CN107926516A - A kind of method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation - Google Patents

A kind of method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107926516A
CN107926516A CN201711340748.6A CN201711340748A CN107926516A CN 107926516 A CN107926516 A CN 107926516A CN 201711340748 A CN201711340748 A CN 201711340748A CN 107926516 A CN107926516 A CN 107926516A
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China
Prior art keywords
fertilizer
acre
kgs
kohlrabi
fruit
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Pending
Application number
CN201711340748.6A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
袁伟玲
邱正明
陈磊夫
刘志雄
朱凤娟
闵勇
赵书军
矫振彪
焦忠久
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INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC CROP HUBEI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
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INSTITUTE OF ECONOMIC CROP HUBEI ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE
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Priority to CN201711340748.6A priority Critical patent/CN107926516A/en
Publication of CN107926516A publication Critical patent/CN107926516A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M1/00Stationary means for catching or killing insects
    • A01M1/02Stationary means for catching or killing insects with devices or substances, e.g. food, pheronones attracting the insects
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M1/00Stationary means for catching or killing insects
    • A01M1/02Stationary means for catching or killing insects with devices or substances, e.g. food, pheronones attracting the insects
    • A01M1/04Attracting insects by using illumination or colours
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01MCATCHING, TRAPPING OR SCARING OF ANIMALS; APPARATUS FOR THE DESTRUCTION OF NOXIOUS ANIMALS OR NOXIOUS PLANTS
    • A01M1/00Stationary means for catching or killing insects
    • A01M1/22Killing insects by electric means
    • A01M1/226Killing insects by electric means by using waves, fields or rays, e.g. sound waves, microwaves, electric waves, magnetic fields, light rays

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation, including:Part chemical fertilizer is substituted using functional microorganism organic fertilizer, sprays microbial-bacterial fertilizer, pest and disease damage green prevention and control measure.The present invention applies fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultural method, production overall process, which meets, eats the requirement of green product production technology regulation raw, pesticide residue and environmental pollution caused by excessively applying chemical fertilizer and chemical pesticide can be efficiently solved, realizes the sustainable production of safety of fruit kohlrabi.The fruit kohlrabi produced in this manner, quality is excellent, meets the requirement that green eats product raw, wide market is notable to plantation enterprise and the effect of getting rich of plantation Increase Income of Peasant Households, and economic benefit, ecological benefits and social benefit are notable.

Description

A kind of method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural plantation technology field, more particularly to a kind of method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation.
Background technology
During kohlrabi production at present, soil continuous cropping obstacle, soil productivity declines, and excessive applies chemical fertilizer and chemistry Pesticide, nutritional quality, flavor quality be not high to affect victual quality and Agriculture Ecological Environment Security.With vegetables industry Further development, soil protection ecological environment, realizes that kohlrabi sustainable development has transformed into urgent requirement.
The content of the invention
The application declines for the prominent nutritional quality of fruit kohlrabi cultivation and flavor quality, and especially continuous cropping obstacle is tight Weight, disease is multiple, a large amount of to use chemical fertilizer and chemical pesticide, and productivity effect is not high and the practical problem such as poor quality, there is provided Yi Zhongshui The method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation, this method substitute part chemical fertilizer using functional microorganism organic fertilizer;Spray microbial bacteria Fertilizer, the environmental health cultivation technique of the pest and disease damage green prevention and control Integration ofTechnology such as biological pesticide, physics prevention and control, improve soil environment, Solve the contradiction of fruit kohlrabi cultivation continuous cropping obstacle, and start with from improving the ecological environment, regulated and controled by soil micro-ecosystem reparation Suppress the generation and sprawling of disease, reduce the dosage of chemical fertilizer and chemical pesticide in process of production, realize fruit kohlrabi Good product quality, good taste, wholesome purpose, are also beneficial to preserve the ecological environment.
A kind of method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation, including:Using functional microorganism organic fertilizer substitute part chemical fertilizer, Spray microbial-bacterial fertilizer, pest and disease damage green prevention and control measure;
Wherein, functional microorganism organic fertilizer substitutes part chemical fertilizer and includes:50 kgs/acre of composite fertilizer, 12 kgs/acre of urea, 15 kgs/acre of potash fertilizer, 500 kgs/acre of organic commercial fertilizer, 0.5 kg/acre of borax, 8 kgs/acre of fertiliser containing magnesium, complex micro organism fungicide 100-200 grams/acre, wherein composite fertilizer, organic fertilizer, secondary and micro-element fertilizers, function bag complex micro organism fungicide 100% do base Fertilizer, urea and potash fertilizer do top dressing;
Spraying microbial-bacterial fertilizer includes:Fruit kohlrabi after planting, seedling spraying kind robust seedling microbial inoculum 1-2 times;Rosette state sprays Leaf green health microbial inoculum 2-3 times, the rosette state to collecting period sprays the rich microbial inoculum of 1-2 flowers and fruits;
The measure of the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control includes:Whole process uses biological pesticide, and combines cultural control, yellow plate, trapping lamp Physical control and the biological control of worm is controlled using biological natural enemy.
Further, method as described above, the fertile soil for the kohlrabi that grows fruit, does not plant Cruciferae vegetable in nearly 3 years The field of dish makees seedbed, and 7~10d, which is ploughed deeply, before sowing suns the earth which has been ploughed up, and bed soil is mixed with high-quality organic fertilizer, and organic fertilizer ratio is no less than 30%.
Further, method as described above, pours 1 water per 3d after field planting, company pours 3 times, and 1 is poured every 4~6d after living Secondary water, keeps ground moistening, earth's surface non-whitening;Regard field plant growing state tillage and weeding 1 time within 1 month after field planting, impose urine 12 kgs/acre of element, 15 kgs/acre of potash fertilizer.
Beneficial effect:
Part chemical fertilizer is substituted by functional microorganism organic fertilizer in fruit kohlrabi growth course;Spray microbial-bacterial fertilizer, life The environmental health cultivation technique such as thing pesticide, physics prevention and control, it is ensured that the fruit kohlrabi planted out not only eliminates excessive chemical fertilizer and change Learn to farm the pollution of medicine, improve soil environment, also assure fruit kohlrabi peculiar taste, realize fruit kohlrabi environmental health, height The purpose produce, is high-quality, efficiently planted.
Embodiment
To make the object, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, below technical solution in the present invention carry out it is clear Chu, be fully described by, it is clear that described embodiment is part of the embodiment of the present invention, instead of all the embodiments.It is based on Embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art are obtained every other without creative efforts Embodiment, belongs to the scope of protection of the invention.
Embodiment:
Inventor sets two processing:
(1) traditional cultivation:Calculated with composite fertilizer (15-15-15) for main fertilizer, 100 kgs/acre of composite fertilizer, commodity have 50 kgs/acre of machine fertilizer, whole process uses chemical pesticide;
(2) environmental health is cultivated.It is public using 50 kgs/acre of composite fertilizer (15-15-15), 12 kgs/acre of urea, potash fertilizer 15 Pound/acre, 500 kgs/acre of organic commercial fertilizer, 0.5 kg/acre of borax, 8 kgs/acre of fertiliser containing magnesium, complex micro organism fungicide 100-200 Gram/acre.Composite fertilizer, organic fertilizer, secondary and micro-element fertilizers, 100-200 grams/acre of complex micro organism fungicide 100% do base manure, urea Top dressing is done with potash fertilizer.Fruit kohlrabi after planting, seedling spraying kind robust seedling microbial inoculum 100g/ times, 1-2 times;Rosette state sprays Ye Lvkang Microbial inoculum 100g/ times, it is 2-3 times common.Rosette state to the collecting period sprays 1-2 flowers and fruits rich microbial inoculum 100g/ times.Whole process uses biological agriculture Medicine, and combine physical control and the biological controls such as cultural control, yellow plate, trapping lamp.Each 20 mu of cultivated area of processing.
Specific experiment process and result are as follows:
First, choose seeds
The fruit kohlrabi kind that high-quality, high yield, Resistant, resistance are strong, commodity is good, meet the market requirement is selected, and Suitable kind should be selected according to cultivation season.Green variety, such as " love moral ", " sharp ripple ", purple kind such as " purple is won ".Seed Quality meets the regulation of GB16715.2.
2nd, provenance selection
The regulation of NY/T 391 should be met.Fruit kohlrabi the selection o f production bases in no any pollution sources, air, water source, Soil and ambient environmental conditions all meet the region of green vegetables standard production, and the loosing soil of plantation, fertile, ventilation is good.
3rd, seeding and seedling raising
Select physical features higher, irrigation and drainage are convenient, and fertile soil, nearly 3 years fields for not planting brassicaceous vegetable are made seedbed, broadcast 7~10d, which is ploughed deeply, before kind suns the earth which has been ploughed up, and bed soil is mixed with high-quality organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer ratio is no less than 30%.Can with 50% carbendazim Wet powder presses 1 with 50% thiram wettable powder:After the mixing of 1 ratio, per 8~10g of square meter bed soil medication and 15~ 30kg fine earths mix.Vola water is poured before sowing, it is desirable to which hole tray or seedbed 8.0~10.0cm soil layers water reach saturation state.Hole tray is educated Seedling, per bunch planting 1~2 seed of kind;After planting cover 1 layer of sieving fine earth, 0.5~0.8cm of thickness, it is desirable to thickness of earth covering uniform one Cause.It is preferably selected and is equipped with fly net, sunshade net and rain-proof facility.
Seedling is earthed up 1 time after all sprouting, and thickness 0.5cm, prevents bed surface to be cracked;Timely thinning after cotyledon expansion, removes disease Seedling, weak seedling and miscellaneous seedling, an after seedling are earthed up 1 time again, and thickness 0.5cm, is taken root with sharp seedling, are reduced seedbed humidity, are prevented from dampinging off Disease occurs.The efficient canopies of 1m should be taken above seedling growing in summer seedbed, get sunshade net, film and fly net ready;Covered during fine hot day 10~15 Lid sunshade net sunshade, waters 1 time, rainy days, cover film was taken shelter from rain every morning.Keep seedling surely long without excessive growth.General seedling age 30d or so, whens 5~6 true leaves, are colonized.
4th, site preparation and fertilization
Fertile soil, preceding stubble is selected to be planted for the plot of non-crop in cruciferae, 7~10 Tian Shi composite fertilizers (15- before field planting 15-15) 50 kgs/acre, 500 kgs/acre of organic commercial fertilizer, 0.5 kg/acre of borax, 8 kgs/acre of fertiliser containing magnesium, composite microbial bacteria 100-200 grams/acre of agent.With reference to site preparation and fertilization, large-scale kind high ridge cultivation, the high 20.0~30.0cm in ridge, ridge spacing 40.0~ 50.0cm, per 1 row of ridge kind;Middle-size and small-size kind, the general high 20.0~25.0cm in ridge, ridge 20.0~30.0cm of spacing, per ridge kind 1 OK.In well-drained place, middle-size and small-size kind can also use flat bedding cultivation, the wide 1~2m of furrow, per 3~5 row of furrow kind.
5th, it is colonized
Selection cloudy day or fine day are colonized at dusk, and per 4 row of ridge cultivation, line-spacing 35cm, spacing in the rows 35cm, preferably band Tu Tuo are colonized, and Pour root water immediately, 2d pour again 1 time it is permeable, with sharp slow seedling.
6th, field management
Water and fertilizer management:1 water is poured after field planting per 3d, company pours 3 times, and 1 water is poured every 4~6d after living, keeps soil wet Moisten, earth's surface non-whitening, watering is uniform, particularly the expansion of corms phase, and soil overdrying can cause bulb cracking or deformity, influence business Product are worth.Seedling spraying kind robust seedling microbial inoculum 100g/ times, 1-2 times;Rosette state sprays leaf green health microbial inoculum 100g/ times, 2-3 times common.Lotus Seat phase to the collecting period sprays 1-2 flowers and fruits rich microbial inoculum 100g/ times.Regard field plant growing state tillage and weeding 1 within 1 month after field planting It is secondary, impose 12 kgs/acre of urea, 15 kgs/acre of potash fertilizer.
Pest and disease damage green prevention and control:Whole process uses biological pesticide, and combines the physical controls such as cultural control, yellow plate, trapping lamp And biological control.
(1) disease-resistant variety, efficent rotation are selected, deep ploughing is suned the earth which has been ploughed up, reinforcement cultivation management, the healthy and strong plant of cultivation, tillage and weeding, Invalid body is extractd in time, rural area is cleaned, takes out of outside field, concentrates harmless treatment.
(2) deployment black light lamp or frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp, trap and kill subterranean pest-insect and lepidoptera pest etc., set sugar-vinegar liquid Trapping kind fly type pests etc.;Fly net covering protection, artificial capture method etc. are set.The aphid of Homoptera, aleyrodid, leafhopper etc.;Dipteron Purpose liriomyza bryoniae, Hylemyia Platura Meigen etc.;The various pests such as fly wing purpose thrips have strong taxis to yellow or blue-sensitive.Per acre The yellow plate or backboard that 30-40 block specifications are 25 centimetres of 30 cm x are hung, is hung in the ranks or between strain, is higher by 15-20 at the top of plant Centimetre.Yellow plate can trap and kill aphid, liriomyza bryoniae, aleyrodid etc., and backboard can trap and kill Hylemyia Platura Meigen and thrips.1 frequency ventilating type of every 15 mu of suspensions kills Worm lamp has preferable trapping effect to beet armyworm, prodenia litura.
(3) biological control controls worm, such as trichogramma releases natural enemy pest control using biological natural enemy;Use biological agent.
7th, timely collecting
60~75d after the field planting of fruit kohlrabi kind, can harvest when lobus cardiacus stops growing, can be appropriate according to market conditions In advance or postponement harvests.It is slow to harvest, and fiber increase, pol decline, bulb cracking, quality reduce, and generally stay field to be no more than 15d.To keep fresh, beautiful, when harvesting, retains lobus cardiacus.
8th, result of the test and comparative analysis
Statistical description:
(1) before the harvesting of fruit kohlrabi, observe and record in due course.Picking time randomly selects 20 plants in each cell, measures its single ball Weight.
(2) picking time, measures carbohydrate, protein, Vc, crude fibre and the moisture of each processing fruit kohlrabi.
Influence of 1 different disposal of table to the fruit kohlrabi yield and quality factor
It can be seen from Table 1 that after cultivating fruit kohlrabi using the method for the present invention, the quality of fruit kohlrabi is improved, and Plantation pollution is small, meets the requirement that green eats product raw.
Finally it should be noted that:The above embodiments are merely illustrative of the technical solutions of the present invention, rather than its limitations;Although The present invention is described in detail with reference to the foregoing embodiments, it will be understood by those of ordinary skill in the art that:It still may be used To modify to the technical solution described in foregoing embodiments, or equivalent substitution is carried out to which part technical characteristic; And these modification or replace, do not make appropriate technical solution essence depart from various embodiments of the present invention technical solution spirit and Scope.

Claims (3)

  1. A kind of 1. method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation, it is characterised in that including:Substituted using functional microorganism organic fertilizer Part chemical fertilizer, spray microbial-bacterial fertilizer, pest and disease damage green prevention and control measure;
    Wherein, functional microorganism organic fertilizer substitutes part chemical fertilizer and includes:50 kgs/acre of composite fertilizer, 12 kgs/acre of urea, potash fertilizer 15 kgs/acre, 500 kgs/acre of organic commercial fertilizer, 0.5 kg/acre of borax, 8 kgs/acre of fertiliser containing magnesium, complex micro organism fungicide 100- 200 grams/acre, wherein composite fertilizer, organic fertilizer, secondary and micro-element fertilizers, function bag complex micro organism fungicide 100% make base manure, urine Element and potash fertilizer do top dressing;
    Spraying microbial-bacterial fertilizer includes:Fruit kohlrabi after planting, seedling spraying kind robust seedling microbial inoculum 1-2 times;It is green that rosette state sprays leaf Health microbial inoculum 2-3 times, rosette state to collecting period spray the rich microbial inoculum of 1-2 flowers and fruits;
    The pest and disease damage green prevention and control measure includes:Whole process use biological pesticide, and combines cultural control, Huang plate, trapping lamp Physical control and the biological control that worm is controlled using biological natural enemy.
  2. 2. according to the method described in claim 1, it is characterized in that, the fertile soil for the kohlrabi that grows fruit, does not plant ten in nearly 3 years The field of Zi Hua sections vegetables makees seedbed, and 7~10d, which is ploughed deeply, before sowing suns the earth which has been ploughed up, and bed soil is mixed with high-quality organic fertilizer, organic fertilizer ratio No less than 30%.
  3. 3. according to the method described in claim 2, it is characterized in that, pouring 1 water per 3d after field planting, company pours 3 times, after living every 4~6d pours 1 water, keeps ground moistening, earth's surface non-whitening;Regard field plant growing state tillage and weeding 1 within 1 month after field planting It is secondary, impose 12 kgs/acre of urea, 15 kgs/acre of potash fertilizer.
CN201711340748.6A 2017-12-14 2017-12-14 A kind of method of fruit kohlrabi environmental health cultivation Pending CN107926516A (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
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CN101874445A (en) * 2009-12-02 2010-11-03 山东沂源至信现代农业开发有限公司 Method for culturing organic Chinese chives
CN104429581A (en) * 2015-01-06 2015-03-25 广西职业技术学院 Organic tomato health cultivating method
CN105210758A (en) * 2015-09-11 2016-01-06 贵州省凤冈县永田露茶业有限公司 The implantation methods of a kind of tea tree
CN106258335A (en) * 2016-08-05 2017-01-04 山东省滨州市秋田种业有限责任公司 Region, Huanghe delta drought-resistant corn high-yield culture technique

Patent Citations (4)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN101874445A (en) * 2009-12-02 2010-11-03 山东沂源至信现代农业开发有限公司 Method for culturing organic Chinese chives
CN104429581A (en) * 2015-01-06 2015-03-25 广西职业技术学院 Organic tomato health cultivating method
CN105210758A (en) * 2015-09-11 2016-01-06 贵州省凤冈县永田露茶业有限公司 The implantation methods of a kind of tea tree
CN106258335A (en) * 2016-08-05 2017-01-04 山东省滨州市秋田种业有限责任公司 Region, Huanghe delta drought-resistant corn high-yield culture technique

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