CN107711257B - Construction method of flood control vegetation on river bank - Google Patents

Construction method of flood control vegetation on river bank Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107711257B
CN107711257B CN201711152118.6A CN201711152118A CN107711257B CN 107711257 B CN107711257 B CN 107711257B CN 201711152118 A CN201711152118 A CN 201711152118A CN 107711257 B CN107711257 B CN 107711257B
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river
planting
trees
construction
shrubs
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CN107711257A (en
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史艳财
黎兆海
邹蓉
邓耘
唐健民
朱鸿杰
蒋运生
熊忠臣
韦记青
韦霄
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Liuzhou Research Institute Of Gardening Science And Technology
Guangxi Institute of Botany of CAS
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Liuzhou Research Institute Of Gardening Science And Technology
Guangxi Institute of Botany of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for constructing flood control vegetation on river banks, which comprises the following operation steps: (1) investigating the river riparian area; (2) densely planting arbors at the lower position of the river levee, and interplanting shrubs; (3) planting water-resistant small trees and shrubs in the dike slope in a middle position; (4) the combination construction is carried out at the high position of the dike according to the combination construction of plants at all levels of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers, wherein the combination construction is that the big trees, the middle trees, the shrubs and the ground covers are sequentially arranged from top to bottom in a vertical space; (5) and (3) managing and maintaining the vegetation along the river bank, and timely replanting and restoring the green belt which is washed and damaged by the flood after the heavy rainfall. The method can effectively play a role in flood control and flood prevention, and form a river bank landscape with clear levels and obvious hue and season changes; a large number of lateral roots can grow on the base diameter of the metasequoia and the willow, and the resistance of the metasequoia to water flow scouring can be effectively improved.

Description

Construction method of flood control vegetation on river bank
Technical Field
The invention relates to a method for constructing river bank vegetation, in particular to a method for constructing flood control vegetation on river banks.
Background
The loss caused by flood is very serious, the vegetation on the river bank is completely destroyed, and the loess and the broken stones are exposed in the air. If the flood comes, the loess and gravel are involved in the river along with the flood. If it rains heavily, the mud-rock flow is likely to occur, and when the mud-rock flow rushes into the river, the river bed of the river is lifted, so that the aging of the river is accelerated. The vegetation is mostly the core of the river bank buffer zone ecosystem, and has important ecological functions of blocking sediment, relieving negative influence of human factors on the river ecosystem and the like. The functions of the river bank buffer zones formed by different plant groups and community configuration modes are different, and the ecological function and the landscape greening function can be fully exerted only by vegetation composition which is suitable for local climate conditions and meets the construction target. How to improve the resistance of the vegetation to flood erosion and have the ornamental greening effect in the arrangement of the river bank buffer zone is always a difficult problem in the greening design of the river bank vegetation.
The information disclosed in this background section is only for enhancement of understanding of the general background of the invention and should not be taken as an acknowledgement or any form of suggestion that this information forms the prior art already known to a person skilled in the art.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the technical problems, the invention provides a method for constructing flood control vegetation on river banks, which utilizes various species to construct a river riparian ecosystem which is water-resistant, well-graded, obvious in hue and season change and rich in biological diversity.
In order to achieve the purpose, the technical scheme provided by the invention is as follows:
a construction method of flood control vegetation on river banks selects greening plants and combinations of flood control banks on the premise of not damaging flood control banks and not influencing flood discharge according to investigation results; selecting water-resistant plants and combinations in the dike slope; selecting plant combinations of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers at all levels at the high position of the embankment slope; by combining the three layers, a river bank landscape with rich species diversity, distinct levels and obvious hue and season changes is formed; the method specifically comprises the following operation steps:
(1) investigating the river riparian area; the river bed is used as a basic horizontal position, according to the flooding degree, the part which is frequently flooded is the low position of the river bank, the part which is flooded with heavy water is the middle position of the river bank, and the part which is not flooded is the high position of the river bank;
(2) densely planting impact-resistant and torrent-resistant arbors at the lower position of a river levee, and interplanting shrubs which are short, deep in root system and water-resistant;
the arbor planting method comprises the following steps:
(a) the arbor planting area is the area between the low level of the river bank, namely the normal water level of the river in the dry season and the normal water level of the river in the rich season;
(b) digging planting holes in the planting area in the step (a), and applying decomposed farmyard manure as base fertilizer at the bottom;
(c) vertically planting the root of an arbor in a planting hole, uniformly distributing the root of the arbor in different directions in a basal diameter area with the length of 20-30 cm from the root of the arbor by using a steel saw, brushing a naphthylacetic acid solution at a cutting opening by using a soft brush, and ensuring that the naphthylacetic acid solution completely permeates the cutting opening;
(d) backfilling excavated soil in the planting hole, and thoroughly pouring root fixing water;
(3) planting water-resistant small trees and shrubs in the dike slope in a middle position;
(4) the combination construction is carried out at the high position of the dike according to the combination construction of plants at all levels of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers, wherein the combination construction is that the big trees, the middle trees, the shrubs and the ground covers are sequentially arranged from top to bottom in a vertical space; wherein the big arbor is one of cercis chinensis, paper mulberry and loquat, the middle arbor is Chinese alangium or burreed, the shrub is one of bougainvillea spectabilis, Du-stem mountain and ligustrum quihoui, and the ground is one of dryopteris falcatum, groundsel, alocasia esculenta, semipennywort and Chinese knotweed;
(5) and (3) managing and maintaining the vegetation along the river bank, and timely replanting and restoring the green belt which is washed and damaged by the flood after the heavy rainfall.
Preferably, the investigation of the riparian area of the river in the step (1) is to investigate the conditions of soil substrate, the topography and landform of the river bank, the flow direction of rainfall, the hydrology of the river and the like of the riparian area of the river, and determine the topography and water flow characteristics of the riparian area of the river and the biological characteristics of the planted plants.
Preferably, the arbor in step (2) is metasequoia or willow, and the shrub refers to at least one of oleander, Hainan stauntonia and cereulia.
Preferably, the shrub in step (2) is at least one of oleander, Hainan stauntonia or ceremony.
Preferably, in the step (b), the planting hole spacing and the row spacing are both 1.0 meter, the planting hole depth is 1.5m, and the planting hole diameter is 1.0-1.5 m.
Preferably, the width of the ring cutting openings in the step (c) is 2-3 mm, the length is 1-3 cm, the depth is 0.2-0.4 cm, and the number of the cutting openings is 15-20.
Preferably, the naphthylacetic acid solution is brushed onto the cuts in step (c) once after 5 minutes in order to allow the naphthylacetic acid solution to completely permeate the cuts, said naphthylacetic acid solution having a concentration of 1000 mg/L.
Preferably, the excavated soil is backfilled to the base of the arbor in the step (d), compacted, and then backfilled to 6-10 cm above the girdling area by using soil sieved by a 2mm sieve, and raked to be flat without being forcibly pressed.
Preferably, after the root fixing water is thoroughly poured in the step (d), water is poured once every day in seven days after planting, water is poured once every 3 days after 10 days, and the watering is stopped after 40 days of planting.
Preferably, the small arbor in step (3) is at least one of cercis ocellata, willow, chinaberry and erythrina indica; the shrub is calyx seu fructus cuphea and/or bougainvillea glabra.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following beneficial effects:
the construction method of the invention can green and colorize the flood control embankment and the natural embankment on the premise of not damaging the flood control embankment and not influencing flood traveling; considering the water resistance of plants, greening plants and flowering plants, an optimal combination of multiple functional plants is formed, and different plant combinations are arranged at the flood zone, the bank middle slope and the bank slope high level, so that the flood control and flood prevention effects can be effectively achieved, and the river bank landscape with clear gradation and obvious hue and season phase change is formed; a large number of lateral roots can grow on the base diameter of the metasequoia and the willow, and the resistance of the metasequoia to water flow scouring can be effectively improved.
Detailed Description
The following detailed description is to be read in connection with specific embodiments, but it should be understood that the scope of the invention is not limited to the specific embodiments.
Example 1
A construction method of flood control vegetation on river banks selects greening plants and combinations of flood control banks on the premise of not damaging flood control banks and not influencing flood discharge according to investigation results; selecting water-resistant plants and combinations in the dike slope; selecting plant combinations of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers at all levels at the high position of the embankment slope; by combining the three layers, a river bank landscape with rich species diversity, distinct levels and obvious hue and season changes is formed; the specific operation steps are as follows:
(1) investigating conditions of soil substrate, landform and landform of a river bank, rainfall flow direction, river hydrology and the like of a river riparian area, and determining topographic characteristics and water flow characteristics of the river riparian area and biological characteristics of planted plants; the river bed is used as a basic horizontal position, according to the flooding degree, the part which is frequently flooded is the low position of the river bank, the part which is flooded with heavy water is the middle position of the river bank, and the part which is not flooded is the high position of the river bank;
(2) densely planting shock-resistant and torrent-resistant arbors and metasequoia in flood-running areas, namely the low positions of river levees, interplanting shrubs which are short, deep in root system and water-resistant, wherein the shrubs refer to oleander, Hainan stauntonia and ceremony;
the arbor planting method comprises the following steps:
(a) the metasequoia growing area is a low position of a river bank, namely an area between the normal water level of the river in the dry season and the normal water level of the river in the rich season;
(b) digging planting holes in the planting area in the step (a), wherein the planting hole spacing and the row spacing are both 1.0 m, the planting hole depth is 1.5m, the planting hole diameter is 1.0-1.5 m, 5-6 kg of decomposed chicken manure, duck manure and pig manure are applied to the bottom of the planting holes to serve as base fertilizers, wherein the chicken manure: duck manure: pig manure is in a mass ratio of 1:1: 1;
(c) vertically planting the roots of metasequoia in planting holes, performing girdling on a basal diameter area with the length of about 20cm from the root of a tree by using a steel saw, wherein the width of a cutting opening is 2-3 mm, the length of the cutting opening is 1-3 cm, and the depth of the cutting opening is 0.2-0.4 cm, the number of the cutting openings is 15-20, the cutting openings are uniformly distributed in different directions, then brushing the cutting openings with 1000 mg/L naphthylacetic acid solution by using a soft brush, and brushing once after 5 minutes, wherein the naphthylacetic acid solution is required to completely soak the cutting openings;
(d) backfilling excavated soil in the planting hole, backfilling the excavated soil to the base part of the stem of the metasequoia, compacting, backfilling the soil with a sieve of 2mm to 6-10 cm above the girdling area, raking, not forcibly treading, thoroughly watering for fixing roots, watering once every day in seven days after planting, watering once every 3 days after 10 days, and stopping watering after 40 days of planting;
(3) planting water-resistant cercis negundo, willow, shrub calyx cuphea and bougainvillea spectabilis in the dike slope;
(4) the combination construction is carried out at the high position of the dike according to the combination construction of plants at all levels of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers, wherein the combination construction is that the big trees, the middle trees, the shrubs and the ground covers are sequentially arranged from top to bottom in a vertical space; wherein the big tree is folium Cercis chinensis, the middle tree is Alangium platanifolium, the shrub is Du-stem mountain, and the ground cover is Dryopteris Crassirhizomatis;
(5) and (3) managing and maintaining the vegetation along the river bank, and timely replanting and restoring the green belt which is washed and damaged by the flood after the heavy rainfall.
Example 2
A construction method of flood control vegetation on river banks selects greening plants and combinations of flood control banks on the premise of not damaging flood control banks and not influencing flood discharge according to investigation results; selecting water-resistant plants and combinations in the dike slope; selecting plant combinations of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers at all levels at the high position of the embankment slope; by combining the three layers, a river bank landscape with rich species diversity, distinct levels and obvious hue and season changes is formed; the specific operation steps are as follows:
(1) investigating conditions of soil substrate, landform and landform of a river bank, rainfall flow direction, river hydrology and the like of a river riparian area, and determining topographic characteristics and water flow characteristics of the river riparian area and biological characteristics of planted plants; the river bed is used as a basic horizontal position, according to the flooding degree, the part which is frequently flooded is the low position of the river bank, the part which is flooded with heavy water is the middle position of the river bank, and the part which is not flooded is the high position of the river bank;
(2) closely planting impact-resistant and torrent-resistant trees at the low position of a flood zone, namely a river levee, interplanting shrubs which are short, deep in root system and water-resistant, wherein the trees refer to willows, and the shrubs refer to oleander and Hainan grape peach;
the arbor planting method comprises the following steps:
(a) the willow planting area is the area between the low level of the river bank, namely the normal water level of the river in the dry season and the normal water level of the river in the rich season;
(b) digging planting holes in the planting area in the step (a), wherein the planting hole row distance and the planting hole row distance are both 1.0 meter, the planting hole depth is 1.5m, the planting hole diameter is 1.0-1.5 m, and 6-8 kg of decomposed chicken manure, duck manure and pig manure are applied to the bottom, wherein the chicken manure: duck manure: pig manure is in a mass ratio of 1:1: 1;
(c) vertically planting the root of a willow in a planting hole, performing girdling on a basal diameter area with the length of about 20cm from the root of a tree by using a steel saw, wherein the width of a cut is 2-3 mm, the length of the cut is 1-3 cm, and the depth of the cut is 0.2-0.4 cm, the number of the cuts is 15-20, the cuts are uniformly distributed in different directions, then brushing a naphthylacetic acid solution of 1000 mg/L to the cut by using a soft brush, and brushing the cut once after 5 minutes to ensure that the naphthylacetic acid solution completely permeates the cut;
(d) backfilling excavated soil in the planting hole, backfilling the excavated soil to the base part of the willow stem, compacting, backfilling the soil with a sieve of 2mm to 6-10 cm above the girdling area, raking, not forcibly treading, thoroughly watering for fixing roots, watering once every day in seven days after planting, watering once every 3 days after 10 days, and stopping watering after 40 days of planting;
(3) planting water-resistant small trees and shrubs in the dike slope, wherein the small trees refer to chinaberry and erythrina indica, and the shrubs refer to cuphea calycinia and bougainvillea spectabilis;
(4) the combination construction is carried out on the high position of the dike according to the combination construction of plants of all levels of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers, and the combination construction is that the big trees, the middle trees, the shrubs and the ground covers are sequentially arranged from top to bottom in a vertical space; wherein, the big arbor is loquat, the middle arbor is fragrant, the shrub is bougainvillea spectabilis, and the ground cover is semipinnate;
(5) and (3) managing and maintaining the vegetation along the river bank, and timely replanting and restoring the green belt which is washed and damaged by the flood after the heavy rainfall.
The trees planted by the planting method in the prior art are not waterlogging-resistant or have shallow roots and are easy to wash away, two kinds of trees selected in the flood area are waterlogging-resistant, the bases of the branches and the trunks are girdled and are easy to generate adventitious roots after being coated with hormones, and the plants have two roots, are high in fixation capacity and difficult to wash away, and are more favorable for flood control and flood prevention.
The foregoing descriptions of specific exemplary embodiments of the present invention have been presented for purposes of illustration and description. It is not intended to limit the invention to the precise form disclosed, and obviously many modifications and variations are possible in light of the above teaching. The exemplary embodiments were chosen and described in order to explain certain principles of the invention and its practical application to enable one skilled in the art to make and use various exemplary embodiments of the invention and various alternatives and modifications as are suited to the particular use contemplated. It is intended that the scope of the invention be defined by the claims and their equivalents.

Claims (8)

1. A construction method of flood control vegetation on river banks is characterized by comprising the following operation steps:
(1) investigating the river riparian area;
(2) densely planting trees and interplanting shrubs at the lower position of the river levee, wherein the trees are metasequoia and willows, and the shrubs refer to at least one of oleander, Hainan stauntonia and cerealose;
the arbor planting method comprises the following steps:
(a) the arbor planting area is the area between the low level of the river bank, namely the normal water level of the river in the dry season and the normal water level of the river in the rich season;
(b) digging planting holes in the planting area in the step (a), and applying farmyard manure as base fertilizer at the bottom;
(c) vertically planting the root of an arbor in a planting hole, performing girdling on a basal diameter area with the length of the arbor from the root to the top being 20-30 cm, and brushing a naphthylacetic acid solution at a cutting opening;
(d) backfilling excavated soil in the planting hole, and pouring rooting water;
(3) planting water-resistant small trees and shrubs in the dike slope in a middle position;
(4) the combination construction is carried out at the high position of the dike according to the combination construction of plants at all levels of big trees, middle trees, shrubs and ground covers, wherein the combination construction is that the big trees, the middle trees, the shrubs and the ground covers are sequentially arranged from top to bottom in a vertical space; wherein the big arbor is one of cercis chinensis, paper mulberry and loquat, the middle arbor is Chinese alangium or burreed, the shrub is one of bougainvillea spectabilis, Du-stem mountain and ligustrum quihoui, and the ground is one of dryopteris falcatum, groundsel, alocasia esculenta, semipennywort and Chinese knotweed;
(5) and (3) managing and maintaining the vegetation along the river bank, and timely replanting and restoring the green belt which is washed and damaged by the flood after the heavy rainfall.
2. The construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the investigation of the river riparian area in the step (1) is to investigate the soil substrate, the landform and landform of the river riparian area, the rainfall flow direction and the river hydrological condition of the river, and determine the landform characteristics and the water flow characteristics of the river riparian area and the biological characteristics of the planted plants.
3. The construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (b), the planting hole spacing and the row spacing are both 1.0 meter, the planting hole depth is 1.5m, and the planting hole diameter is 1.0-1.5 m.
4. The construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that: in the step (c), the width of the cutting openings is 2-3 mm, the length is 1-3 cm, the depth is 0.2-0.4 cm, and the number of the cutting openings is 15-20.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the brush-out of the cutting portion is performed in step (c) after 5 minutes by brushing a naphthylacetic acid solution having a concentration of 1000 mg/L.
6. The construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that: and (d) backfilling the excavated soil to the base of the arbor stem, compacting, backfilling the soil with a sieve of 2mm to 6-10 cm above the girdling area, and raking.
7. The construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that: watering the root fixing water in the step (d) once a day in seven days after planting, watering every 3 days after 10 days, and stopping watering after 40 days of planting.
8. The construction method according to claim 1, characterized in that: the small arbor in the step (3) is at least one of willow, chinaberry and erythrina indica; the shrub is calyx seu fructus cuphea and/or bougainvillea glabra.
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CN110199749A (en) * 2019-07-13 2019-09-06 刘艳华 The construction method of growing thickly treescape

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CN102150596B (en) * 2011-04-29 2012-09-05 上海交通大学 Method for constructing water saving type landscape plant community
CN104081993B (en) * 2014-07-09 2015-12-09 上海交通大学 A kind of method building water storage type Garden Plant Community
CN104472176B (en) * 2014-12-03 2016-08-17 华侨大学 The construction method that mountain river riverbank vegetation ecological recovers
CN104509411B (en) * 2014-12-29 2017-02-22 北京林业大学 Method for planting plant at terrestrial-aquatic transverse zone of river bank
CN104756725B (en) * 2015-04-15 2017-02-22 北京林业大学 Method for planting river bank water-land ecotone vegetation
CN105145107B (en) * 2015-10-19 2017-12-22 长江水资源保护科学研究所 Stable vegetation method of ecological construction for hills type reservoir storage estuarine wetland

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