB places density:It every 5 square metres, hangs one bag for 10 centimetres apart from bottom of pond, 200g is filled in every bag PHB particles.After water sterilization, the full and uniform aeration of Roots blower does not deposit any dead angle, and shrimp feed is added in after 3 days and is ground, according to The amount of the TSP concentration of 100mg/L is added in pond, whole 28-30 DEG C of water temperature control, salinity 10, regular replenishment calcium Magnesium.It treats in water body that inspection does not measure apparent ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, takes that the PL's 20 that has desalinated is all from shrimp care of young pond (salinity 10) Na Bin adds in shrimp ponds shrimp seedling.350 tails of breeding density/m3.Situation of ingesting in breeding process according to shrimp adjusts daily ration, feeding quantity, Initial feeding volume is 10%, is gradually reduced to 5%.Feed shrimp feed (crude protein 35%, crude fat 7%, crude fiber content 2%, Content of ashes 9.5%).Day feeds twice, morning 7:00 and afternoon 6:00, pH, ammonia nitrogen, nitrous acid are monitored daily in breeding process Nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon (Dissolved oxygen, DO), flco bulk index (Flocs Volume index, FVI).Shrimp weight is surveyed within every seven days, to adjust daily ration, feeding quantity, 90 days culture-cycles.
1/3 culturing pool (mixing floc sedimentation) is extracted from aquaculture pond bottom within every 3 days in breeding process, by peristaltic pump to precipitation Pond, the working volume of sedimentation basin are the 1/3 of aquaculture pond, the floc sedimentation and water of discharge stood in sedimentation basin 50 it is small when, make dissolved oxygen It is reduced to below 0.2mg/L.The floc sedimentation and water of aquaculture pond the discharge new water that addition preparing pool is handled well from top simultaneously.It will precipitation The cultivation water and floc sedimentation discharged in pond are by peristaltic pump to upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Bed, UASB) in the 1/2 of breeding water body (working volume be), UASB reactors needs pre-actuate, after finishing, connect The mixed liquor received from sedimentation basin out, room temperature, when hydraulic detention time (Hydraulic Retention Time, HRT) 10 is small. After nitrate concentration in UASB is stablized, when precipitation 2 is small, supernatant water returns to preparing pool, aeration, supplement sodium acid carbonate to 300mg/ L CaCO3, aquaculture pond is returned to after temperature adjustment;TSP concentration is 5500mg/L in UASB reactors, extra by reacting The discharge of device bottom stores him and uses.
In addition 3 control ponds are set, in breeding process in aquaculture pond TSP concentration control in below 200mg/L, It is discharge part sludge after concentration range, after discharge mixes liquid precipitate, supernatant water returns to aquaculture pond, and sediment stores him With.In breeding process after each bait throwing in, supplement sodium acid carbonate to basicity 300mg/L CaCO3, the same test tank of other modes of operation.
Cultivate result:The water quality of test tank is generally substantially better than control pond (table 1), and culture efficiency will be substantially better than control Pond (table 2).Preliminary aquaculture cost analysis, 12.5 yuan of (RMB)/kg of test tank compare 21.2 yuan of pond (RMB)/kg.
Change of water quality during 1 test tank of table and control are pool cultivated
Numerical value is average value ± variance (minimum value-maximum), and numerical value Superscript letters are different, represents that there were significant differences;
2 shrimp growth indexes of table and sodium acid carbonate dosage
Numerical value Superscript letters are different, represent that there were significant differences
It should be appreciated that for those of ordinary skills, can be improved or converted according to the above description, And all these modifications and variations should all belong to the protection domain of appended claims of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a kind of low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost, which is characterized in that it is every 72 it is small when from bioflocculation-cultivation For the floc sedimentation and cultivation water of bottom of pond portion discharge 1/4-1/3 to sedimentation basin, it is small that the floc sedimentation and water of discharge stand 40-50 in sedimentation basin When, dissolved oxygen is made to be reduced to below 0.2mg/L;While aquaculture pond discharges floc sedimentation and cultivation water preparing pool has been added in from top The new water handled well;By the cultivation water discharged in sedimentation basin and floc sedimentation by peristaltic pump to upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) in, UASB reactors needs pre-actuate, and after finishing, receive the mixed liquor come out from sedimentation basin, room temperature, hydraulic retention When time 10 is small;After nitrate concentration in UASB is stablized, when precipitation 2 is small, supernatant water returns to preparing pool, aeration, supplement carbonic acid Hydrogen sodium is to 300mg/L CaCO3Basicity remains to return to aquaculture pond after temperature adjustment.
2. the low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost according to claim 1, which is characterized in that sedimentation basin Working volume is the 1/4-1/3 of aquaculture pond.
3. the low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost according to claim 1, which is characterized in that UASB works Volume is the 1/2 of breeding water body.
4. the low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost according to claim 1, which is characterized in that UASB reacts Device base sludge row's part, stays a part, the row of decision, the standard for the amount stayed:TSP concentration in reactor is 5500mg/L。
5. the low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost according to claim 1, which is characterized in that for biology The cultivation of flocculation-litopenaeus vannamei.
6. the low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost according to claim 5, which is characterized in that shrimp ponds HDPE Film shop fixtures, 25 meters long, 2.5 meters wide, bottom is equipped with drainpipe, and 50-80 centimetres of fluctuation of water table, then shrimp ponds effective volume 31.25 is vertical It is -50 cubes square, dome-shaped hyaline membrane is covered in shrimp ponds, with heat preservation and light transmission, shrimp ponds afterbody sets dirt collection, mudhole, Chi Mianpu Mesh sheet is escaped to avoid shrimp.
7. the low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost according to claim 6, which is characterized in that by poly- β- Hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) particle is fitted into gauze bag, is regularly replaced in breeding process according to service condition;PHB places density:Every 5 is flat Square rice hangs one bag for 10 centimetres apart from bottom of pond, and 200g PHB particles are filled in every bag.
8. the low stimulating organism flocculation aquaculture method of low cost according to claim 7, which is characterized in that water sterilization Afterwards, the full and uniform aeration of Roots blower does not deposit any dead angle, and shrimp feed is added in after 3 days and is ground, according to the total outstanding of 100mg/L The amount of floating particles object concentration is added in pond, whole 28-30 DEG C of water temperature control, salinity 10, regular replenishment calcium and magnesium;It treats to examine in water body Apparent ammonia nitrogen, nitrite are not measured, the litopenaeus vannamei seedling of the PL 20 desalinated is taken from shrimp care of young pond (salinity 10), is added Enter in shrimp ponds;350 tails of breeding density/m3;It is according to the situation adjustment daily ration, feeding quantity of ingesting of shrimp, initial feeding volume in breeding process 10%, it gradually reduces to 5%;Feed shrimp feed;Day feeds twice, morning 7:00 and afternoon 6:00.
CN201711323657.1A 2017-12-13 2017-12-13 Low-cost and low-irritation biological flocculation aquaculture method Active CN108046520B (en)

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CN109819912A (en) * 2019-03-25 2019-05-31 上海海洋大学 A kind of fishes and shrimps dish cultivating system and cultural method
CN111096260A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-05-05 天津海友佳音生物科技股份有限公司 Closed water circulation method and device for prawn culture

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CN105230548A (en) * 2015-11-25 2016-01-13 上海海洋大学 Tilapia high yield breeding method
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CN102718358A (en) * 2012-06-08 2012-10-10 郑州梦溪环保科技有限公司 Sewage treatment method
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CN103723825A (en) * 2013-12-31 2014-04-16 浙江大学 Anaerobic ammonia oxidation/denitrification coupling treatment method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater
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CN109819912A (en) * 2019-03-25 2019-05-31 上海海洋大学 A kind of fishes and shrimps dish cultivating system and cultural method
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