CN107750792A - A kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method - Google Patents

A kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107750792A
CN107750792A CN201710972497.7A CN201710972497A CN107750792A CN 107750792 A CN107750792 A CN 107750792A CN 201710972497 A CN201710972497 A CN 201710972497A CN 107750792 A CN107750792 A CN 107750792A
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seed
seedling
nursery
bed
water
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刘有军
满多清
刘克彪
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Gansu Desert Control Research Institute
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Gansu Desert Control Research Institute
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C1/00Apparatus, or methods of use thereof, for testing or treating seed, roots, or the like, prior to sowing or planting
    • A01C1/08Immunising seed

Abstract

A kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method, including nursery lot construction, seedbed making and sterilization, fruit collection and seed acquisition, the storage of seed and pretreatment, sowing and seedling management.The seed of Various Seasonal sowing, takes different pretreatments method breaking dormancy;Spring is sowed, and soaks the h of seed 3~4 with 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate, seed is carried out disinfection, clear water is washed 2 times, the moisture of the surface of the seed is wiped away, after waiting seed to dry, it is put into 2~3min in 98% concentrated sulfuric acid and constantly stirs, takes out seed, the sowing of clear water wash clean;Planted in fall, the mature and plump seed that wet concentration is gone out, 24 h are soaked with 250mg/L Gibberellins solution, are directly sowed after breaking seed physiology after-ripening.Pretreatment seed proves that germination rate is all higher than 90% through sprouting preliminary experiment.This method emergence is neat, and emergence rate is up to more than 85%, survival rate of seedlings 78~85%, spring nursery, then autumn go out garden, height of seedling reaches 20~30cm;Autumn nursery, Second Year autumn height of seedling reach 40~50cm.

Description

A kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method
Technical field
The present invention relates to wild integration of drinking and medicinal herbs vegetable seeds seedling-raising technique field, particularly ermophyte black fruit fructus lycii Seed seedling-raising method, specifically a kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method.
Background technology
Black fruit fructus lycii(Lycium ruthenicumMurr.)For Solanaceae(Solanceae)Lycium(LyciumL.)It is more Year life salt tolerant, drought-resistant plant, are grown on saline-alkali wasteland, sand ground and roadside.Be distributed in Ningxia in China, Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, The ground such as Inner Mongol, Gansu.The illness such as fruit medicine, its sweet, mild-natured treatment cardiopyretic disease, heart disease, irregular menstruation, menopause;Fruit With root skin treatment urethral calculus, tinea scabies, the illness such as gingiva bleeding gingival hemorrhage, there is tonifying kidney and benefiting sperm, nourish the liver to improve visual acuity, blood-enriching tranquillizing and other effects. Mauve pigment is rich in its ripe berry, belongs to natural anthocyanin class pigment, fresh fruit content about 386.9mg/100g is clear by its Except free radical, show anti-inflammatory, protection multiple biological activities and the medical health care function such as cardiovascular, antitumor.
As people deepen continuously to black fruit fructus lycii research, it is found that black fruit fructus lycii is a kind of open country of important medicine-food two-purpose Plant resource, the economic development and ecological environmental protection to sand area of China are significant.In order to play its bigger warp Ji and the ecological value, people now begin to largely breed this wild plant.
Black fruit fructus lycii mode of reproduction has seminal propagation and cutting propagation.Cutting propagation has cost high, cost time length Deficiency;At present, vinyl house (Zhang Binwu etc. has all been used to some extent to black fruit fructus lycii cutting propagation;) or heliogreenhouse (Liu Kebiao etc.), cost is higher, and operating procedure is complex;In order to reduce production cost, simplify operating procedure;Now, to black The amount reproduction of fruit matrimony vine relies primarily on seed seedling-raising to breed.Ripe technology has now:Ma Yanjun et al. is used " a kind of Although black fruit fructus lycii container seedling culture method ", this method provide a kind of method of container seed seedling-raising, still, this method is present There are following shortcomings:It is complex for operation step, cost is higher;The method of Seeds preprocess is improper, does not break black fruit fructus lycii kind really Sub- dormancy(Germination rate is only 30%), waste seed;Container nursery is time-consuming, takes a lot of work;The pest and disease damage occurred to seedling stage does not provide phase The medical treatment method answered;In actual production seeding process, because bed surface temperature can not possibly keep (25 ± 2) DEG C, so logical Cross the seedling that this method obtains has many seedlings dead certainly in field-transplanting.
Guo Yongsheng etc. is provided with the efficient seeding growing seedlings method of Desert Area black fruit fructus lycii.This method is the same as Ma Yanjun et al. containers The methods of nursery, is compared and improves to some extent, but still there are following shortcomings:Seed treatment is not in place, and percentage of seedgermination is 50%, kind Subprocessing process is cumbersome, and black fruit fructus lycii seed dormancy is not abolished completely, moreover, this method is to use thin non-woven fabric, It is not necessary to use in the nursery of black fruit fructus lycii.
Zhang Binwu etc. have developed " a kind of black fruit fructus lycii field seeding method for culturing seedlings for being suitable for arid area ", this method By the way of water furrow planting overlay film again of first pouring water, soil moisture can be kept, improve ground temperature, stratification, but can not be complete Solve the problems, such as that the small and difficult germination of black fruit fructus lycii kind grain is broken ground.Broken ground mainly in fact, studying the difficult germination of black fruit fructus lycii according to us Receive the influence of three aspect factors:First, seed combinational dormancy, germination rate is low, and seed is outside except internal physiological dormancy be present Residue in fruits thing and kind skin also influence the sprouting of seed.Secondly, seed is smaller, and depth of planting can not be too deep, generally 0.5~ 1.0cm.Finally, after seed is sprouted, if soil stickiness is stronger, along with watering, easily occur seedling rot and suffocate etc. it is existing As.So the method for water furrow planting overlay film of first pouring water again can not solve to improve well germination rate and seedling rot it is vexed Dead technical problem.
In summary, subject matter existing for the seed seedling-raising of black fruit fructus lycii crop field is as follows at present:First, seed dormancy does not have Abolish completely, germination rate is only 50%;Second, using many It is not necessary to measure such as heliogreenhouses, thin non-woven fabric and Film covering etc.;3rd, cumbersome the methods of the processing of seed, effect is bad;The soil types that lycium ruthenicum nursery can be carried out does not have There is clear and definite scheme;4th, the management for seedling stage is more extensive, to seedling stage watering, fertilising, thinning, thin soil, fertilising and disease The control measures such as pest control do not have result of study.
For problem above, Liu Youjun etc., in project of national nature science fund project, " Minqin Oasis Fringe moves back/old-field wind erosion Under feature and its contribution research to sandstorm material " is subsidized, by testing the breeding and afforestation with large area repeatedly, one is developed Kind, simple crop field seed seedling-raising method more highly efficient than prior art.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method, with can be largely numerous The plant of this medicine-food two-purpose fruit is educated, effective technical support is provided for Desert Regions black fruit fructus lycii industrialized development.
In order to realize the purpose, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows, a kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field Seed seedling-raising method, including nursery lot construction, seedbed make and sterilization, fruit collection obtains with seed, the storage of seed with it is pre- Processing, sowing and six big step of seedling management;It is described in detail below:
1. nursery lot construction
1.1 selection nursery lots:Nursery of the selection close to the soil of the sandy loam at water source, loam or clay for the nursery of black fruit fructus lycii Ground, to be watered during nursery;Stubble disease pest infects serious farmland as nursery before avoiding selecting, never sandy soil;
1.2 nursery lot farming:Nursery lot is deep ploughed once after autumn, 20~25cm of depth, exposure;Treat in 12 months, last ten-days period the earth seals Winter water is poured before jelly to survive the winter;After the lunar regolith of next year 3 thaws, ploughed shallowly, 15~20cm of depth;And disposably used sufficient with reference to ploughing shallowly Base manure, base manure are decomposed ox, sheep manure totally 400~600kg/ mus, while the Measures on Soil Moisture Conservation such as to be harrowed, suppressed, and ground is flattened, Remove grass roots, stone and debris.
2. seedbed makes and sterilization
2.1 site preparation:To farming, good nursery lot gives fine site preparation, further removes grass roots, stone and debris, ground is flattened; The pesticide-clay mixture for preventing and treating subterranean pest-insect is applied into soil according to 1000~1200kg/ mu dosages with reference to site preparation;The preparation method of pesticide-clay mixture:Press According to different six phosphorus of methyl or phoxim:Sand is 1:3 weight is than well mixed;
2.2 seedbeds make:5~7d before making seedbed, is filled with enough bottom water;There are level bed, high bed and half high bed in seedbed;Bed is to by between east and west To;Seedbed makes, and often depending on the actual conditions of nursery lot, level bed generally length is no more than 20m, wide 1m, adds between bed and bed for it Wide 50cm, high 25~40cm field bund, it is easy to water, while plays isolation, is also beneficial to emergence and growth of seedling;Typically Half high bed is higher 5~10cm than level bed, and high bed is higher 10~15cm than level bed, typically using high bed;Accomplish bed is straight, face is flat, along whole;
2.3 nursery bed disinfection:3~5d FeSO before sowing4Crystal carry out nursery bed disinfection, dosage 40kg/ mus, sterilization method be by FeSO4Crystal is made powder and is uniformly sprinkling upon on bed surface, then pours water;Or by FeSO4It is 0.5% to be made into mass percent concentration The aqueous solution, uniformly spray on bed surface, drench 1~2cm of bed surface depths;Wait sowing.
3. fruit gathers and seed obtains
3.1 is annual by the end of July at the beginning of August, and growth selection is healthy and strong, no disease and pests harm plant, gathers the full ripe fruit in fruit ear middle and upper part It is real(Fruit is changed into black), it is real to be then placed on the dry fruit dried on concrete floor;
The acquisition of 3.2 seeds:By dry fruit practicality hand rubbing it is thin or grind with a stone roller it is thin after with water wash out seed, then will cleaning The seed gone out carries out wet concentration, takes out the floater floatd on the water surface and the white seed that is off color(Mature seed face Color is faint yellow), the mature and plump seed filtered out is dried in the shade is less than 14% to water content and enters step 4.1, or will filter out Mature and plump seed is directly used in the Seeds preprocess of step 4.2 planted in fall.
4. seed storage and pretreatment
4.1 seed storage:The seed obtained in step 3.2 is mounted in cotton bag and stored, seed-bearing cotton bag is filled and is placed in storage Hide room avoids sootiness, the plague of rats, insect pest, water wet etc. during room storage, storage;13~30 DEG C of storage compartment temperature, relative humidity< 30%;
4.2 Seeds preprocess:For the seed of Various Seasonal sowing, different pretreatments method breaking dormancy is taken;First, the spring Season is sowed, and takes out the seed that step 4.1 is stored, and soaks seed 3~4 with the liquor potassic permanganate that mass percent concentration is 0.5% H, seed is carried out disinfection, then takes out sterilized seed and cleaned 2 times with clear water, wipe the moisture of the surface of the seed away with filter paper, After being dried Deng seed, it is put into 2~3min in the concentrated sulfuric acid that mass percent concentration is 98% and constantly stirs, then take out kind Son, with clear water wash clean, wait sowing;Second, planted in fall, the mature and plump seed that step 3.2 water sieve is selected, use 250mg/L Gibberellins solution soaks 24 h, is directly sowed after breaking seed physiology after-ripening.
5. sowing:The time sow in spring as at the beginning of 5 months, the autumn sowing time is by the end of August by the end of April;It is drilling to sow the mode taken, OK Away from 30~35cm, wide row 40cm, 0.5~1.0cm of sand is covered, is somewhat suppressed, application rate 1.5~2kg/ mus;After planting water immediately.
6. seedling management
6.1 watering:Spring nursery, to be watered in time during 12~15d after sowing is watered, keep bed surface moistening;Wait to emerge Afterwards, monthly water 1 time, until outplanting;Autumn nursery, to water, keep in time during 12~15d after sowing is watered Bed surface moistens;After emerging, monthly water 1 time, the end of the year of First Year does not water to the April of Second Year, the flowers and fruits of Second Year Phase waters once per 15d, and remaining month monthly waters once, untill going out garden.
6.2 loosen the soil:Before not emerging after planting, the bed surface for forming hardened after watering is loosened the soil, promotes seedling quick It is unearthed and moisture penetrates into, the method for use is to use the place of about 6~10cm around the loose sowing row of hoe, when loosening the soil never The root system of seedling can not be injured, is watered in time after loosening the soil.
6.3 weeding:In order to prevent weed growth, using 40cm wide rows away from bud before weeding method;It is watered immediately in sowing Afterwards, by the Amex820 breast that mass percent concentration is 48%, according to every mu of 150~200mL, it is watered 40kg and is in the ranks sprayed;Spray Unregistered land film is in the ranks spread after applying, leaves plantation row.
6.4 emergence:After planting about 12~15d is emerged, and 20~30d seedlings all sprout after emergence;
6.5 thinning:Before outplanting, thinning twice is carried out;Nursery spring, thinning first time is in 8~10cm of height of seedling, autumn Nursery first time thinning is in 5~7cm, to growth fraction comparatively dense, small and weak seedling and hybrid strain(Variating seedling)Pulled out, pulled out Except when try not to injure the root system of other seedling, retain robust growth, disease-free seedling;Second of thinning of spring nursery exists During 15~20cm of height of seedling, it is intensive and small and weak to pull out disease, hybrid strain and growth in 8~10cm for the secondary thinning of autumn nursery Plant.
6.6 disease control:Typically be not in disease at nursery initial stage of black fruit fructus lycii, have just enter into fruiting period and occur The harm of Lema decempunctata, June, July are with broad spectrum type insecticide cypermethrin(Concentration requires to prepare according to agricultural chemicals specification)Adopt 1 time is monthly made a call to the mode of foliage-spray, and its harm to blade is completely eliminated.
6.7 go out garden:Spring sowing nursery stock, 1 year raw nursery stock can go out garden, emerge 5.5~70,000 plants/acre, 20~30cm of height of seedling;Go out Seedling rate 85~90%, survival rate of seedlings 80~85%, autumn sowing nursery stock can not go out garden then, and winter is with wheat straw and covering with ground sheeting, Second Year autumn Go out garden season, 40~50cm of height of seedling, emerge 4.5~60,000 plants/acre, emergence rate 80~85%, survival rate of seedlings 78~84%.
The important innovations of the present invention are essentially consisted in by Seeds preprocess breaking dormancy.By the two methods of above-mentioned steps 4.2 Seed after processing is placed on illumination box and carries out sprouting preliminary experiment, and it is 25 DEG C that temperature is set under the conditions of full exposure, humidity 50% Under conditions of germination rate be all higher than 90%.
Present invention emergence is neat and emergence rate reaches more than 85%, survival rate of seedlings 78~85%, and to the pest and disease damage of generation With good prevention effect, the cost of each operating technology of the invention is all relatively low, and the key link in nursery is all carried out Further investigate and propose effective and feasible technical scheme.The present invention can largely breed lycium ruthenicum plant, be the black fruit Chinese holly in Desert Regions Qi industrialized development provides effective technology support, has directly practical guidance to rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii scale breeding Meaning.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1;
1. nursery lot construction
The selection of 1.1 nursery lots
Nursery lot selects:2 mu of the Minqin psammophytes garden nursery lot of selection on the 23rd of August in 2012 for black fruit fructus lycii seed seedling-raising, Soil types is sandy loam, and watering is convenient;
1.2 nursery lot farming:September in 2012 has carried out the deep ploughing that depth is 25cm, then exposure on the 22nd;December 26 poured Winter water is survived the winter;On March 20th, 2013 is ploughed shallowly, depth 20cm;And disposably to apply decomposed ox, sheep manure each with reference to ploughing shallowly 300kg/ mus, while the Measures on Soil Moisture Conservation such as harrowed, suppressed, ground is flattened, removes grass roots, stone and debris.
2. seedbed makes and sterilization
2.1 site preparation:On April 20th, 2013 carries out fine site preparation to whole good nursery lot, further remove grass roots, stone with it is miscellaneous Thing, ground is flattened;The pesticide-clay mixture for preventing and treating subterranean pest-insect is applied into soil according to 1000kg/ mu dosages with reference to site preparation;The making of pesticide-clay mixture Method:Different six phosphorus of 500Kg methyl is well mixed with 1500kg sand;
2.2 seedbeds make:On April 22nd, 2013 is filled with enough bottom water to whole good ground;On April 23rd, 2013 makes seedling by east-west direction Bed, accomplish bed is straight, face is flat, along whole;Using high bed length 20m, wide 1m, height of bed 15cm, the 50cm broadly ridge, the ridge are added between bed and bed Height 30cm;
2.3 nursery bed disinfection:On April 28th, 2013, use FeSO4Crystal carries out nursery bed disinfection, by 80kg FeSO4Crystal is made Powder is uniformly sprinkling upon on bed surface, is then poured water, and waits sowing.
3. fruit gathers and seed obtains
The July 26 of 3.1 2012 years, the black fruit fructus lycii nursery growth selection in Minqin psammophytes garden was healthy and strong, and no disease and pests harm is planted Strain, the full ripe fruit for being changed into black in collection fruit ear middle and upper part, is then placed on concrete floor and dries;
The acquisition of 3.2 seeds:On July 31st, 2012, the fruit dried was ground with a stone roller carefully, then washed out seed with water, then will The seed washed out carries out wet concentration, takes out the floater on the water surface of floaing, while removes the i.e. white seed being off color, It is 14% to be dried in the shade after the flaxen mature seed sunk to the bottom is taken out to water content.
4. storage and the pretreatment of seed
4.1 seed storage:The seed obtained in step 3.2 is mounted in cotton bag by August, 2012 on the 2nd to be stored, and is filled seed-bearing Cotton bag is placed on storage indoor storage, avoid sootiness, the plague of rats, insect pest, water wet during storage etc.;13~30 DEG C of storage compartment temperature, Relative humidity<30%;
4.2 Seeds preprocess:On April 29th, 2013;The seed that step 4.1 is stored is taken out, is 0.5% with mass percent concentration Potassium permanganate solution immersion seed 4h, seed is carried out disinfection, sterilized seed is then taken out and is cleaned 2 times with clear water, Wipe the moisture of the surface of the seed away with filter paper, after waiting seed to dry, be put into mass percent concentration be 98% the concentrated sulfuric acid in 3min simultaneously Constantly stirring, then takes out seed, with clear water wash clean, waits sowing.The seed handled well is placed on illumination box progress Preliminary experiment, it is arranged to 25 DEG C under complete illumination, experimental result is that percentage of seedgermination reaches 94%.
5. sowing:On April 30th, 2013 will handle seed well and be broadcast according to the application rate of 1.5kg/ mus with bar broadcast mode Kind, line-spacing 40cm, husky 0.5cm is covered, somewhat suppress after covering sand, poured water immediately after broadcasting.
6. seedling management
6.1 watering:To be watered in time during 30 days~May 14 April in 2013, keep bed surface moistening, emergence on May 15 Afterwards to during outplanting, monthly water 1 time;
6.2 loosen the soil:Loosened the soil during 30 days~May 15 April in 2013 to forming hardened bed surface after watering, promote children Seedling is quickly unearthed and moisture penetrates into, and with the place of about 8cm around the loose sowing row of hoe, children can not be never injured when loosening the soil The root system of seedling, waters in time after loosening the soil;
6.3 weeding:Using 40cm wide rows away from bud before weeding method;After planting, water immediately, it is after watering that mass percent is dense The Amex820 breast for 48% is spent according to 200mL/ mus, common 400mL, is watered 80kg and is in the ranks sprayed;Unregistered land is in the ranks spread after spraying Film, leave plantation row;
6.4 emergence:On May 15th, 2013 starts to emerge, and June 8, seedling all sprouted;
6.5 thinning:On the June of 2013 28, first time thinning, average height of seedling 9cm, to growth fraction comparatively dense, small and weak seedling Try not to injure the root system of other seedling and hybrid strain is pulled out, when pulling out, retain robust growth, disease-free seedling; On July 20th, 2013, second of thinning, average height of seedling 19cm, disease, the hybrid strain plant intensive and small and weak with growth are pulled out;
6.6 disease control:On June 18th, 2013 and July, the Lema decempunctata to appearance on the 16th used broad spectrum type insecticide chlorine cyanogen Chrysanthemum ester is respectively sprayed 1 time by foliage-spray mode, and spraying concentration requires to prepare according to agricultural chemicals specification;
6.7 go out garden:On October 13rd, 2013, outplanting, emerged 6.8 ten thousand plants/acre, 13.6 ten thousand plants altogether, average height of seedling 25.8cm, emergence rate 89.1%, survival rate of seedlings 82.7%.
Embodiment 2;
1. nursery lot construction
The selection of 1.1 nursery lots
Nursery lot selects:In the selection Minqin sand control station on the 23rd of August in 2013 afforestation experiment 6 mu be black fruit fructus lycii seed seedling-raising Ground, soil types are sandy loam, and watering is convenient;
1.2 nursery lot farming:September in 2013 has carried out the deep ploughing that depth is 20cm, then exposure on the 21st;December 24 poured Winter water is survived the winter;On March 20th, 2014 is ploughed shallowly, depth 15cm;And it is each to combine the decomposed ox of shallow plowing single-dose application, sheep manure 250kg/ mus, 3000kg altogether, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2. seedbed makes and sterilization
2.1 site preparation:On April 19th, 2014 carries out fine site preparation to whole good nursery lot, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2.2 seedbeds make:On April 22nd, 2014 is filled with enough bottom water to whole good ground;On April 23rd, 2014, bed was to whole by east-west direction Ground, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2.3 nursery bed disinfection:On April 28th, 2014, use FeSO4Crystal carries out nursery bed disinfection, by 240kg FeSO4Crystal system Uniformly it is sprinkling upon on bed surface into powder, then pours water, waits sowing;
3. fruit gathers and seed obtains
The August black fruit fructus lycii nursery collecting fruit in Minqin psammophytes garden on the 2nd of 3.1 2013 years, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
The acquisition of 3.2 seeds:The fruit hand rubbing that on July 31st, 2013 obtains 2,1 is thin, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
4. storage and the pretreatment of seed
4.1 seed storage:The seed obtained in step 3.2 is mounted in cotton bag by August, 2013 on the 5th to be stored, and remaining is the same as implementation Example 1;
4.2 Seeds preprocess:On April 30th, 2014, soak kind with the potassium permanganate solution that mass percent concentration is 0.5% Sub- 3h, carries out disinfection to seed, then takes out sterilized seed and is cleaned 2 times with clear water, wipes the water of the surface of the seed away with filter paper Point, after waiting seed to dry, it is put into the concentrated sulfuric acid that mass percent concentration is 98% 90 seconds, and constantly stir, then take out Seed, with clear water wash clean, wait sowing.
The seed handled well is placed on illumination box and carries out preliminary experiment, is arranged to 25 DEG C under complete illumination condition, humidity 50%, experimental result is that percentage of seedgermination reaches 91%.
5. sowing:May 1 in 2014 will handle seed well and be sowed according to 1.6kg/ mus application rate with bar broadcast mode, its Remaining same embodiment 1;
6. seedling management
6.1 watering:Watered in time during 1 day~May 15 May in 2014, keep bed surface moistening, May 14 sunrise after seedling extremely During outplanting, monthly water 1 time;
6.2 loosen the soil:Loosened the soil during 30 days~May 14 May in 2014 to forming hardened bed surface after watering, operation is same Embodiment 1;
6.3 weeding:Using 40cm wide rows away from bud before weeding method;Concrete operations are the same as embodiment 1;
6.4 emergence:On May 14th, 2014 starts to emerge, and on June 9th, 2014, seedling all sprouted;
6.5 thinning:The first time thinning on June 28 of 2014, average height of seedling 10cm;Second of thinning on July 22 in 2014, put down Equal height of seedling 20cm, remaining same embodiment 1;
6.6 disease control:On June 18th, 2014 and July, the Lema decempunctata to appearance on the 16th was prevented and treated, and concrete operations are same Embodiment 1;
6.7 go out garden:On October 15th, 2014, outplanting, emerged 7.0 ten thousand plants/acre, 35.0 ten thousand plants altogether, average height of seedling 26.4cm, emergence rate 88.5%, survival rate of seedlings 82.4%
Embodiment 3;
1. nursery lot construction
The selection of 1.1 nursery lots
Nursery lot selects:Select 4 mu of Jingtai County sand control station nursery lot, soil on July 23rd, 2014 for black fruit fructus lycii seed seedling-raising Earth type is sandy loam, and watering is convenient;
1.2 nursery lot farming:September in 2014 has carried out the deep ploughing that depth is 25cm, then exposure on the 20th;December 22 poured Winter water is survived the winter;On March 21st, 2015 is ploughed shallowly, depth 20cm;With reference to shallow plowing single fertilization, decomposed ox, sheep manure are each 300kg/ mus, 2400kg altogether, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2. seedbed makes and sterilization
2.1 site preparation:On April 20th, 2015 carries out fine site preparation to whole good nursery lot, and subterranean pest-insect will be prevented and treated with reference to site preparation Pesticide-clay mixture is applied into soil according to 1200kg/ mu dosages;The preparation method of pesticide-clay mixture:500Kg phoxims are mixed with 1500kg sand Uniformly;Remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2.2 seedbeds make:On April 22nd, 2015 is filled with enough bottom water to whole good ground;On April 23rd, 2015, bed was to whole by east-west direction Ground, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2.3 nursery bed disinfection:On April 28th, 2015, use FeSO4Crystal carries out nursery bed disinfection, and every mu of ground 40kg of dosage, remaining is same Embodiment 1.
3. fruit gathers and seed obtains
The July 26 of 3.1 2014 years is acquired in the black fruit fructus lycii nursery in Minqin psammophytes garden, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
The acquisition of 3.2 seeds:July in 2014, the fruit by above-mentioned acquisition on the 31st was ground with a stone roller carefully, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
4. storage and the pretreatment of seed
4.1 seed storage:The seed obtained in 2.2 is mounted in cotton bag by August, 2014 on the 1st to be stored, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
4.2 Seeds preprocess:On April 26th, 2015;Kind is soaked with the potassium permanganate solution that mass percent concentration is 0.5% Sub- 3.5h, carries out disinfection to seed, then takes out sterilized seed and is cleaned 2 times with clear water, the surface of the seed is wiped away with filter paper Moisture, after waiting seed to dry, 3min in the concentrated sulfuric acid that mass percent concentration is 98% is put into, and constantly stirred, then taken out Seed, with clear water wash clean, wait sowing.The seed handled well is placed on illumination box and carries out preliminary experiment, under complete illumination 25 DEG C are set, air humidity 50%, experimental result is that percentage of seedgermination reaches 90%.
5. sowing:On April 27th, 2015 will handle seed well and be sowed according to 2.0kg/ mus application rate with bar broadcast mode, Line-spacing 40cm, husky 0.5cm is covered, somewhat suppress after covering sand, poured water immediately after broadcasting;
6. seedling management
6.1 watering:To be watered in time during 27 days~May 13 April in 2015, keep bed surface moistening, emergence on May 13 Afterwards until outplanting, monthly water 1 time;
6.2 loosen the soil:Loosened the soil during 28 days~May 13 April in 2015 to forming hardened bed surface after watering, remaining is same Embodiment 1;
6.3 weeding:Using 40cm wide rows away from bud before weeding method;After planting, water immediately, it is after watering that mass percent is dense The Amex820 breast for 48% is spent according to 200mL/ mus, common 800mL, is watered 160kg and is in the ranks sprayed;Remaining same embodiment 1;
6.4 emergence:May 13 started to emerge, and June 9, seedling all sprouted;
6.5 thinning:The first time thinning on June 25 of 2015, average height of seedling 10cm;Second of thinning on July 21 in 2013, Average height of seedling 20cm;Remaining same embodiment 1;
6.6 disease control:On June 20th, 2015 and July, the Lema decempunctata to appearance on the 15th used broad spectrum type insecticide chlorine cyanogen Chrysanthemum ester is respectively sprayed 1 time by foliage-spray mode, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
6.7 go out garden:On October 16th, 2015, outplanting, emerged 6.5 ten thousand plants/acre, 26.0 ten thousand plants altogether, average height of seedling 28.5cm.Emergence rate 87.2%, survival rate of seedlings 81.3%.
Embodiment 4;
1. nursery lot construction
The selection of 1.1 nursery lots
Nursery lot selects:On July 23rd, 2015 selects 10 mu of Minqin psammophytes garden nursery lot for black fruit fructus lycii seed seedling-raising, Soil types is sandy loam, and watering is convenient;
1.2 nursery lot farming:September in 2015 has carried out the deep ploughing that depth is 25cm, then exposure on the 22nd;December 26 poured Winter water is survived the winter;On March 20th, 2016 is ploughed shallowly, depth 20cm;And disposably to apply decomposed ox, sheep manure each with reference to ploughing shallowly 300kg/ mus, 6000kg altogether, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2. seedbed makes and sterilization
2.1 site preparation:On April 20th, 2016 carries out fine site preparation to whole good nursery lot, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2.2 seedbeds make:On April 22nd, 2016 is filled with enough bottom water to whole good ground;On April 23rd, 2016, bed was to whole by east-west direction Ground, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
2.3 nursery bed disinfection:On August 20th, 2016, uses FeSO4Crystal carries out nursery bed disinfection, by 400kg FeSO4Crystal system Uniformly it is sprinkling upon into powder on bed surface, remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
3. fruit gathers and seed obtains
The August black fruit fructus lycii nursery collecting fruit in Minqin psammophytes garden on the 25th of 3.1 2016 years, concrete operations are the same as implementation Example 1;
The acquisition of 3.2 seeds:The fruit parts hand rubbing that August in 2015 obtains 3.1 on the 25th is thin, partly grinds with a stone roller carefully, together Embodiment 1;
4. Seeds preprocess:On August 25th, 2016;The mature and plump seed that step 3.2 water sieve is selected, it is red with 250mg/L Mycin solution soaks 24 h, and sowing is waited after breaking seed physiology after-ripening.The seed handled well is placed on illumination box and carried out in advance Test, 25 DEG C, air humidity 50% are set under complete illumination condition, experimental result percentage of seedgermination reaches 95%.
5. sowing:August in 2016 will handle seed well on the 25th and be sowed according to 1.5kg/ mus application rate with bar broadcast mode, Remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
6. seedling management
6.1 watering:To be watered in time during 9 days in the 25 days~September of August in 2016, December 4 days~2016 October in 2016 Monthly water once within 30th;On April 18th, 2017, May 18 water once respectively, on May 18th, 2017 to flowers and fruits on July 22 Phase waters once per 15d, and remaining monthly waters once, the other the same as in Example 1;
6.2 loosen the soil:25 days~the September of August in 2016 is hardened to elimination of being loosened the soil in time after watering during 9 days, specifically with embodiment 1;
6.3 weeding:Using 40cm wide rows away from bud before weeding method;After planting, water immediately, by 48% Amex820 breast after watering According to 200mL/ mus, common 2000mL is watered 400kg and in the ranks sprayed, remaining same embodiment 1;
6.4 emergence:September starts to emerge on the 10th within 2016, and October 1, seedling all sprouted;
6.5 thinning:The first time thinning on October 29 of 2016, average height of seedling 6.5cm;Between second of on November 22nd, 2016 Seedling, average height of seedling 8.2cm, remaining same embodiment 1;
6.6 disease control:On June 19th, 2017 and July, the Lema decempunctata to appearance on the 18th used broad spectrum type insecticide chlorine cyanogen Chrysanthemum ester is prevented and treated, and remaining is the same as embodiment 1;
6.7 go out garden:The December of 2016 is survived the winter with Straw covering, and in April, 2017 takes away, and the nursery stock on the 15th of August in 2017 goes out Garden, emerge 6.3 ten thousand plants/acre, 63.0 ten thousand plants altogether, average height of seedling 44.6cm, emergence rate 82.6%, survival rate of seedlings 79.3%.

Claims (11)

1. a kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method, including nursery lot construction, seedbed make and sterilization, fruit Collection obtains with seed, six big step of the storage of seed and pretreatment, sowing and seedling management;It is described in detail below:
(1)Nursery lot construction
1.1 selection nursery lots:Nursery of the selection close to the soil of the sandy loam at water source, loam or clay for the nursery of black fruit fructus lycii Ground;Stubble disease pest infects serious farmland as nursery before avoiding selecting, never sandy soil;
1.2 nursery lot farming:Nursery lot is deep ploughed once after autumn, 20~25cm of depth, exposure;Treat in 12 months, last ten-days period the earth seals Winter water is poured before jelly to survive the winter;After the lunar regolith of next year 3 thaws, ploughed shallowly, 15~20cm of depth;And disposably used sufficient with reference to ploughing shallowly Base manure, base manure are decomposed ox, sheep manure totally 400~600kg/ mus, while the Measures on Soil Moisture Conservation such as to be harrowed, suppressed, and ground is flattened, Remove grass roots, stone and debris;
(2)Seedbed makes and sterilized
2.1 site preparation:To farming, good nursery lot gives fine site preparation, further removes grass roots, stone and debris, ground is flattened; The pesticide-clay mixture for preventing and treating subterranean pest-insect is applied into soil according to 1000~1200kg/ mu dosages with reference to site preparation;The preparation method of pesticide-clay mixture:Press According to different six phosphorus of methyl or phoxim:Sand is 1:3 weight is than well mixed;
2.2 seedbeds make:5~7d before making seedbed, is filled with enough bottom water;There are level bed, high bed and half high bed in seedbed;Bed is to by between east and west To;Seedling level bed generally length is no more than 20m, wide 1m, widens 50cm, high 25~40cm field bund between bed and bed, is easy to water, together When play isolation, be also beneficial to emergence and growth of seedling;General half high bed is higher 5~10cm than level bed, and high bed is higher than level bed 10~15cm, typically using high bed;Accomplish bed is straight, face is flat, along whole;
2.3 nursery bed disinfection:3~5d FeSO before sowing4Crystal carry out nursery bed disinfection, dosage 40kg/ mus, sterilization method be by FeSO4Crystal is made powder and is uniformly sprinkling upon on bed surface, then pours water;Or by FeSO4It is 0.5% to be made into mass percent concentration The aqueous solution, uniformly spray on bed surface, drench 1~2cm of bed surface depths;Wait sowing;
(3)Fruit collection and seed obtain
3.1 is annual by the end of July at the beginning of August, and growth selection is healthy and strong, no disease and pests harm plant, and collection fruit ear middle and upper part is full ripe black Color fruit, it is real to be placed on the dry fruit dried on concrete floor;
The acquisition of 3.2 seeds:By dry fruit practicality hand rubbing it is thin or grind with a stone roller it is thin after with water wash out seed, then will cleaning The seed gone out carries out wet concentration, the floater floatd on the water surface and the white seed that is off color is taken out, by what is filtered out Mature and plump seed, which dries in the shade to water content, enters step 4.1 less than 14%, or the mature and plump seed filtered out is directly used in into step The Seeds preprocess of rapid 4.2 planted in fall;
(4)Seed storage and pretreatment
4.1 seed storage:The seed obtained in step 3.2 is mounted in cotton bag and stored, seed-bearing cotton bag is filled and is placed in storage Hide room avoids sootiness, the plague of rats, insect pest, water wet etc. during room storage, storage;13~30 DEG C of storage compartment temperature, relative humidity< 30%;
4.2 Seeds preprocess:For the seed of Various Seasonal sowing, different pretreatments method breaking dormancy is taken;First, the spring Season sow, take out step 4.1 store seed, with mass percent concentration be 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate soak seed 3~ 4h, seed is carried out disinfection, then takes out sterilized seed and cleaned 2 times with clear water, wipe the moisture of the surface of the seed away with filter paper, After being dried Deng seed, it is put into 2~3min in the concentrated sulfuric acid that mass percent concentration is 98% and constantly stirs, then take out kind Son, with clear water wash clean, wait sowing;Second, planted in fall, the mature and plump seed that step 3.2 water sieve is selected, use 250mg/L Gibberellins solution soaks 24 h, is directly sowed after breaking seed physiology after-ripening;
(5)Sow:The time sow in spring as at the beginning of 5 months, the autumn sowing time is by the end of August by the end of April;It is drilling to sow the mode taken, line-spacing 30~35cm, wide row 40cm, 0.5~1.0cm of sand is covered, is somewhat suppressed, application rate 1.5~2kg/ mus;After planting water immediately;
(6)Seedling management
6.1 watering:Spring nursery, to be watered in time during 12~15d after sowing is watered, keep bed surface moistening;Wait to emerge Afterwards, monthly water 1 time, until outplanting;Autumn nursery, to water, keep in time during 12~15d after sowing is watered Bed surface moistens;After emerging, monthly water 1 time, the end of the year of First Year does not water to the April of Second Year, the flowers and fruits of Second Year Phase waters once per 15d;
6.2 loosen the soil:Before not emerging after planting, the bed surface for forming hardened after watering is loosened the soil, promotes seedling to be quickly unearthed Penetrated into moisture, the method for use is to use the place of about 6~10cm around the loose sowing row of hoe, never can not when loosening the soil The root system of seedling is injured, is watered in time after loosening the soil;
6.3 weeding:In order to prevent weed growth, using 40cm wide rows away from bud before weeding method;After sowing is watered immediately, By the Amex820 breast that mass percent concentration is 48%, according to every mu of 150~200mL, it is watered 40kg and is in the ranks sprayed;Spray Unregistered land film is in the ranks spread afterwards, leaves plantation row;
6.4 emergence:After planting about 12~15d is emerged, and 20~30d seedlings all sprout after emergence;
6.5 thinning:Before outplanting, thinning twice is carried out;Nursery spring, thinning first time is in 8~10cm of height of seedling, autumn Nursery first time thinning is in 5~7cm, and to growth fraction comparatively dense, small and weak seedling and hybrid strain variating seedling are pulled out, and are pulled out When try not to injure the root system of other seedling, retain robust growth, disease-free seedling;Second of thinning of spring nursery is in seedling During high 15~20cm, the secondary thinning of autumn nursery pulls out disease, hybrid strain and grows intensive and small and weak plant in 8~10cm Strain;
6.6 disease control:Typically be not in disease at nursery initial stage of black fruit fructus lycii, have just enter into fruiting period and matrimony vine occurs The harm of scotellaris, June, July, concentration required to prepare according to agricultural chemicals specification, using leaf with broad spectrum type insecticide cypermethrin The mode that face sprays monthly makes a call to 1 time and its harm to blade is completely eliminated;
6.7 go out garden:Spring sowing nursery stock, 1 year raw nursery stock can go out garden, emerge 5.5~70,000 plants/acre, 20~30cm of height of seedling;Autumn sowing seedling Wood, garden can not be gone out then, winter goes out garden with wheat straw and covering with ground sheeting, Second Year autumn, 4.5~60,000 plants/acre of heights of seedling 40 of emerging~ 50cm。
CN201710972497.7A 2017-10-18 2017-10-18 A kind of rapidly and efficiently black fruit fructus lycii crop field seed seedling-raising method Pending CN107750792A (en)

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CN105340554A (en) * 2015-12-02 2016-02-24 广西佳联达生态农业发展有限责任公司 Planting method of Chinese wolfberries
CN106258431A (en) * 2016-08-20 2017-01-04 阿拉善盟林木种苗站 A kind of black Fructus Lycii field seeding method for culturing seedlings being suitable for arid area
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Application publication date: 20180306