CN107721549A - Radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method - Google Patents

Radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107721549A
CN107721549A CN201710917317.5A CN201710917317A CN107721549A CN 107721549 A CN107721549 A CN 107721549A CN 201710917317 A CN201710917317 A CN 201710917317A CN 107721549 A CN107721549 A CN 107721549A
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matrix
radix tetrastigme
cultivation
fertilizer
cultivation matrix
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CN107721549B (en
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史俊
林培杰
杨鹤同
席刚俊
沈正宏
曹金留
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Jiangsu Polytechnic College of Agriculture and Forestry
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Jiangsu Polytechnic College of Agriculture and Forestry
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D9/00Other inorganic fertilisers
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F3/00Fertilisers from human or animal excrements, e.g. manure
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Forests & Forestry (AREA)
  • Biodiversity & Conservation Biology (AREA)
  • Ecology (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Inorganic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Chemical Kinetics & Catalysis (AREA)
  • Wood Science & Technology (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Pest Control & Pesticides (AREA)
  • Fertilizers (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method, site preparation bedding first, lay cultivation matrix, radix tetrastigme seedling is planted in matrix, radix tetrastigme base segments stipes is embedded to matrix every year, for taking root, increase radix tetrastigme stem tuber raw site, organic fertilizer and foliar fertilizer added with plant growth regulating substance are applied in specific period simultaneously, realizes a seedling, continuous harvesting.Cultural method of the present invention can be effectively increased the yield of radix tetrastigme, reduce the usage amount of seedling, shorten the radix tetrastigme production cycle;It is simple to operate, cost is low, have higher application value to radix tetrastigme facility cultivation.

Description

Radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to Chinese medicine plantation, and in particular to a kind of radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method.
Technical background
Radix tetrastigme (Tetrastigma hemsleyanum Diels et Gilg), scientific name tetratigma hemsleyanum, also known as gold thread Hoist, silk thread hang Jin Zhong, stone mouse, stone monkey etc..It is sub- that radix tetrastigme belongs to the original perianth of Angiospermae Dicotyledoneae Guiding principle Rhamnales Vitaceae Tetrastigma plant, it is that dioecious perennial herbaceous stem climbs up by holding on to liana.Radix tetrastigme is as rare Chinese medicine, it is a kind of distinctive folk medicinal plants in China, it has anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antitumor etc. with root tuber or all herbal medicine Effect.To the high fever of various heat symptom-complex unknown causes, tonsillitis, pneumonia, sphagitis, various oedema (various inflammatory edemas, snake Wound) there is the effect of uniqueness, it is that Western medicine is irreplaceable " bouvardin ", economic value is very high.In recent years, due to environment Change and it is general adopt, disorderly dig, only digging and do not plant, cause originally that just rare wild radix tetrastigme is increasingly rare, it is endangered, at all can not Meet medical market demand, more show its rare preciousness.Therefore, artificial large area plantation radix tetrastigme has a extensive future, and grinds It is imperative to study carefully development facility Efficient cultivation technique.
The content of the invention
The technical problems to be solved by the invention, it is to provide a kind of by a seedling, the continuous harvesting of realization, and three leaves Blue or green yield and quality is able to the facility cultivation method ensured.
In order to solve the above technical problems, the technical solution adopted by the present invention is as follows:
A kind of radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method, comprises the following steps:
(1) greenhouse constructs:Field is selected, constructs wide 6-8m, high 2.8-3.3m greenhouse, greenhouse Bilateral fenestration, spring and summer autumn 16-33 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 30%-70% are kept by window, winter closes window insulation, ensures that temperature of shed is not less than 0 DEG C, annual ceiling in 3~November covers sunshade net;
(2) site preparation bedding, the wide 1.5m of furrow, high 10cm, cultivation matrix is laid on furrow, irrigates matrix with water before cultivation, then Drip net ponding;
(3) plant and manage:The 2-4 months, radix tetrastigme seedling is planted on the cultivation matrix after step (2) processing, plants 2 Start to pour first time water after~3 days, later into daily management;When tendril is grown to 60~80cm, base segments stipes is buried Enter in cultivation matrix, and built draws climing is climbed up by holding on to;The Second Year 2-4 months, then will base segments stipes be embedded to cultivation matrix in, make its after Continuous growth;
(4) apply fertilizer:During annual 4~May and 11~December, organic fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields respectively 1~2 time;During annual 5~September, Monthly spray foliar fertilizer 1~2 time;
(5) harvest and circulate plantation:Since the 3rd year, the annual 11-12 months harvested once, gently push matrix aside, harvesting Stem tuber, take and stay small, the then old stem for having harvested stem tuber of cut-out most base portion and old root greatly, and by new base segments stem In section embedment cultivation matrix, continue to grow by daily management, same step of applying fertilizer (4).
In step (1), the high 1.2~1.5m of window, elongated design.
In step (1), the sunshade net shading rate is 50-90%, and preferably shading rate is 70% sunshade net.
In step (2), one layer of ground cloth is covered between the cultivation matrix and furrow face, described ground cloth selects the anti-meadow cloth of PE, So the stem tuber of radix tetrastigme is only grow in loose matrix, is easy to excavate.
In step (2), the cultivation matrix includes each component of following weight percentage:20~30% rice husks, 20 ~30% peat, 10~15% vermiculites, 30~50% fertile soil, laying depth are 15~20cm.
In step (3), the radix tetrastigme seedling seeding row spacing is 40*40~50*50cm.
In step (3), the retractable rope that ceiling is invested by tying up realizes that built draws climing is climbed up by holding on to.
In step (4), described organic fertilizer includes each component of following weight percentage:40~50% fermentation cattle and sheep Excrement, 30~40% fermentating rapeseed cakes, 10~30% fermentation silkworm excrement.
In step (4), plant growth regulating substance NAA and KT are added with the organic fertilizer, wherein, NAA additions are 1 ~2mg/kg, KT addition are 3~5mg/kg.
Preferably, NAA additions are 2mg/kg, and KT additions are 3mg/kg.
In step (4), the foliar fertilizer is marine alga organic fertilizer, wherein added with plant growth regulating substance 6-BA, is added Dosage is 1~2mg/L.
Preferably, 6-BA additions are 2mg/L.
Preferably, in step (3) and step (5), the base portion stipes length of the embedment cultivation matrix is 2~6 sections Between.
Pass through cultural method of the present invention, it is possible to achieve continuous harvesting, unless serious pest and disease damage occurs, otherwise without Seedling need to be changed;This method is the root by removing old root in harvesting, burying new climing method continuous renewal plant, realizes plant Self-renewing;For the cultivation matrix used, according to the wastage of matrix year by year and the hardened situation of matrix, can suitably supplement And replacing.
Beneficial effect:The present invention by furrow face lay radix tetrastigme plantation substrate, make radix tetrastigme growth of seedling in In loose matrix, meanwhile, apply organic fertilizer and leaf added with various concentrations plant growth regulating substance in special time period Leaven, radix tetrastigme stem tuber is effectively facilitated and has expanded;Annual stem processing of burying adds the site that radix tetrastigme stem tuber life, improves Yield;Set about harvesting after the old root old stem of cut-out, have updated radix tetrastigme root vigor, it is often more important that realize radix tetrastigme without Limit growth and continuous harvesting.This cultural method is simple to operate, and the plant growth regulating substance dosage of addition is few, cost is low, applies It is convenient, there are higher application value, large-scale promotion application value height to radix tetrastigme facility cultivation.
Embodiment
The present invention is explained in detail with reference to specific embodiment.
Raw material sources:
Liquid seaweed extract is the functional form blade face composite liquid fertilizer of thunder power 2000, and application concentration is 1000 times, purchased from Beijing Lei Liji Company of group.
Gained is prepared using common fermentation processes after organic fertilizer is cattle and sheep excrement, rape cake, silkworm excrement mix in proportion, it is specific to make Preparation Method is as follows:Turfing is native one layer on the ground first, thick about 2~3 cun;Then raw material is laid, waters, ensures that humidity reaches 50%~60%, to neutralize the acidity of compost, lime, plant ash etc. can be added between laid course;In winter-spring season, temperature When too low, then it can increase the insulation materials such as wood sawdust.3~5m of bottom width, high 2~3m so are piled, its cross section is triangular in shape Pile heap, fermentation is carried out 3~4 months under natural ventilation or manual control state.
Embodiment 1
A kind of radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method, comprises the following steps:
(1) greenhouse constructs:Field is selected, constructs wide 8m, high 3m greenhouse, greenhouse Bilateral fenestration, window high 1.2m is elongated to set Meter;The spring and summer autumn keeps 20-30 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 50-60% by window, and winter closes window insulation, ensures temperature of shed Not less than 0 DEG C, annual ceiling in 3~November covers sunshade net, shading rate 70%;
(2) site preparation bedding, the wide 1.5m of furrow, high 10cm, the anti-meadow cloth of one layer of PE is first spread on furrow, then lays cultivation matrix, Matrix is irrigated with water before cultivation, then drips net ponding;Wherein, cultivation matrix includes each component of following weight percentage: 30% rice husk, 20% peat, 15% vermiculite, 35% fertile soil, the cultivation matrix laying depth are 20cm;
(3) plant and manage:The 2-4 months, by radix tetrastigme seedling plant in step (2) processing after cultivation matrix on, seedling Seeding row spacing is 40*40~50*50cm;Plantation starts to pour first time water after 2~3 days, later into daily management;Treat tendril grow to During 60~80cm, the stipes of 2-3 internode of base portion is embedded in cultivation matrix, and built draws climing is climbed up by holding on to;The Second Year 2-4 months, then By in the stipes embedment cultivation matrix of 2~6 internodes of base portion, continue to grow;
(4) apply fertilizer:During annual 4~May and 11~December, organic fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields respectively 1~2 time;During annual 5~September, Monthly spray foliar fertilizer 1~2 time;Wherein, organic fertilizer includes each component of following weight percentage:50% fermentation cattle and sheep Excrement, 40% fermentating rapeseed cake, 10% fermentation silkworm excrement, wherein added with plant growth regulating substance NAA and KT, wherein, NAA adds Dosage is 2mg/kg, and KT additions are 3mg/kg;Foliar fertilizer is the functional form blade face composite liquid fertilizer of thunder power 2000, and 1000 times spray, Wherein it is added with plant growth regulating substance 6-BA, addition 2mg/L;
(5) harvest and circulate plantation:Since the 3rd year, the annual 11-12 months harvested once, gently push matrix aside, harvesting Stem tuber, take and stay small, the then old stem for having harvested stem tuber of cut-out most base portion and old root greatly, and by new base portion 3~6 In the stipes embedment cultivation matrix of internode, continue to grow by daily management, fertilising repeat step (4).
Continuous plantation 6 years, annual output condition such as following table.
Collecting time (the 11-12 months) Yield (kg/hm2)
3rd year 1925
4th year 2142
5th year 2195
6th year 2148
Amount to 8410
It can realize and once plant, harvest for years, in addition to except the 3rd year, harvesting yield was lower slightly first, remaining annual output Quite, upper table is plantation 6 years, harvests 4 each yield and total output.
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and Foliar Spraying simply is changed into pouring root, and continuous plantation is realized after 6 years Total output 8345kg/hm2
Embodiment 3
The present embodiment is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and the concentration level of the wherein plant growth regulating substance in organic fertilizer is adopted It is finished whole district's group experiment to be screened, the results are shown in Table 1.
Influence of the different plant growth regulator concentration to radix tetrastigme yield is added in the organic fertilizer of table 1 (in terms of 6 years)
From table 1 it follows that add NAA2mg/kg in the organic fertilizer, during KT3mg/kg, most beneficial for radix tetrastigme yield Raising.
Embodiment 4
The present embodiment is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and the concentration level of the wherein plant growth regulating substance in foliar fertilizer is adopted It is finished whole district's group experiment to be screened, the results are shown in Table 1
Influence of the different plant growth regulator to radix tetrastigme yield is added in the foliar fertilizer of table 2 (in terms of 6 years)
Processing 6-BA(mg/L) Yield (kg/hm2)
1 0 7860
2 1 8190
3 2 8410
4 3 7900
From Table 2, it can be seen that when adding 6~BA2mg/L in foliar fertilizer, most beneficial for the raising of radix tetrastigme yield.
Embodiment 5
The present embodiment is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and stem processing is buried except that not using.
The radix tetrastigme of table 3 buries stem processing to production and the influence of yield in the course of cultivation (in terms of 6 years)
Processing number Whether stem processing is buried Plant number Excavate number Total output (kg/hm2)
1 It is 1 4 8410
2 It is no 2 2 4200
Embodiment 6
A kind of radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method, comprises the following steps:
(1) greenhouse constructs:Field is selected, constructs wide 6m, high 3.3m greenhouse, greenhouse Bilateral fenestration, window high 1.5m is elongated Design;The spring and summer autumn keeps 16-33 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 30%-70% by window, and winter closes window insulation, ensured in canopy Temperature is not less than 0 DEG C, and annual ceiling in 3~November covers sunshade net, shading rate 80%;
(2) site preparation bedding, the wide 1.5m of furrow, high 10cm, the anti-meadow cloth of one layer of PE is first spread on furrow, then lays cultivation matrix, Matrix is irrigated with water before cultivation, then drips net ponding;Wherein, cultivation matrix includes each component of following weight percentage: 25% rice husk, 25% peat, 10% vermiculite, 40% fertile soil, the cultivation matrix laying depth are 18cm;
(3) plant and manage:The 2-4 months, by radix tetrastigme seedling plant in step (2) processing after cultivation matrix on, seedling Seeding row spacing is 40*40~50*50cm;Plantation starts to pour first time water after 2~3 days, later into daily management;Treat tendril grow to During 60~80cm, the stipes of 3~5 internodes of base portion is embedded in cultivation matrix, and built draws climing is climbed up by holding on to;The Second Year 2-4 months, then By in the stipes embedment cultivation matrix of 3~4 internodes of base portion, continue to grow;
(4) apply fertilizer:During annual 4~May and 11~December, organic fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields respectively 1~2 time;During annual 5~September, Monthly spray foliar fertilizer 1~2 time;Wherein, organic fertilizer includes each component of following weight percentage:40% fermentation cattle and sheep Excrement, 30% fermentating rapeseed cake, 30% fermentation silkworm excrement, wherein added with plant growth regulating substance NAA and KT, wherein, NAA adds Dosage is 1mg/kg, and KT additions are 5mg/kg;Foliar fertilizer is marine alga organic fertilizer, wherein added with plant growth regulating substance 6-BA, addition 1mg/L;
(5) harvest and circulate plantation:Since the 3rd year, the annual 11-12 months harvested once, gently push matrix aside, harvesting Stem tuber, take and stay small, the then old stem for having harvested stem tuber of cut-out most base portion and old root greatly, and by new base portion 2~6 In the stipes embedment cultivation matrix of internode, continue to grow by daily management, fertilising repeat step (4).
Embodiment 7
A kind of radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method, comprises the following steps:
(1) greenhouse constructs:Field is selected, constructs wide 7m, high 2.8m greenhouse, greenhouse Bilateral fenestration, window high 1.4m is elongated Design;The spring and summer autumn keeps 16-33 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 30%-70% by window, and winter closes window insulation, ensured in canopy Temperature is not less than 0 DEG C, and annual ceiling in 3~November covers sunshade net, shading rate 65%;
(2) site preparation bedding, the wide 1.5m of furrow, high 10cm, the anti-meadow cloth of one layer of PE is first spread on furrow, then lays cultivation matrix, Matrix is irrigated with water before cultivation, then drips net ponding;Wherein, cultivation matrix includes each component of following weight percentage: 20% rice husk, 20% peat, 15% vermiculite, 45% fertile soil, the cultivation matrix laying depth are 20cm;
(3) plant and manage:The 2-4 months, by radix tetrastigme seedling plant in step (2) processing after cultivation matrix on, seedling Seeding row spacing is 40*40~50*50cm;Plantation starts to pour first time water after 2~3 days, later into daily management;Treat tendril grow to During 60~80cm, the stipes of 3~6 internodes of base portion is embedded in cultivation matrix, and built draws climing is climbed up by holding on to;The Second Year 2-4 months, then By in the stipes embedment cultivation matrix of 3~6 internodes of base portion, continue to grow;
(4) apply fertilizer:During annual 4~May and 11~December, organic fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields respectively 1~2 time;During annual 5~September, Monthly spray foliar fertilizer 1~2 time;Wherein, organic fertilizer includes each component of following weight percentage:40% fermentation cattle and sheep Excrement, 40% fermentating rapeseed cake, 20% fermentation silkworm excrement, wherein added with plant growth regulating substance NAA and KT, wherein, NAA adds Dosage is 1.5mg/kg, and KT additions are 4mg/kg;Foliar fertilizer is marine alga organic fertilizer, wherein added with Plant growth regulators Matter 6-BA, addition 1.5mg/L;
(5) harvest and circulate plantation:Since the 3rd year, the annual 11-12 months harvested once, gently push matrix aside, harvesting Stem tuber, take and stay small, the then old stem for having harvested stem tuber of cut-out most base portion and old root greatly, and by new base portion 3~6 In the stipes embedment cultivation matrix of internode, continue to grow by daily management, fertilising repeat step (4).

Claims (8)

1. a kind of radix tetrastigme facility cultivation method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) greenhouse constructs:Field is selected, constructs wide 6-8m, high 2.8-3.3m greenhouse, greenhouse Bilateral fenestration, the spring and summer autumn passes through Window keeps 16-33 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 30%-70%, and winter closes window insulation, ensures that temperature of shed is not less than 0 DEG C, often Ceiling covering in 3~November of year sunshade net;
(2) site preparation bedding, the wide 1.5m of furrow, high 10cm, cultivation matrix is laid on furrow, matrix is irrigated with water before cultivation, then drip is net Ponding;
(3) plant and manage:The 2-4 months, radix tetrastigme seedling is planted on the cultivation matrix after step (2) processing, plants 2~3 Start to pour first time water after it, later into daily management;When tendril is grown to 60~80cm, base segments stipes is embedded to and planted Train in matrix, and built draws climing is climbed up by holding on to;The Second Year 2-4 months, then base segments stipes is embedded in cultivation matrix, continue to give birth to It is long;
(4) apply fertilizer:During annual 4~May and 11~December, organic fertilizer is spread fertilizer over the fields respectively 1~2 time;During annual 5~September, monthly Spray foliar fertilizer 1~2 time;
(5) harvest and circulate plantation:Since the 3rd year, the annual 11-12 months harvested once, gently pushed matrix aside, harvested stem tuber, Take and stay small, the then old stem for having harvested stem tuber of cut-out most base portion and old root, and new base segments stipes is buried greatly Enter in cultivation matrix, continue to grow by daily management, fertilising repeat step (4).
2. cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (2), between the cultivation matrix and furrow face It is covered with the anti-meadow cloth of one layer of PE.
3. cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (2), the cultivation matrix includes following heavy Measure each component of percentage composition:20~30% rice husks, 20~30% peats, 10~15% vermiculites, 30~50% fertile soil, institute It is 15~20cm to state cultivation matrix laying depth.
4. cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (3), the radix tetrastigme seedling seeding row spacing is 40*40~50*50cm.
5. cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (4), described organic fertilizer includes following heavy Measure each component of percentage composition:40~50% fermentation cattle and sheep excrement, 30~40% fermentating rapeseed cakes, 10~30% fermentation silkworm It is husky.
6. cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (4), plant is added with the organic fertilizer Growth regulatory substance NAA and KT, wherein, NAA additions are 1~2mg/kg, and KT additions are 3~5mg/kg.
7. cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (4), the foliar fertilizer is marine alga organic liquor Fertilizer, wherein added with plant growth regulating substance 6-BA, addition is 1~2mg/L.
8. cultural method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that in step (3) and step (5), the embedment cultivation The base portion stipes length of matrix is 2~6 internodes.
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