CN107873233A - A kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow and method - Google Patents

A kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow and method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107873233A
CN107873233A CN201710992713.4A CN201710992713A CN107873233A CN 107873233 A CN107873233 A CN 107873233A CN 201710992713 A CN201710992713 A CN 201710992713A CN 107873233 A CN107873233 A CN 107873233A
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China
Prior art keywords
cereal
scraper plate
flow
infrared
output
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赵湛
雷朝鹏
田春杰
刘金凯
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Jiangsu University
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Jiangsu University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01DHARVESTING; MOWING
    • A01D41/00Combines, i.e. harvesters or mowers combined with threshing devices
    • A01D41/12Details of combines
    • A01D41/127Control or measuring arrangements specially adapted for combines
    • A01D41/1271Control or measuring arrangements specially adapted for combines for measuring crop flow
    • A01D41/1272Control or measuring arrangements specially adapted for combines for measuring crop flow for measuring grain flow
    • GPHYSICS
    • G01MEASURING; TESTING
    • G01FMEASURING VOLUME, VOLUME FLOW, MASS FLOW OR LIQUID LEVEL; METERING BY VOLUME
    • G01F1/00Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow
    • G01F1/66Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by measuring frequency, phaseshift, or propagation time of electromagnetic or other waves, e.g. ultrasonic flowmeters
    • G01F1/661Measuring the volume flow or mass flow of fluid or fluent solid material wherein the fluid passes through the meter in a continuous flow by measuring frequency, phaseshift, or propagation time of electromagnetic or other waves, e.g. ultrasonic flowmeters using light

Abstract

The present invention, which provides a kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow and method, the device, includes pedestal, scraper plate, infrared receiver, leading screw, stepper motor, displacement transducer, infrared generator, sliding block, I/V signal processing circuits, controller and motor driver;The voltage signal of controller collection I/V signal processing circuit outputs, according to the relation of the voltage of Experimental Calibration and cereal thickness, obtains the cereal thickness on photosensor arrays monitoring direction, passes through the cross-sectional area of segmentation modeling the Fitting Calculation cereal;Integral and calculating is carried out to the cross-sectional area of cereal according to scraper plate movement velocity and sample frequency, cereal volume is obtained, the mass flow of cereal is converted into eventually through weight by volume.The sample frequency of measurement can optimize adjustment according to the movement velocity of scraper plate.The present invention can reduce due in elevator cereal shape it is uncertain caused by measurement error, with reference to the optimization of measurement sample frequency, the non-cpntact measurement precision of cereal flow can be effectively improved.

Description

A kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow and method
Technical field
The invention belongs to agricultural machinery Research on measuring technique field, and in particular to a kind of array infrared light electric-type cereal flow Measurement apparatus and method.
Background technology
Cereal flow monitoring is the important component of combined harvester intellectualized technology, and obtains crop yield space The main path of distributed intelligence.
At present, grain flow-measuring mainly employs impulse momentum method and volumetric method, wherein impact type cereal flow transducer one As be arranged on crop elevator outlet port, by measuring the quality of impact force's calculation cereal, it easily by machine vibration, The interference of the factors such as shape posture, cereal impact velocity, measurement error is larger, bad adaptability.
Volume flow measuring method is to make exponential damping spy with propagation distance according to light intensity when being propagated in different medium Property, i.e., that launches photoelectric sensor light by cereal blocks time measurement cereal volume, and blocking the time, rule is really Realized by setting the threshold value of photoelectric sensor output signals, such as German ClassRDS Ceres II System photoelectric measurings Amount system, it is old enter proposition Publication No. CN201610654639.0 a kind of " paddy based on laser opposite-radiation sensor array Logistics measuring device and method " etc..As a kind of non-contact measurement method, it is to adapting to the adaptation of farmland complex job environment Property is stronger, but measurement accuracy also can be affected by many factors, as light source to different cultivars cereal penetrate and attenuation characteristic Stability, light source generator and receiver superficial dust, the fluctuation of elevator speed.Further, since cropper operation process In vibration and body tilt etc. and to cause cereal shape irregular and an important factor for influence measurement accuracy in elevator, And the existing measuring method for blocking the time by measuring photosignal, for the measurement error of cereal volume in irregular shape It is larger.
Therefore, the present invention proposes a kind of new array infrared light electric-type grain flow-measuring method, and devises optical telecommunications Number process circuit and cereal flow monitoring caliberating device, with reference to optimizing and revising for measurement sample frequency, the comprehensive shape that improves is not advised The then measurement accuracy and adaptability of cereal flow, there are important theoretical significance and practical value, there are no disclosure at present Research report.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow and side regarding to the issue above Method, mounted array correlation infrared photoelectric sensor is distinguished on elevator pedestal left and right side plate, passes through the cereal thickness of foundation The thickness of the cereal of diverse location, fit equation meter is established according to cereal thickness change feature respectively in monitoring model measurement scraper plate Calculate the cross-sectional area of cereal;Calculated often using the change in displacement of displacement sensor scraper plate, and according to the sample frequency of system The displacement increment in individual cycle;Most cereal sectional area and displacement increment carry out integral and calculating and obtain instantaneous grain measure at last, and according to Instantaneous cereal flow is calculated according to cereal unit weight coefficient, carrying out time integral to instantaneous cereal flow obtains cereal flow.
The technical scheme is that:A kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow, including pedestal, scraper plate, Infrared receiver, leading screw, stepper motor, displacement transducer, infrared generator, sliding block, I/V signal processing circuits, control Device and motor driver;
The pedestal base plate center line direction installation slid platform base, the stepper motor be arranged on pedestal epipleural, And the output shaft of stepper motor connects one end of leading screw by shaft coupling, the other end of leading screw passes through the internal thread of sliding block, described Scraper plate is U-shaped, and the side of scraper plate is fixedly installed in the outer face of sliding block, and spiral shell is formed in the driving of stepper motor and leading screw and sliding block Under the effect of line transmission mechanism, the scraper plate can make horizontal rectilinear motion in pedestal interior edge center line;
The base of institute's displacement sensors is fixedly installed in the bottom plate of pedestal, and the measurement end of displacement transducer is fixedly connected on Scraper plate, and as scraper plate makees synchronous linear motion, for measuring the displacement of scraper plate;
The quantity of array infrared receiver and array infrared generator is n groups, array infrared receiver and array Infrared generator is separately mounted on the left and right side plate of the pedestal and every group of infrared receiver and infrared generator Position correspond;Cover plate is installed in pedestal upper surface, and whole measurement apparatus is cuboid enclosed construction;
The infrared receiver is connected by I/V signal processing circuits with controller, the controller respectively with displacement Sensor connects with motor driver;The motor driver is connected with stepper motor;The light of array infrared receiver output Current signal inputs I/V signal processing circuits, the voltage signal input controller of I/V signal processing circuits output;The displacement The displacement signal input controller of sensor output;The controller output signal controlled motor driver Driving Stepping Motor fortune Turn;The controller establishes the thickness for having cereal thickness monitor model monitoring to obtain the cereal of diverse location in scraper plate, passes through meter The cross-sectional area of cereal is calculated, cereal sectional area and the cereal displacement increment in the sampling period are carried out into product obtains instantaneous cereal appearance Product, instantaneous grain measure are multiplied by cereal unit weight coefficient and instantaneous cereal flow are calculated, and time product is carried out to instantaneous cereal flow Get cereal flow.
In such scheme, the infrared receiver and infrared generator are identical in coordinate Z-direction position;Every group of position The one-to-one infrared receiver is consistent with infrared generator center line, the laser signal that infrared generator is sent Received by corresponding infrared receiver;
Array infrared receiver and array infrared generator are evenly distributed on the width range of scraper plate in coordinate X-direction It is interior, spacing l.
In such scheme, the I/V signal processing circuits include what is be sequentially connected:It is made up of operational amplifier A T-shaped anti- Supply current-voltage conversion circuit, by the operational amplifier B scaling circuits formed and by operational amplifier C form voltage with With device circuit.
In such scheme, in addition to display;The display is connected with controller;The instantaneous paddy of the controller output The flow of cereal exports in logistics capacity and scraper plate shows to display.
A kind of method according to the array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow, comprise the following steps:
The thread transmission motion that the controller control driving stepper motor leading screw and sliding block are formed, drives cereal to exist Scraper plate interior edge base central line makees horizontal rectilinear motion, the displacement signal of controller collection displacement transducer output, is calculated Scraper plate movement velocity v0, and sample frequency f is determined according to sample frequency f optimization method0With cereal displacement increment Δ z;
The photo-signal of output is simultaneously inputted I/V signals by the signal of array infrared receiver receiving infrared-ray generator Process circuit, the voltage signal V of I/V signal processing circuits outputoutInput controller;The controller is supervised according to cereal thickness The thickness d that model monitoring obtains the cereal of diverse location in different time inside strake is surveyed, meter is fitted using obtained cereal thickness The cross-sectional area of cereal is calculated, cereal sectional area and the cereal displacement increment Δ z in the sampling period are carried out into product obtains instantaneously Grain measure dV, instantaneous grain measure dV is multiplied by cereal unit weight coefficient k and instantaneous cereal flow dm is calculated, to instantaneous grain stream Amount dm carries out time integral and obtains cereal flow m.
In such scheme, the method for building up of the cereal thickness monitor model is specially:
The photo-signal I of array infrared receiver output1、I2、I3...InI/V signal processing circuits are inputted, are obtained The voltage output signal V of linear transformationout, according to the thickness d and output voltage V for blocking cerealoutCorresponding relation, foundation blocks Cereal thickness monitor model d=F0(Vout)。
In such scheme, described cereal cross-sectional area modeling method includes two parts:
1) cereal lower height h1In the range of, for cereal full of in scraper plate, it is respectively a × b × h that length, width and height, which are presented,1It is rectangular Body, the voltage V exported after I/V signal processing circuitsout I=1...nIt is equal, the paddy of the photoelectric sensor monitoring direction of diverse location Thing thickness is a, and cereal cross section, sectional area S are fitted using rectangular equation1=a × b;
2) cereal upper height h2In the range of, the voltage V that is exported after I/V signal processing circuitsout I=1...nIt is unequal, root According to the installation X-coordinate position x of array infrared receiver1、x2、x3...xnWith corresponding cereal thickness a1、a2、a3...an, adopt With piecewise fitting or ellipse fitting method, cereal cross section equation is established, calculates sectional area S2=F (xi、ai)I=1...n
If a1、a2、a3...anThe length a of scraper plate 2 is equal to, then using S1=a × b calculates cereal sectional area, if a1、 a2、a3...anNot equal to the length a of scraper plate 2, then using S2=F (xi、ai)I=1...nCalculate cereal sectional area.
In such scheme, the optimization method of the sample frequency f is by assay optimization, is comprised the following steps:
Certain mass m cereal is put into scraper plate first, setting scraper velocity v, sample frequency f, cereal displacement increment Δ z=v/f, cereal flow demarcation performance test is carried out, obtained quality m ' will be measured and divided compared with actual grain quality m Analysis, is calculated error deltam
Then change scraper velocity v, sample frequency f carry out demarcation performance test, and it is m to obtain measurement grain quality1When, survey Measure error deltamWith cereal integration cereal displacement increment Δ z relation, solution obtains error minimum value δm1Corresponding cereal displacement Increment Delta z1, change grain quality m in scraper plate, carry out repeating experiment, it is m that can obtain grain qualityI=1 ... nWhen, measurement error Minimum value δMi=1 ... nCorresponding cereal displacement increment Δ zI=1 ... n;According to the minimum principle of cereal flow composition error, use Calculated with weighted average method obtains preferably the cereal displacement increment of integral and calculating every time
Finally according to the cereal displacement increment Δ z of acquisition and the scraper velocity v of test measurement, counted by formula f=v/ Δs z Calculate the sample frequency f after being optimized0
In such scheme, the measuring process of the cereal flow m is specially:
Step S1, in 0-t1In time, cereal does not move to array infrared receiver and array infrared generator Installation site Z0, infrared receiver output current I1、I2、I3...InReach maximum I0, corresponding signal processing circuit is defeated It is V to go out voltageout 0, instantaneous grain measure dV0-t1=0;
Step S2, in t1- t2In time, cereal top progressively moves to Z in scraper plate0Nature is presented in position, cereal top Stacking states, the cereal thickness blocked between each pair infrared receiver and infrared generator have differences, infrared receiver Device output current I1、I2、I3...InDifference cause signal processing circuit output voltage Vout I=1...nDifference, now according to battle array The installation site x of row infrared receiver1、x2、x3...xnWith corresponding cereal thickness a1、a2、a3...an, according to formula S2 =F (xi、ai)I=1...nEach sampling period cereal sectional area S is calculated2t, wink is calculated according to cereal displacement increment Δ z When grain measure dVT1-t2
Step S3, in t2- t3In time, full of in scraper plate, the photoelectric current of array infrared receiver output passes through cereal The voltage V of I/V signal processing circuits outputout I=1...nEqual is Vout a, the cereal thickness of the diverse location of acquisition is a, According to formula S1Each sampling period cereal sectional area S is calculated in=a × b1t, then calculated according to cereal displacement increment Δ z Obtain instantaneous grain measure dVT2-t3
Step S4, in t3- t4In time, blade surface moves to Z0Position, infrared generator and infrared receiver Between transmission medium be scraper plate, instantaneous grain measure dVT3-t4=0;
Step S5, in t4- t5After time, the motion of scraper plate bottom surface passes through Z0Position, infrared generator and infrared receiver Transmission medium reverts to air between device, and infrared receiver output current reaches maximum I0, corresponding signal processing circuit Output voltage is Vout 0, instantaneous grain measure dVT4-t5=0;
It is instantaneous grain stream that the grain measure dV that acquisition is sampled in the step S1-S5 is multiplied by into cereal unit weight coefficient k Dm is measured, controller is integrated dm, that is, obtains cereal flow m in scraper plate.
Compared with prior art, the beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:The present invention is scraping in analysis infrared ray attenuation characteristic, cereal On the basis of distribution and detection parameters in board-like elevator influence on grain flow-measuring result, devise with T-shaped Feedback arrangement is the I/V change-over circuits of core, reduces cereal thickness monitor nonlinear measurement error;It is red by array correlation The thickness of the cereal of diverse location (along infrared light direction) in outer photoelectric sensor measurement scraper plate, using nonlinear fitting side Method calculates the cross-sectional area of cereal, then by the volume of cross section integral and calculating cereal, can effectively reduce due to vibration and The uncertain caused measurement error of the cereal shape in elevator caused by factor such as body inclination;Finally propose sampling frequency The method of optimizing and revising of rate and scraper plate movement velocity, comprehensive non-cpntact measurement precision, stability and the adaptation for improving cereal flow Property.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow.
Fig. 2 is infrared receiver output current signal and blocks the change curve of cereal thickness, and wherein d blocks for cereal Thickness, I are infrared receiver output current.
Fig. 3 is I/V signal processing circuit structures.
Fig. 4 is accumulation form schematic diagram of the cereal in scraper plate.
Fig. 5 is cereal cross-sectional area modeling method, wherein (a) is h1Scope, (b) are h2Scope, it is with 5 groups of (i.e. n in figure =5) exemplified by infrared generator and receiver.
Fig. 6 apparatus for measuring cereal flow electric wiring schematic diagrams are with 5 groups of (i.e. n=5) infrared generators in figure and are connect Exemplified by receipts device.
Fig. 7 cereal flows calculate flow chart.
The voltage signal change procedure of Fig. 8 signal processing circuits output, wherein t is the time, and V is output voltage.
In figure:1 pedestal, 2 scraper plates, 3 infrared receivers, 4 slid platform bases, 5 leading screws, 6 shaft couplings, 7 stepper motors, 8 Displacement sensor, 9 infrared generators, 10 cover plates, 11 sliding blocks, 12I/V signal processing circuits, 13 controllers, 14 motor drivers, 15 displays.
Embodiment
The present invention is described in further detail with reference to the accompanying drawings and detailed description, but protection scope of the present invention It is not limited to this.
The present invention provides a kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow and method, in paddy in drag-flight elvator The measurement of logistics capacity.The mounted array correlation infrared photoelectric sensor on elevator, and I/V signal processing circuits are devised, For measuring the scraper plate current signal that photoelectric sensor exports during straight line transports cereal;Controller gathers I/V letters in real time The voltage signal of number process circuit output, according to the relation of the voltage of Experimental Calibration and cereal thickness, obtain photoelectric sensor battle array Cereal thickness on row monitoring direction, passes through the cross-sectional area of segmentation modeling the Fitting Calculation cereal;Then speed is moved according to scraper plate Degree and sample frequency carry out integral and calculating to the cross-sectional area of cereal, obtain cereal volume, are converted into eventually through weight by volume The mass flow of cereal.The sample frequency of measurement can optimize adjustment according to the movement velocity of scraper plate.The present invention can subtract It is small due in elevator cereal shape it is uncertain caused by measurement error, can be effective with reference to the optimization of measurement sample frequency Improve the non-cpntact measurement precision of cereal flow.
Fig. 1 and 6 show a kind of a kind of embodiment party of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow of the present invention Formula, a kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow include pedestal 1, scraper plate 2, infrared receiver 3, leading screw 5, Stepper motor 7, displacement transducer 8, infrared generator 9, sliding block 11, I/V signal processing circuits 12, controller 13, motor drive Dynamic device 14 and display 15;
The base plate center line direction installation slid platform base 4 of the pedestal 1, the output shaft of stepper motor 7 are connected by shaft coupling 6 Leading screw 5 is connect, leading screw 5 passes through the internal thread of sliding block 11, and the side of U-shaped scraper plate 2 is fixedly installed in the outer face of sliding block 11, after installation The left and right side sheet separation of scraper plate 2 and pedestal 1 is less than 0.5mm.Screw thread is formed in the driving of stepper motor 7 and leading screw 5 and sliding block 11 Under transmission mechanism effect, scraper plate 2 can make horizontal rectilinear motion in the interior edge base plate center line of pedestal 1.Scraper plate 2 is in coordinate Y-direction Length is a, and X-direction width is b.
The base of institute's displacement sensors 8 is fixedly installed in the bottom plate of pedestal 1, and the measurement end of displacement transducer 8, which is fixed, to be connected Scraper plate 2 is connected to, and as scraper plate 2 makees synchronous linear motion, for measuring the displacement of scraper plate 2.
Processing mounting holes on the left and right side plate of the pedestal 1, array infrared receiver 3 and array are fixedly mounted respectively Infrared generator 9, the quantity of the infrared receiver and infrared generator is n, and preferable n is 3~9 groups.Array is red Outer line receiver 3 and array infrared generator 9 are identical in coordinate Z-direction position, infrared receiver 3 corresponding to every group and red The center line of outside line generator 9 is consistent, so that the laser signal that infrared generator 9 is sent can be accurately by infrared receiver 3 Receive.Array infrared receiver 3 and array infrared generator 9 should be evenly distributed in the coordinate model of scraper plate 2 in coordinate X-direction In enclosing, spacing l.Infrared receiver 3 is should ensure that after installation receives end face and the emitting facet difference of infrared generator 9 It is concordant with the left and right side plate inner surface of pedestal 1, to avoid producing interference in the motion process of scraper plate 2.
The transmission signal wave-length coverage of infrared generator 9 is 760-980nm, and the peak value of infrared receiver 3 receives Spectral wavelength should correspond.
Cover plate 10 is installed in the upper surface of pedestal 1, and it is cuboid enclosed construction to make whole measurement apparatus, to avoid ambient light Line disturbs.
Fig. 2 show infrared receiver output current signal and blocks the change curve of cereal thickness:
The output current signal of infrared receiver 3 change should follow Lambert law.When infrared generator 9 with it is infrared When not having cereal between line receiver 3, the medium of transmission is air, and the reception optical signal of infrared receiver 3 is most strong, output current Also maximum I0;It can be sent out when thering is cereal to block between infrared generator 9 and infrared receiver 3, during infrared penetration cereal Raw decay, the optical signal that infrared receiver 3 receives weaken, and index reduction, equation of change I=is presented in output current I therewith I0·eαd, α is the absorption coefficient of light in formula, and d is blocks cereal thickness;When it is a to block cereal thickness to be the length of scraper plate 2, output Electric current is Ia
Fig. 3 show I/V signal processing circuit figures:
In order to which the photo-signal for exporting infrared remote receiver 3 is converted to voltage signal, I/V signal transactings electricity is devised Road, as shown in Figure 3, photo-signal form T-shaped feedback current-voltage conversion circuit output voltage via operational amplifier A and believed Number UA, with T-shaped network primarily to nonlinear error reduction and DC deviation;Voltage signal UAVia operational amplifier B groups Into scaling circuit output voltage signal UB, by adjusting adjustable resistance R4Resistance size adjusts magnification ratio value;Voltage Signal UBVia operational amplifier C composition voltage follower circuit output voltage signals UC, voltage follower, which can improve, inputs resistance It is anti-, output impedance is reduced, so as to improve circuit carrying load ability;Controller 13 is to collecting voltage signal UCAnalyzed, and With reference to other specification and the data of collection, cereal flow is calculated.
The circuit realiration output current I of infrared receiver 3 and I/V signal processing circuits 12 output voltage VoutBetween Linear transformation, can also be to blocking the cereal thickness d and output voltage V of infrared lightoutBetween relation carry out Experimental Calibration, So as to establish the cereal thickness monitor model d=F for blocking infrared light0(Vout)。
Figure 4 and 5 show accumulation form and cereal cross-sectional area modeling method figure of the cereal in scraper plate:
Cereal is Loose Bodies, has certain mobility, and the shape that it accumulates in scraper plate 2 can not possibly be the square of rule Shape, therefore cereal accumulation form is divided into two parts, cereal cross-sectional area modeling method also includes two parts:
First, lower height h1In the range of, for cereal full of in scraper plate 2, it is respectively a × b × h that length, width and height, which are presented,1Cuboid, The voltage V that the photoelectric current that array infrared receiver 3 exports exports after I/V signal processing circuits 12out I=1...nIt is equal, The cereal thickness for obtaining the photoelectric sensor monitoring direction of diverse location is a, therefore transversal using rectangular equation fitting cereal Face, sectional area S1=a × b;
Second, upper height h2In the range of, cereal is natural packing state, and form is by cereal flow, physical characteristic and liter The influence of the factors such as device posture is transported, shows irregular characteristic.Because the cereal thickness of diverse location on same cross section is different, The voltage V that the photoelectric current that array infrared receiver 3 exports exports after I/V signal processing circuits 12out I=1...nNot phase Deng the cereal thickness for obtaining the photoelectric sensor monitoring direction of diverse location is respectively a1、a2、a3...an.Now according to array The installation X-coordinate position x of infrared receiver 31、x2、x3...xnWith corresponding cereal thickness a1、a2、a3... a, using point The methods of section fitting or ellipse fitting, cereal cross section equation is established, calculate sectional area S2=F (xi、ai)I=1...n
Fig. 6 show apparatus for measuring cereal flow electric wiring schematic diagram:
The photo-signal I that array infrared receiver 3 exports1、I2、I3...InInput I/V signal processing circuits 12, I/ The output voltage V of V signal process circuit 12out I=1...nInput controller 13;The output signal input control of displacement transducer 8 Device 13.The output signal controlled motor driver 14 of controller 13, the Driving Stepping Motor 7 of motor driver 14 operate.It is described Cereal flow m exports in instantaneous the cereal flow dm and cereal scraper plate 2 that controller 13 exports shows to display 15.
Fig. 7 show grain flow-measuring method flow chart:
Length a, width b, cereal unit weight coefficient k, the X position coordinate x of infrared receiver 3 of the scraper plate 21、x2、 x3...xnController 13 is input to, controller 13 gathers the output voltage signal V of I/V signal processing circuits 12 in real timeout I=1...n
The controller 13 is operated by the Driving Stepping Motor 7 of controlled motor driver 14, drives scraper plate 2 to do straight line fortune Dynamic, the measurement of displacement transducer 8 obtains the displacement of scraper plate 2, calculates the movement velocity v of scraper plate0, and according to scraper velocity v0With it is corresponding Optimal frequency f0Displacement increment Δ z is calculated.
Controller 13 is by the V of collectionout I=1...nInput cereal Thickness sensitivity model d=F0(Vout), it is infrared to obtain array The installation site x of line receiver 31、x2、x3...xnCorresponding cereal thickness a1、a2、a3...an
If a1、a2、a3...anThe length a of scraper plate 2 is equal to, then using S1=a × b calculates cereal sectional area, if a1、 a2、a3...anNot equal to the length a of scraper plate 2, then using S2=F (xi、ai)I=1...nCalculate cereal sectional area.
Cereal sectional area and displacement increment Δ z are subjected to integral and calculating and obtain instantaneous grain measure dV, instantaneous grain measure DV is multiplied by cereal unit weight coefficient k and obtains instantaneous cereal flow dm, and carrying out time integral to dm obtains cereal flow m.
Dm and m measurement result is exported and shown to display 15 by controller 13.
Wherein, the optimization method of sample frequency is specially:
The essence of sample frequency f optimization is just to determine the cereal displacement increment Δ z of each integral and calculating.
According to the above method, certain mass m cereal is put into scraper plate 2, setting scraper plate 2 speed v, sample frequency f, paddy Thing displacement increment Δ z=v/f, cereal flow demarcation performance test is carried out, obtained quality m ' and actual grain quality m will be measured Analysis is compared, error delta is calculatedm
Change scraper plate 2 speed v, sample frequency f carry out demarcation performance test, and it is m to obtain measurement grain quality1When, measurement Error deltamWith cereal integral displacement increment Delta z relation, solution obtains error minimum value δm1Corresponding displacement increment Δ z1
Change grain quality m in scraper plate 2, repeat above-mentioned experiment, it is m that can obtain grain qualityI=1 ... nWhen, measurement The minimum value δ of errorMi=1 ... nCorresponding displacement increment Δ zI=1 ... n
According to the minimum principle of cereal flow composition error, preferable each integrating meter is obtained using calculated with weighted average method The cereal displacement increment Δ z of calculation is:
Finally according to the Δ z of acquisition and the speed v of scraper plate 2 of test measurement, you can be calculated by formula f=v/ Δs z Sample frequency f after optimization0
It is further elaborated with reference to example:
Cereal elevator transport process, signal processing circuit 12 export voltage signal change procedure it is as shown in Figure 8.
In experimentation, in the case where the driving of stepper motor 7 and leading screw 5 and sliding block 11 form thread transmission effect, paddy Thing makees horizontal rectilinear motion in the center line of 2 interior edge pedestal of scraper plate 1.Controller 13 gathers the output signal of displacement transducer 8, calculates Obtain the movement velocity v of scraper plate 20, and sample frequency f is determined according to the optimization method of sample frequency0With cereal displacement increment Δ z.This The quantity n of infrared receiver 3 described in embodiment and infrared generator 9 is 5 groups.
In 0-t1In time, cereal does not move to the peace of array infrared receiver 3 and array infrared generator 9 Holding position Z0, there is no cereal between infrared generator 9 and infrared receiver 3, transmission medium is air, infrared receiver 3 output current I1、I2、I3、I4、I5Reach maximum I0, the corresponding output voltage of signal processing circuit 12 is Vout 0, instantaneous paddy Thing volume dV0-t1=0;
In t1- t2In time, cereal top progressively moves to Z in scraper plate 20Position, because nature heap is presented in cereal top Cumuliformis state, the cereal thickness blocked between each pair infrared receiver 3 and infrared generator 9 have differences, infrared receiver The output current I of device 31、I2、I3、I4、I5Difference cause the output voltage V of signal processing circuit 12out I=1 ... 5Also it is different, now root According to the installation site x of array infrared receiver 31、x2、x3、x4、x5With corresponding cereal thickness a1、a2、a3、a4、a5, according to Formula S2=F (xi、ai)I=1 ... 5Each sampling period cereal sectional area S is calculated2t, then counted according to cereal displacement increment Δ z Calculation obtains instantaneous grain measure dVT1-t2
In t2- t3In time, cereal is believed full of the photoelectric current that in scraper plate 2, array infrared receiver 3 exports by I/V The voltage V that number process circuit 12 exportsout I=1 ... 5Equal is Vout a, the cereal thickness of the diverse location of acquisition is a, according to Formula S1Each sampling period cereal sectional area S is calculated in=a × b1t, then it is calculated according to cereal displacement increment Δ z Instantaneous grain measure dVT2-t3
In t3- t4In time, the apparent motion of scraper plate 2 to Z0Position, between infrared generator 9 and infrared receiver 3 Transmission medium is scraper plate 2, because the material of scraper plate 2 has differences with grain characteristics, photoelectric current that array infrared receiver 3 exports The voltage V exported by I/V signal processing circuits 12outAlso can change, instantaneous grain measure dVT3-t4=0;
In t4- t5After time, the motion of the bottom surface of scraper plate 2 passes through Z0Position, infrared generator 9 and infrared receiver 3 it Between transmission medium revert to air, the output current of infrared receiver 3 reaches maximum I0, corresponding signal processing circuit 12 is defeated It is V to go out voltageout 0, instantaneous grain measure dVT4-t5=0;
Time 0-t5For a complete experimental period, the grain measure dV that each sampling obtains is multiplied by cereal unit weight Coefficient k is instantaneous cereal flow dm, and controller 13 is integrated dm, that is, obtains the quality m of cereal in scraper plate 2.
It should be appreciated that although this specification is described according to each embodiment, not each embodiment only includes one Individual independent technical scheme, this narrating mode of specification is only that those skilled in the art will should say for clarity Bright book is as an entirety, and the technical solutions in the various embodiments may also be suitably combined, and forming those skilled in the art can be with The other embodiment of understanding.
Those listed above is a series of to describe illustrating only for possible embodiments of the invention in detail, They simultaneously are not used to limit the scope of the invention, all equivalent embodiments made without departing from skill spirit of the present invention or change It should be included in the scope of the protection.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow, it is characterised in that including pedestal (1), scraper plate (2), infrared Line receiver (3), leading screw (5), stepper motor (7), displacement transducer (8), infrared generator (9), cover plate (10), sliding block (11), I/V signal processing circuits (12), controller (13) and motor driver (14);
The base plate center line direction installation slid platform base (4) of the pedestal (1), the stepper motor (7) are arranged on pedestal (1) The output shaft of epipleural and stepper motor (7) connects one end of leading screw (5) by shaft coupling (6), and the other end of leading screw (5) is worn The internal thread of sliding block (11) is crossed, the scraper plate (2) is U-shaped, and the side of scraper plate (2) is fixedly installed in the outer face of sliding block (11), In the case where the driving of stepper motor (7) and leading screw (5) and sliding block (11) form thread transmission effect, the scraper plate (2) can be Pedestal (1) interior edge center line makees horizontal rectilinear motion;
The base of institute's displacement sensors (8) is fixedly installed in the bottom plate of pedestal (1), and the measurement end of displacement transducer (8) is fixed Scraper plate (2) is connected to, and as scraper plate (2) makees synchronous linear motion, for measuring the displacement of scraper plate (2);
The quantity of array infrared receiver (3) and array infrared generator (9) is n groups, array infrared receiver (3) and Array infrared generator (9) be separately mounted on the left and right side plate of the pedestal (1) and every group of infrared receiver (3) and The position of infrared generator (9) corresponds;Pedestal (1) upper surface installation cover plate (10), whole measurement apparatus is cuboid Enclosed construction;
The infrared receiver (3) is connected by I/V signal processing circuits (12) with controller (13), the controller (13) It is connected respectively with displacement transducer (8) and motor driver (14);The motor driver (14) is connected with stepper motor (7); The photo-signal input I/V signal processing circuits (12) of array infrared receiver (3) output, I/V signal processing circuits (12) the voltage signal input controller (13) of output;The displacement signal input controller of institute's displacement sensors (8) output (13);Controller (13) output signal controlled motor driver (14) Driving Stepping Motor (7) operating;The controller (13) thickness for the cereal for having cereal thickness monitor model monitoring to obtain scraper plate (2) interior diverse location is established, by calculating cereal Cross-sectional area, by cereal sectional area and by the sampling period cereal displacement increment carry out product obtain instantaneous grain measure, Instantaneous grain measure is multiplied by cereal unit weight coefficient and instantaneous cereal flow is calculated, and carrying out time integral to instantaneous cereal flow obtains To cereal flow.
2. array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the infrared ray Receiver (3) is identical in coordinate Z-direction position with infrared generator (9);The infrared ray connects correspondingly for every group of position Receipts device (3) is consistent with infrared generator (9) center line, and the laser signal that infrared generator (9) is sent is by corresponding infrared Line receiver (3) receives;
Array infrared receiver (3) and array infrared generator (9) are evenly distributed on the width of scraper plate (2) in coordinate X-direction In the range of degree, spacing l.
3. array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the I/V letters Number process circuit (12) includes what is be sequentially connected:T-shaped feedback current-voltage conversion circuit for being made up of operational amplifier A, by transporting Calculate the scaling circuit of amplifier B compositions and voltage follower circuit is formed by operational amplifier C.
4. array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 1, it is characterised in that also include display Device (15);The display (15) is connected with controller (13);The instantaneous cereal flow and scraper plate of controller (13) output (2) flow of interior cereal exports shows to display (15).
5. a kind of method of the array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 1-4 any one, its It is characterised by, comprises the following steps:
The thread transmission motion that controller (13) control stepper motor (7) the driving leading screw (5) and sliding block (11) are formed, Cereal is driven to make horizontal rectilinear motion, controller (13) collection displacement transducer (8) in scraper plate (2) interior edge pedestal (1) center line The displacement signal of output, scraper plate (2) movement velocity v is calculated0, and sampling frequency is determined according to sample frequency f optimization method Rate f0With cereal displacement increment Δ z;
The photo-signal of output is simultaneously inputted I/V signals by the signal of array infrared receiver (3) receiving infrared-ray generator 9 Process circuit (12), the voltage signal V of I/V signal processing circuits (12) outputoutInput controller (13);The controller (13) thickness d of the cereal of different time inside strake (2) inner diverse location is obtained according to cereal thickness monitor model monitoring, is passed through The cross-sectional area of cereal is calculated, cereal sectional area and the cereal displacement increment Δ z in the sampling period are carried out into product obtains instantaneously Grain measure dV, instantaneous grain measure dV is multiplied by cereal unit weight coefficient k and instantaneous cereal flow dm is calculated, to instantaneous grain stream Amount dm carries out time integral and obtains cereal flow m.
6. the method for array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 5, it is characterised in that described The method for building up of cereal thickness monitor model is specially:
The photo-signal I of array infrared receiver (3) output1、I2、I3...InI/V signal processing circuits (12) are inputted, are obtained To the voltage output signal V of linear transformationout, according to the thickness d and output voltage V for blocking cerealoutCorresponding relation, establish hide Keep off cereal thickness monitor model d=F0(Vout)。
7. the method for array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 5, it is characterised in that described Cereal cross-sectional area modeling method include:
1) cereal lower height h1In the range of, for cereal full of in scraper plate (2), it is respectively a × b × h that length, width and height, which are presented,1Cuboid, The voltage V that I/V signal processing circuits (12) export afterwardsOuti=1...nIt is equal, the paddy of the photoelectric sensor monitoring direction of diverse location Thing thickness is a, and cereal cross section, sectional area S are fitted using rectangular equation1=a × b;
2) cereal upper height h2In the range of, voltage V that I/V signal processing circuits (12) export afterwardsOuti=1...nIt is unequal, according to The installation X-coordinate position x of array infrared receiver (3)1、x2、x3...xnWith corresponding cereal thickness a1、a2、a3...an, Using piecewise fitting or ellipse fitting method, cereal cross section equation is established, calculates sectional area:
S2=F (xi、ai)I=1...n
If a1、a2、a3...anThe length a of scraper plate 2 is equal to, then using S1=a × b calculates cereal sectional area, if a1、a2、 a3...anNot equal to the length a of scraper plate 2, then using S2=F (xi、ai)I=1...nCalculate cereal sectional area.
8. the method for array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 5, it is characterised in that described Sample frequency f is by assay optimization, is comprised the following steps:
Certain mass m cereal is put into scraper plate (2) first, setting scraper plate (2) speed v, sample frequency f, cereal displacement increase Δ z=v/f is measured, carries out cereal flow demarcation performance test, obtained quality m ' will be measured compared with actual grain quality m Analysis, is calculated error deltam
Then change scraper plate (2) speed v, sample frequency f carry out demarcation performance test, and it is m to obtain measurement grain quality1When, measurement Error deltamWith cereal integration cereal displacement increment Δ z relation, solution obtains error minimum value δm1Corresponding cereal displacement increases Measure Δ z1, change scraper plate (2) interior grain quality m, carry out repeating experiment, it is m that can obtain grain qualityI=1 ... nWhen, measurement error Minimum value δMi=1 ... nCorresponding cereal displacement increment Δ zI=1 ... n;According to the minimum principle of cereal flow composition error, use Calculated with weighted average method obtains preferably the cereal displacement increment of integral and calculating every time
Finally according to the cereal displacement increment Δ z of acquisition and scraper plate (2) speed v of test measurement, counted by formula f=v/ Δs z Calculate the sample frequency f after being optimized0
9. the method for array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow according to claim 5, it is characterised in that described Cereal flow m measuring process is specially:
Step S1, in 0-t1In time, cereal does not move to array infrared receiver (3) and array infrared generator (9) installation site Z0, infrared receiver (3) output current I1、I2、I3...InReach maximum I0, corresponding signal transacting Circuit (12) output voltage is Vout0, instantaneous grain measure dV0-t1=0;
Step S2, in t1- t2In time, the interior cereal top of scraper plate (2) progressively moves to Z0Nature heap is presented in position, cereal top Cumuliformis state, the cereal thickness blocked between each pair infrared receiver (3) and infrared generator (9) have differences, infrared ray Receiver (3) output current I1、I2、I3...InDifference cause signal processing circuit (12) output voltage VOuti=1...nDifference, Now according to the installation site x of array infrared receiver (3)1、x2、x3...xnWith corresponding cereal thickness a1、a2、 a3...an, according to formula S2=F (xi、ai)I=1...nEach sampling period cereal sectional area S is calculated2t, according to cereal displacement Instantaneous grain measure dV is calculated in increment Delta zT1-t2
Step S3, in t2- t3In time, full of in scraper plate (2), the photoelectricity of array infrared receiver (3) output flows through cereal Cross the voltage V of I/V signal processing circuits (12) outputOuti=1...nEqual is Vouta, the cereal thickness of the diverse location of acquisition is equal For a, according to formula S1Each sampling period cereal sectional area S is calculated in=a × b1t, then according to cereal displacement increment Δ z Instantaneous grain measure dV is calculatedT2-t3
Step S4, in t3- t4In time, scraper plate (2) apparent motion to Z0Position, infrared generator (9) and infrared receiver Transmission medium is scraper plate (2) between device (3), instantaneous grain measure dVT3-t4=0;
Step S5, in t4- t5After time, the motion of scraper plate (2) bottom surface passes through Z0Position, infrared generator (9) connect with infrared ray Transmission medium reverts to air between receiving device (3), and infrared receiver (3) output current reaches maximum I0, corresponding signal Process circuit (12) output voltage is Vout0, instantaneous grain measure dVT4-t5=0;
It is instantaneous cereal flow dm that the grain measure dV that acquisition is sampled in the step S1-S5 is multiplied by into cereal unit weight coefficient k, Controller (13) is integrated dm, that is, obtains the interior cereal flow m of scraper plate (2).
CN201710992713.4A 2017-10-23 2017-10-23 A kind of array infrared light electric-type apparatus for measuring cereal flow and method Pending CN107873233A (en)

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