CN107724556A - A kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure - Google Patents

A kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107724556A
CN107724556A CN201710764503.XA CN201710764503A CN107724556A CN 107724556 A CN107724556 A CN 107724556A CN 201710764503 A CN201710764503 A CN 201710764503A CN 107724556 A CN107724556 A CN 107724556A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
active
link
dissipative links
flange
wing plate
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Pending
Application number
CN201710764503.XA
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
黄友强
陈世玺
何昭仁
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State Nuclear Electric Power Planning Design and Research Institute Co Ltd
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State Nuclear Electric Power Planning Design and Research Institute Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201710764503.XA priority Critical patent/CN107724556A/en
Publication of CN107724556A publication Critical patent/CN107724556A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04HBUILDINGS OR LIKE STRUCTURES FOR PARTICULAR PURPOSES; SWIMMING OR SPLASH BATHS OR POOLS; MASTS; FENCING; TENTS OR CANOPIES, IN GENERAL
    • E04H9/00Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate
    • E04H9/02Buildings, or groups of buildings, or shelters adapted to withstand or provide protection against abnormal external influences, e.g. war-like action, earthquake, extreme climate withstanding earthquake or sinking of ground
    • E04H9/021Bearing, supporting or connecting constructions specially adapted for such buildings

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure, belong to steel structure frame field.The eccentrically braces structure includes:I-shaped active beam link, it is connected with the both ends of active beam link, and the support beam section of connection is tilted in I-shaped non-active beam link, with the lower end both sides of active beam link.Active beam link includes:The dissipative links upper flange of width correspondent equal and dissipative links lower wing plate, both ends respectively with power consumption web connected vertically in the middle part of dissipative links upper flange and dissipative links lower wing plate.Non- active beam link includes:The non-dissipative links upper flange of width correspondent equal and non-dissipative links lower wing plate, both ends respectively with non-power consumption web connected vertically in the middle part of non-dissipative links upper flange and non-dissipative links lower wing plate.The width of dissipative links upper flange is less than the width of non-dissipative links upper flange, so that load effect moment M when having overall plastic property bend-carrying capacity during axle power to be combined with active beam link frequently occurred earthquake in active beam link is as close possible to reducing the overall steel using amount of eccentrically braces structure.

Description

A kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure
Technical field
The present invention relates to steel structure frame field, more particularly to a kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure.
Background technology
The Aseismic Design of steel building is the important topic that structural engineer faces at present, according to seimic disaster census, steel knot Destruction of the structure under geological process is mostly local failure, and then triggers overall destroy.And eccentrically braces structure is a kind of power consumption energy The stronger structural system of power, it includes active beam link, the non-active beam link and active beam link that are connected with the left and right end of active beam link Lower end both sides tilt connection support beam section, rarely occurred earthquake effect under, active beam link enters plasticity, pass through plastic deformation consumption Seismic energy is dissipated, so as to protect above-mentioned miscellaneous part, it is seen then that it is based on that local failure only occurs and overall structure will not substantially be broken Bad ability is widely used in height degree of splitting earthquake territory.
Active beam link serves the effect of fuse during geological process, frame column, support and non-active beam link It is directly related with active beam link to design internal force, the structure design of active beam link is for effectively reducing frame column, supporting beam section and non- The design internal force of active beam link, reduce construction costs and have great importance.Generally, the eccentric branch that prior art provides In support structure, active beam link includes I-shaped framework and is arranged on the power consumption web of I-shaped lower portion, accordingly, non-consumption Energy beam section also includes I-shaped framework and is arranged on the non-power consumption web of I-shaped lower portion.
Inventor has found that prior art at least has following technical problem:
The eccentrically braces structure that prior art provides so that reduce the design of frame column, support beam section and non-active beam link Internal force magnification level is larger, causes the overall steel using amount of eccentrically braces structure higher.
The content of the invention
In order to solve the above-mentioned technical problem, the embodiments of the invention provide a kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure.Specific skill Art scheme is as follows:
A kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure, including:I-shaped active beam link and the both ends of the active beam link connect Connect, and the support beam section of connection is tilted in I-shaped non-active beam link, with the lower end both sides of the active beam link;
The active beam link includes:The dissipative links upper flange of width correspondent equal and dissipative links lower wing plate, both ends respectively with The middle part of the dissipative links upper flange and dissipative links lower wing plate power consumption web connected vertically;
The non-active beam link includes:The non-dissipative links upper flange of width correspondent equal and non-dissipative links lower wing plate, both ends Respectively with the middle part non-power consumption web connected vertically of the non-dissipative links upper flange and the non-dissipative links lower wing plate;
The width of the dissipative links upper flange is less than the width of the non-dissipative links upper flange.
Specifically, preferably, the dissipative links upper flange width is the 0.7-0.9 of the non-dissipative links upper flange width Times.
Specifically, preferably, the dissipative links upper flange and the dissipative links lower wing plate include:Wide section and setting Wedge-shaped changeover portion at the wide section of both ends.
Specifically, preferably, the length of the wedge-shaped changeover portion is 250mm-350mm.
Specifically, preferably, the eccentrically braces structure also includes:Multiple spaced first put more energy into floor;
Described first floor of putting more energy into is vertically fixed between the dissipative links upper flange and the dissipative links lower wing plate.
Specifically, preferably, the both ends of the wedge-shaped changeover portion are vertically connected with one described first floor of putting more energy into.
Specifically, preferably, the two neighboring described first spacing for putting more energy into floor is 200mm-400mm.
Specifically, preferably, the eccentrically braces structure also includes:Second be obliquely installed is put more energy into floor;
Described second puts more energy into the upper end of floor and the described first floor of putting more energy into is connected, lower end and the non-dissipative links lower wing plate Connection.
Specifically, preferably, the upper end of the support beam section is connected with the wedge-shaped changeover portion of the dissipative links lower wing plate.
The beneficial effect that technical scheme provided in an embodiment of the present invention is brought is:
Flexure type eccentrically braces structure provided in an embodiment of the present invention, by making the width of dissipative links upper flange be less than non-consumption The width of energy beam upper flange, i.e., when having axle power by the upper and lower wing plate width reduced on active beam link to adjust in active beam link Overall plastic property bend-carrying capacity MSN, and then load effect moment M when making it be combined with active beam link frequently occurred earthquake connects as far as possible Closely, it so can effectively reduce non-active beam link, support the design internal force of beam section, also, the left and right end when non-active beam link and frame During trestle vertical connection, moreover it is possible to reduce the design internal force of frame column, this is beneficial to the overall steel using amount for reducing eccentrically braces structure, section About construction costs.
Brief description of the drawings
Technical scheme in order to illustrate the embodiments of the present invention more clearly, make required in being described below to embodiment Accompanying drawing is briefly described, it should be apparent that, drawings in the following description are only some embodiments of the present invention, for For those of ordinary skill in the art, on the premise of not paying creative work, other can also be obtained according to these accompanying drawings Accompanying drawing.
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of eccentrically braces structure provided in an embodiment of the present invention.
Reference represents respectively:
1- active beam links,
101- dissipative links upper flanges,
102- dissipative links lower wing plates,
103- power consumption webs,
The non-active beam links of 2-,
The non-dissipative links upper flanges of 201-,
The non-dissipative links lower wing plates of 202-,
The non-power consumption webs of 203-,
3- supports beam section,
401- first puts more energy into floor,
402- second puts more energy into floor.
Embodiment
Unless otherwise defined, all technical terms used in the embodiment of the present invention are respectively provided with usual with those skilled in the art The identical implication of understanding.To make the object, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, below in conjunction with accompanying drawing to this hair Bright embodiment is described in further detail.
The force-mechanism requirement of eccentrically braces structure acts on Frame Column Under, support beam section and non-active beam link in rarely occurred earthquake In elastic stage, the internal force of above-mentioned component is realized when mainly being combined by amplifying frequently occurred earthquake during design.
It will be appreciated by persons skilled in the art that eccentrically braces structure is divided into shearing-type, curved scissors type by its surrender form And flexure type, for flexure type eccentrically braces structure, its active beam link includes the upper and lower wing plate of active beam link and upper and lower two Active beam link web connected vertically in the middle part of wing plate upper and lower with active beam link respectively is held, it is by the upper and lower wing plate of active beam link Tension and compression plastic deformation is consumed energy.
For shearing-type eccentrically braces structure, its active beam link includes the upper and lower wing plate of active beam link and upper/lower terminal Active beam link web connected vertically in the middle part of wing plate upper and lower with active beam link respectively, it is moulded by the shearing of active beam link web Property deformation consumed energy.
The length for differing only in active beam link of flexure type eccentrically braces structure and shearing-type eccentrically braces structure It is different, i.e. according to the surrender form of eccentrically braces structure, limit value to be set to the length of active beam link, if making active beam link Length exceedes the limit value, then the eccentrically braces structure is flexure type, if conversely, make the length of active beam link be less than the limit value, Then the eccentrically braces structure is shearing-type.
Research is found, for flexure type eccentrically braces structure, the design of frame column, support beam section and non-active beam link Internal force can be expressed as with formula:
F=Ω (MSN/M)F1
Wherein, the design internal force of F-frame column, support beam section and non-active beam link;
F1Load effect internal force when-frame column, support beam section and non-active beam link frequently occurred earthquake combine, can basis The physical parameter of frame column, support beam section and non-active beam link, reads from finite element software;
Ω-constant amplification factor, it can be found in corresponding specification;
MSNThere is overall plastic property bend-carrying capacity during axle power in-active beam link, wherein, MSN=(fya)Wpb
Wherein, WpbThe plastic section modulus of-active beam link;
Load effect moment of flexure during M-active beam link frequently occurred earthquake combination, can simulate the combination of active beam link frequently occurred earthquake When force-bearing situation, read from finite element software;
fy- dissipative links steel yield strength, it can be found in corresponding specification;
δaThe mean normal stress on the beam section edge of a wing caused by-axial force.
By above-mentioned formula as can be seen that frame column, support and the design internal force of non-active beam link and the M of active beam linkSN/ M is directly related (by flexure stress ratio).Under the premise of regulatory requirements are met, work as MSNWith M it is close when, can effectively reduce frame column, branch The design internal force of beam section and non-active beam link is supportted, reduces construction costs;Conversely, frame column, support and the design of non-active beam link The excessive amplification of internal force, the section of increase frame column, support beam section and non-active beam link, so as to increase the rigidity of structure, increase earthquake Power, pernicious iteration effect is produced, improve construction costs.
So on the basis of above-mentioned condition is met, overall plastic property when how to make to have axle power in active beam link is by curved carrying Power MSNLoad effect moment M when being combined with active beam link frequently occurred earthquake approaches, and is used for reducing the overall of eccentrically braces structure Steel amount, save construction costs and have great importance.
In order to achieve the above object, the embodiments of the invention provide a kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure, such as the institute of accompanying drawing 1 Show, the eccentrically braces structure includes:I-shaped active beam link 1, it is connected with the both ends of active beam link 1, and in I-shaped non- Active beam link 2, the support beam section 3 with the lower end both sides inclination connection of active beam link 1.
Active beam link 1 includes:The dissipative links upper flange 101 and dissipative links lower wing plate 102 of width correspondent equal, both ends difference With the middle part of dissipative links upper flange 101 and dissipative links lower wing plate 102 power consumption web 103 connected vertically.
Non- active beam link 2 includes:The non-dissipative links upper flange 201 and non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202, two of width correspondent equal End respectively with the middle part of non-dissipative links upper flange 201 and non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202 it is connected vertically it is non-power consumption web 203;
Wherein, the width of dissipative links upper flange 101 is less than the width of non-dissipative links upper flange 201.
It should be noted that due to dissipative links upper flange 101 and the width correspondent equal of dissipative links lower wing plate 102, non-consumption The width correspondent equal of energy beam upper flange 201 and non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202, so, the width of above-mentioned dissipative links upper flange 101 Degree is also implied by less than the width of non-dissipative links upper flange 201:The width of dissipative links lower wing plate 102 is less than non-dissipative links upper flange 201 and the width of non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202.For the ease of succinct description, the embodiment of the present invention is herein only with dissipative links upper limb The width versus of plate 101 and non-dissipative links upper flange 201 represents the width of the upper and lower wing plate of active beam link 1 and non-active beam link 2 Degree contrast.
Eccentrically braces structure provided in an embodiment of the present invention, when it is flexure type that it, which surrenders form, by making on dissipative links The width of wing plate 101 is less than the width of non-dissipative links upper flange 201, i.e., by reducing the upper and lower wing plate width on active beam link 1 Overall plastic property bend-carrying capacity M when having axle power in active beam link 1 to adjustSN, and then it is combined with the frequently occurred earthquake of active beam link 1 When load effect moment M as close possible to, so can effectively reduce non-active beam link 2, support beam section 3 design internal force, and And when the left and right end of non-active beam link 2 is with frame column vertical connection, moreover it is possible to reduce the design internal force of frame column, this is beneficial to drop The overall steel using amount of low eccentrically braces structure, save construction costs.
For the width reduction amplitude of dissipative links upper flange 101, in order that the stress of active beam link 1 is more reasonable, It can be determined by following methods:
Work as MSNWhen/M ratio infinitely approaches 1, M ≈ MSN=(bftfh+th2/6)fy
bf≈(M/fy-th2/6)/tf/h;
bf/b≈(M/fy-th2/6)/tf/h/b;
Wherein, bf- active beam link flange width;
tf- active beam link edge of a wing thickness;
T-active beam link web thickness;
H-active beam link web height;
B-non-active beam link flange width;
Based on above-mentioned, the embodiment of the present invention makes dissipative links upper flange 101, the width of dissipative links lower wing plate 102 is non-power consumption 0.7-0.9 times of the width of beam upper flange 201, such as 0.7 times, 0.75 times, 0.8 times, 0.85 times, 0.9 times etc..
In order to avoid the junction of active beam link 1 and non-active beam link 2 because the abrupt change of cross-section causes stress concentration, cause this Eccentrically braces structure local failure, in the embodiment of the present invention, dissipative links upper flange 101 and dissipative links lower wing plate 102 include:Deng Wide section and the wedge-shaped changeover portion for being arranged on wide section of both ends.
Wherein, wide section of corresponding, dissipative links upper limb of wide section of dissipative links upper flange 101 and dissipative links lower wing plate 102 The wedge-shaped changeover portion of plate 101 is corresponding with the wedge-shaped changeover portion of dissipative links lower wing plate 102.Above-mentioned wedge-shaped changeover portion is also understood that For the straight oblique section seamlessly transitted from dissipative links upper flange 101 to non-dissipative links upper flange 201.
By the way that the both ends of dissipative links upper flange 101 and dissipative links lower wing plate 102 are set into wedgewise changeover portion, so, when When they are connected with non-dissipative links upper flange 201 and non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202 respectively, its junction seamlessly transits, it is ensured that consumption Energy beam section 1 reaches preferable force modes, concentrates and damages without stress.
Overall plastic property bend-carrying capacity M during in view of there is axle power in active beam link 1 to be madeSNWith the frequently occurred earthquake of active beam link 1 Load effect moment M during combination as close possible to, the length of above-mentioned wedge-shaped changeover portion is 250mm-350mm, such as 250mm, 270mm, 300mm, 320mm, 340mm, 350mm etc..
Further, as shown in Figure 1, the eccentrically braces structure also includes:Multiple spaced first put more energy into floor 401, first floor 401 of putting more energy into is vertically fixed between dissipative links upper flange 101 and dissipative links lower wing plate 102.
Put more energy into floor 401 by setting first, the soffit of girder 103 that can ensure to consume energy is not in local buckling, is further carried The bending resistance of the high eccentrically braces structure.
Multiple first floors 401 of putting more energy into are arranged at intervals and parallel relative, and two neighboring first spacing for putting more energy into floor 401 can Think 200-400mm, such as 200mm, 250mm, 300mm, 350mm, 400mm etc..
Wherein, the plurality of first upper end and vertical connection of dissipative links upper flange 101 for putting more energy into floor 401, lower end with it is corresponding The vertical connection of dissipative links lower wing plate 102, also, with the web 103 that consumes energy for symmetry axis, its front and rear sides is provided with two rows Symmetrical first puts more energy into floor 401.
In order to increase the stabilizing power of power consumption web 103, the first front side wall for putting more energy into floor 401 is close to the web that consumes energy 103, and both can connect with welding.Stress concentration caused by order to reduce weld seam, first put more energy into floor 401 with power consumption the soffit of girder The side wall that plate 103 connects is provided at both ends with straight chamfering.
In order to meet stability and the lightweight of active beam link 1 simultaneously, the first thickness for putting more energy into floor 401 can be 15- 18mm, preferably 16mm.
In order that active beam link 1 seamlessly transits to non-active beam link 2, the stability of the eccentrically braces structure is improved, it is such as attached Shown in Fig. 1, the embodiment of the present invention makes the both ends of wedge-shaped changeover portion be vertically connected with one first floor 401 of putting more energy into.
Further, the upper end of support beam section 3 is connected with the wedge-shaped changeover portion of dissipative links lower wing plate 102, specifically, make Put more energy into floor 401 and dissipative links lower wing plate with first the junction of the wedge-shaped changeover portion of support beam section 3 and dissipative links lower wing plate 102 The junction of 102 wedge-shaped changeover portion is corresponding.
Further, it is such as attached in order to avoid stress concentration phenomenon occurs in the non-power consumption web 203 in non-active beam link 2 Shown in Fig. 1, the eccentrically braces structure also includes:Second be obliquely installed is put more energy into floor 402, wherein, this second is put more energy into floor 402 Upper end be connected with the first floor 401 of putting more energy into, lower end is connected with non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202.
Understood based on above-mentioned, the second floor 402 of putting more energy into puts more energy into floor 401 and non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202 coordinates with first Stable triangular structure, also, the preferred isosceles triangular structure of the triangular structure are formed, that is, extends floor 403 and second Floor 402 of putting more energy into is equal with the angle of non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202, can be 15 ° -30 °, such as 15 °, 18 °, 20 °, 23 °, 25 ° etc..
Preferably, the second floor 402 and first of putting more energy into puts more energy into floor 401 and non-dissipative links lower wing plate 202 using welding The mode connect is attached.
It is understood that in actual applications, eccentrically braces structure provided in an embodiment of the present invention also includes:With non-consumption The left and right end frame column connected vertically of energy beam section 2, to provide stable support for the eccentrically braces structure.
Presently preferred embodiments of the present invention is the foregoing is only, the protection domain being not intended to limit the invention is all in this hair Within bright spirit and principle, any modification, equivalent substitution and improvements made etc., protection scope of the present invention should be included in Within.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure, including:I-shaped active beam link (1) and the both ends of the active beam link (1) Connection, and tilt the support beam section connected in I-shaped non-active beam link (2), with the lower end both sides of the active beam link (1) (3);
The active beam link (1) includes:The dissipative links upper flange (101) of width correspondent equal and dissipative links lower wing plate (102), two End respectively with the dissipative links upper flange (101) and the middle part power consumption soffit of girder connected vertically of the dissipative links lower wing plate (102) Plate (103);
The non-active beam link (2) includes:The non-dissipative links upper flange (201) of width correspondent equal and non-dissipative links lower wing plate (202), both ends are vertical with the middle part of the non-dissipative links upper flange (201) and the non-dissipative links lower wing plate (202) respectively connects The non-power consumption web (203) connect;
Characterized in that, the width of the dissipative links upper flange (101) is less than the width of the non-dissipative links upper flange (201).
2. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 1, it is characterised in that dissipative links upper flange (101) width is 0.7-0.9 times of non-dissipative links upper flange (201) width.
3. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the dissipative links upper flange (101) and described Dissipative links lower wing plate (102) includes:Wide section and it is arranged on the wedge-shaped changeover portion at the wide section of both ends.
4. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 3, it is characterised in that the length of the wedge-shaped changeover portion is 250mm- 350mm。
5. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 4, it is characterised in that the eccentrically braces structure also includes:It is multiple Spaced first puts more energy into floor (401);
Described first floor (401) of putting more energy into is vertically fixed on the dissipative links upper flange (101) and the dissipative links lower wing plate (102) between.
6. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 5, it is characterised in that the both ends of the wedge-shaped changeover portion vertically connect It is connected to one described first floor (401) of putting more energy into.
7. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 5, it is characterised in that two neighboring described first puts more energy into floor (401) spacing is 200mm-400mm.
8. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 5, it is characterised in that the eccentrically braces structure also includes:Tilt Second set is put more energy into floor (402);
Described second puts more energy into the upper end of floor (402) and the described first floor (401) of putting more energy into is connected, lower end and the non-dissipative links Lower wing plate (202) connects.
9. eccentrically braces structure according to claim 1, it is characterised in that it is described support beam section (3) upper end with it is described The wedge-shaped changeover portion connection of dissipative links lower wing plate (102).
CN201710764503.XA 2017-08-30 2017-08-30 A kind of flexure type eccentrically braces structure Pending CN107724556A (en)

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CN108412072A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-08-17 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Get higher bending shearing-type accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108487754A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-04 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Flexure type accentric support dissipative links, flexure type eccentrically braces structure
CN108505682A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-07 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Get higher flexure type accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108505639A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-07 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 A kind of flexure type accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108532755A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-14 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 It is bent shearing-type accentric support dissipative links, bending shearing-type eccentrically braces structure
CN108532787A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-14 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108532756A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-14 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Shearing-type accentric support dissipative links, shearing-type eccentrically braces structure

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时娇娇: "高强钢组合单层单跨K型偏心支撑钢框架受力性能有限元分析", 《中国优秀硕士学位论文全文数据库工程科技II辑》 *
曾婵月: "削弱耗能梁段D型偏心支撑抗震性能研究", 《中国优秀硕士学位论文全文数据库工程科技II辑》 *

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN108412072A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-08-17 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Get higher bending shearing-type accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108487754A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-04 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Flexure type accentric support dissipative links, flexure type eccentrically braces structure
CN108505682A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-07 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Get higher flexure type accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108505639A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-07 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 A kind of flexure type accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108532755A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-14 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 It is bent shearing-type accentric support dissipative links, bending shearing-type eccentrically braces structure
CN108532787A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-14 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Accentric support dissipative links, eccentrically braces structure
CN108532756A (en) * 2018-03-02 2018-09-14 国核电力规划设计研究院有限公司 Shearing-type accentric support dissipative links, shearing-type eccentrically braces structure

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