CN107709221A - 重型起重车 - Google Patents

重型起重车 Download PDF

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Publication number
CN107709221A
CN107709221A CN201680037980.XA CN201680037980A CN107709221A CN 107709221 A CN107709221 A CN 107709221A CN 201680037980 A CN201680037980 A CN 201680037980A CN 107709221 A CN107709221 A CN 107709221A
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CN
China
Prior art keywords
lifting car
heavy lifting
driver
motor
heavy
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Granted
Application number
CN201680037980.XA
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English (en)
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CN107709221B (zh
Inventor
迈克·黑格瓦尔德
拉斯·迈克尔·泰森
海因茨·伊什奥斯特
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Konecranes Global Oy
Original Assignee
Demag Cranes and Components GmbH
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Publication date
Family has litigation
Priority to DE102015118535.0A priority Critical patent/DE102015118535A1/de
Priority to DE102015118535.0 priority
Application filed by Demag Cranes and Components GmbH filed Critical Demag Cranes and Components GmbH
Priority to PCT/EP2016/075949 priority patent/WO2017072241A1/de
Publication of CN107709221A publication Critical patent/CN107709221A/zh
Application granted granted Critical
Publication of CN107709221B publication Critical patent/CN107709221B/zh
First worldwide family litigation filed litigation Critical https://patents.darts-ip.com/?family=57206304&utm_source=google_patent&utm_medium=platform_link&utm_campaign=public_patent_search&patent=CN107709221(A) "Global patent litigation dataset” by Darts-ip is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B66HOISTING; LIFTING; HAULING
    • B66FHOISTING, LIFTING, HAULING OR PUSHING, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, e.g. DEVICES WHICH APPLY A LIFTING OR PUSHING FORCE DIRECTLY TO THE SURFACE OF A LOAD
    • B66F9/00Devices for lifting or lowering bulky or heavy goods for loading or unloading purposes
    • B66F9/06Devices for lifting or lowering bulky or heavy goods for loading or unloading purposes movable, with their loads, on wheels or the like, e.g. fork-lift trucks
    • B66F9/075Constructional features or details
    • B66F9/07572Propulsion arrangements
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B60KARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS IN VEHICLES; AUXILIARY DRIVES FOR VEHICLES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST OR FUEL SUPPLY OF PROPULSION UNITS IN VEHICLES
    • B60K6/00Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00
    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
    • B60K6/28Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs characterised by the electric energy storing means, e.g. batteries or capacitors
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    • B60K6/22Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by apparatus, components or means specially adapted for HEVs
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    • B60K6/20Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs
    • B60K6/42Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines ; Control systems therefor, i.e. systems controlling two or more prime movers, or controlling one of these prime movers and any of the transmission, drive or drive units Informative references: mechanical gearings with secondary electric drive F16H3/72; arrangements for handling mechanical energy structurally associated with the dynamo-electric machine H02K7/00; machines comprising structurally interrelated motor and generator parts H02K51/00; dynamo-electric machines not otherwise provided for in H02K see H02K99/00 the prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines, e.g. HEVs characterised by the architecture of the hybrid electric vehicle
    • B60K6/46Series type
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    • B60L1/00Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles
    • B60L1/003Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles to auxiliary motors, e.g. for pumps, compressors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/40Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by capacitors
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60LPROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; SUPPLYING ELECTRIC POWER FOR AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES IN GENERAL; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; MONITORING OPERATING VARIABLES OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; ELECTRIC SAFETY DEVICES FOR ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES
    • B60L50/00Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle
    • B60L50/50Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells
    • B60L50/60Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries
    • B60L50/61Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle using propulsion power supplied by batteries or fuel cells using power supplied by batteries by batteries charged by engine-driven generators, e.g. series hybrid electric vehicles
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    • B60L58/00Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles
    • B60L58/10Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries
    • B60L58/18Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries of two or more battery modules
    • B60L58/20Methods or circuit arrangements for monitoring or controlling batteries or fuel cells, specially adapted for electric vehicles for monitoring or controlling batteries of two or more battery modules having different nominal voltages
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B66HOISTING; LIFTING; HAULING
    • B66FHOISTING, LIFTING, HAULING OR PUSHING, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, e.g. DEVICES WHICH APPLY A LIFTING OR PUSHING FORCE DIRECTLY TO THE SURFACE OF A LOAD
    • B66F9/00Devices for lifting or lowering bulky or heavy goods for loading or unloading purposes
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    • Y02T10/72Electric energy management in electromobility

Abstract

本发明涉及一种重型起重车(1),该重型起重车(1)设计为包括桅杆(3)的基于桅杆的设备;一种负载提取机构以能够被提升和降低的方式安装在所述桅杆(3)上,所述重型起重车(1)设置至少用于8吨的载重能力;所述重型起重车(1)包括带有行驶驱动器(13)的动力传动系(5)。为了提供改善的具有更好能量效率的重型提升机车(1),所述行驶驱动器(13)包括电动驱动单元。

Description

重型起重车
技术领域
[OOCM] 本发明涉及一种重型起重车(heavy-duty lift truck),该重型起重车设计为具 有桅杆的基于桅杆的设备,其中配置一种负载提取机构,使得该机构可以在桅杆上提升和 降低,并将该重型起重车设置为至少用于8t的最大载重能力,其中所述重型起重车包括带 有行驶驱动器的动力传动系。
[0002] 依据本发明的重型起重车是用于装卸诸如集装箱,尤其是ISO集装箱的重型负载 或装卸尤其集装箱码头中的单元货载的车辆。为此,这种重型起重车设置用于至少8t并高 达52t的最大载重能力。
背景技术
[0003] 重型起重车通常在其前端包括桅杆,该桅杆用作为升降架并基本竖直延伸,因此 所述重型起重车还被称为基于桅杆的设备。负载提取机构以这样的方式配置,即该负载提 取机构能够在重型起重车的前面,尤其在桅杆的前面沿着桅杆被提升和降低。
[0004] 当所述重型起重车用作为集装箱堆垛机时,所述负载提取机构通常被称为吊具, 该吊具也被称为吊具架并可以例如经由所谓扭锁紧固在待提取的集装箱标准化角配件上。 另外,对于集装箱堆垛机,可以区分装卸空ISO集装箱的空集装箱堆垛机和装卸ISO集装箱 的满集装箱堆垛机。空集装箱堆垛机设置用于8t到lot的最大载重能力,而满集装箱堆垛机 设置用于30t到40t的最大载重能力。
[0005] 或者,所述重型起重车还可以设计为具有由叉臂形成的负载提取机构的叉式起重 车。另外,负载提取机构可以以线圈钩(coil tangs)、磁铁或锁紧夹的形式设计。在这种重 型起重车的情况下,最大载重能力为15t到52t。
[0006] 在以上描述的构造基础上,将本发明包括的所述重型起重车尤其与也称为跨运车 的跨运车装置区分开,所述跨运车装置例如来自于德国公开文件DE 10 2011 001 847 A1。 与具有在其蜘蛛腿构造的前端和后端之间配置的负载提取机构的跨运车装置对比,重型起 重车不能在集装箱或集装箱堆垛上方行驶来提取或放下集装箱,而只能靠近集装箱或集装 箱堆垛的一边,尤其长边。
[0007] 也要将依据本发明的重型起重车与所谓正面起重机(reach stacker)区分开,因 为所述正面起重机不具有用作为升降架的桅杆,而具有通常套管式伸缩且以倾斜方式向前 定向的起重臂,相应的负载提取机构紧固在起重臂的尖端。在这方面,竖直方向和起重机臂 之间可变的角度通常不小于大约20度。具有电动驱动器的正面起重机从例如CN 103 350 954 A和CN 103 359 619 A中已知。
[0008] 另外,要将这种重型起重车与常规叉式起重车区分开,常规叉式起重车不被设计 或不被设置为装卸上述负载或载重能力范围。具有液压驱动器的这种叉式起重车由DE 10 2008 029 141 A1中己知。其它叉式起重车从例如DE 10 2008 022 487 A1,DE 10 2006 030 945 A1,DE 10 2004 028 620 A1 和DE 10 2008 058 847 A1 中已知。
[0009] 从特雷克斯手册“ACES FOR YOUR STACK 〃(可从以下网址下载http:// www.terex. com/port-solutions/de/products/1ift-trucks/empty-container-handlers/index • htm)中,可知设计为空集装箱堆垛机的重型起重车通过柴油-液压驱动机 构(diesel-hydraulic means)所进行的运行。对于它的行驶驱动器,这种重型起重车的动 力传动系常规上包括,柴油发动机和有效连接于转换器和自动变速器以驱动驱动轴的取力 装置(power take-off gear)。
发明内容
[0010]本发明的目的在于提供一种改善的重型起重车,该重型起重车具有更大程度的能 量效率。
[0011]这一目的通过具有权利要求1的特征的重型起重车而实现。从属权利要求2至13描 述了本发明的优选的实施方式。
[0012] —种重型起重车,该重型起重车设计为具有桅杆的基于桅杆的设备,其中配置一 种负载提取机构,使得该负载提取机构可以在桅杆上提升和降低,并将该重型起重车设置 至少用于8t的最大载重能力,其中所述重型起重车包括带有行驶驱动器的动力传动系,在 以下方面进行改善,即所述行驶驱动器包括电动驱动单元。由于常规柴油运行的重型起重 车中行驶驱动器的功率消耗为由动力传动系所驱动的所有功能的总功率消耗的大约70%, 对根据本发明的电气化的行驶驱动器的使用意味着,重型起重车的能量效率程度可以明确 提高并且通过上述使用,与己知的解决方案相比实现了降低的功率损失。当使用相应的重 型起重车时,这有利于产生较低的能量成本。
[0013]以优选的方式规定了,所述电动驱动单元经由电线连接于电池,优选铅蓄电池,以 便用电力供应该电动驱动单元。这使得在直接操作环境中降低有害排放成为可能。
[00M]以构造上简单的方式规定了,直流电流功率控制器经由第二电线连接于第一电 线,以及系统电池和车辆计算机连接于直流电流功率控制器。
[0015]以优选的方式规定了,所述电动驱动单元经由同步发电机和整流器连接于内燃 机,优选柴油发动机,以便用电力供应该电动驱动单元。
[0016]以构造上简单的方式规定了,所述电动驱动单元包括具有直流电压供电总线的总 成,连接于该直流电压供电总线的逆变器,连接于该逆变器的制动电阻器和电动马达,所述 电动马达能够经由逆变器致动并优选设计为三相异步马达,并且所述电动马达驱动性连接 于所述重型起重车的驱动轴。以优选的方式,在电动马达生成性制动(generative b r a k i n g)运行期间从电动马达反馈回的多余电力经由制动电阻器吸收。
[0017]功率损失可以进一步通过以下方面降低,即总成包括直流电流功率控制器和尤其 为超级电容器(ultra-cap)形式的电容器,并且所述电容器经由直流电流功率控制器连接 于直流电压供电总线。以这种方式,所述重型起重车可以存储例如在负载提取机构制动或 降低期间产生的回收能量。
[0018]以构造上简单的方式规定了,所述动力传动系包括,作为另外驱动器的转向驱动 器、用于倾斜桅杆的倾斜驱动器、用于提升和降低负载提取机构的升降驱动器、用于锁定重 型起重车后轴和/或前轴的锁定驱动器以及至少一个用于负载提取机构功能的附加驱动 器。
[0019]可靠且坚固的构造在以下方面得以实现,即所述另外驱动器中的至少一个设计为 包括液压泵的液压驱动器。
[0020] 以构造上简单的方式规定,所述另外驱动器的至少一个连接于取力装置,该取力 装置有效连接于所述内燃机。
[0021] 具有上述优点的动力传动系的电气化比例进一步通过以下方面增加,g卩,所述另 外驱动器的至少一个包括具有逆变器和电动马达的电动驱动单元,所述电动马达可以经由 所述逆变器致动并优选设计为三相异步马达,并且该另外驱动器经由逆变器连接于直流电 压供电总线。
[0022] 以构造上简单的方式规定了,所述升降驱动器设计为没有液压机构并优选包括带 有逆变器和电动马达的电动驱动单元,所述电动马达可以经由所述逆变器致动并优选设计 为三相异步马达,并且所述电动驱动单元经由逆变器连接于直流电压供电总线,并且所述 电动马达驱动性连接于升降装置以便驱动其优选设计为缆索、链条或带的升降机构,并且 通过该升降机构来提升或降低所述负载提取机构。
[0023]以构造上简单的方式规定,风扇经由逆变器连接于直流电压供电总线。
[0024]以有利的方式规定了,重型起重车设计为集装箱堆垛机,尤其设计为空集装箱堆 垛机,其负载提取机构设计为吊具架。
附图说明
[0025]参考下面附图,更加详细地说明本发明的示例性实施方式。在附图中:
[0026]图1示出了重型起重车的视图;
[0027]图2示出了图1的重型起重车的动力传动系的第一实施方式的示意图;
[0028]图3示出了图1的重型起重车的动力传动系的第二实施方式的示意图;
[0029]图4示出了图1的重型起重车的动力传动系的第三实施方式的示意图;以及 [0030]图5示出了图1的重型起重车的动力传动系的第四实施方式的示意图。
具体实施方式
[0031]图1示出了重型起重车1的示意图。通过图1的例子,重型起重车1显示为空集装箱 堆垛机。然而,以下所描述的本发明的特征可以相同的方式应用,即使当重型起重车1未被 设计作为空集装箱堆垛机,而是例如设计为满集装箱堆垛机或设计为在本介绍中限定的意 义上讲的叉式起重车,因此重型起重机具有不同的最大载重能力范围和/或不同的负载提 取机构。
[0032] 重型起重车1主要包括底盘2,在所述底盘2的轮2a上,重型起重车1可以自由行使 在地面上。在这方面,优选轮2a不设置有实心橡胶轮胎配置而设置有充气轮胎,即设置有填 充空气或其它气体的橡胶轮胎配置。所述轮2a配置在后轴2b和前轴2c上。所述前轴2c优选 用作为驱动轴,而所述后轴2b用作为用来驱动和操纵重型起重车1的转向轴。所述驱动轴包 括差动齿轮和行星齿轮并优选设置有双轮胎配置。另外,底盘2支承用于所述重型起重车1 的附随操作员的驾驶室la。
[0033] 在定向于行驶方向上的所述重型起重车1的两端lb、lc中的前端lb处,尤其在前轴 2c的区域中,设置用作为升降架的桅杆3,该桅杆3被支承在底盘2上。因此,该重型起重车1 也被称为基于桅杆的设备。所述桅杆3包括两个狭长支承件3a,当在前轴2c的纵向延伸部的 方向上观察时,所述支承件以其纵向延伸部基本上沿假想竖直线延伸,并彼此平行配置,并 相互间隔隔开。所述支承件3a通过相互间隔的横向腹板3b沿其纵向延伸部相互连接,以便 形成桅杆3的架状结构。所述支承件3a可以设计为在其纵向延伸部方向上套管式伸缩。
[0034]吊具架4形式的负载提取机构安装于桅杆3并能够沿该桅杆3提升和降低。在这方 面,桅杆3或其两个支承件3a用作为一种负载提取机构的引导件。在这方面,该负载提取机 构配置在重型起重车1的前表面的前端lb区域中,尤其配置在远离重型起重车1的后端lc的 桅杆3的前表面3c。另外,桅杆3与负载提取机构一起能够相对于垂直线在重型起重车1的后 端lc方向上朝向后轴2c向后倾斜,或远离后轴2c向前倾斜。在这方面,向前向后的角度范围 小于I5度,优选只达到大约5度是可行的,以使得可行的偏转明显区别于正面起重机的起重 臂的偏转。
[0035]通过吊具架4,未示出的集装箱尤其是带有标准化角配件的所谓ISO集装箱可以被 提取。为此,通过重型起重车1的恰当动作,将吊具架4移向待提取的集装箱,以便抓紧集装 箱的上部角配件。在这方面,吊具架4可以卡合在集装箱的上部角配件并经由所谓扭锁锁在 上部角配件上。
[0036]在设计为空集装箱堆垛机的重型起重车1的情况下,吊具架4只具有两个锁定点 4a,待提取的集装箱的角配件通过各自的扭锁紧固在所述的锁定点4a上。尤其以这样的方 式设计所述吊具架4,即当将集装箱紧固于吊具架4时,相应集装箱的长边的两个上部角配 件被接收并在这方面,将所述吊具架配置在集装箱的长边或相关竖直侧壁上。被提取的集 装箱未锁在吊具架4,而是通过所述侧壁的下部区域被支承在吊具架4上。吊具架4则基本在 平行于集装箱侧壁的竖直平面上延伸。
[0037]作为替换方案,尤其在设计为满集装箱堆垛机的重型起重车1的情况下,吊具架4 可以具有四个锁定点4a。在这方面,当集装箱紧固于吊具架4上时,可以接收集装箱的所有 四个上部角配件,并且吊具架4配置在该集装箱的上表面。吊具架4则基本在平行于集装箱 上表面的水平平面上延伸。
[0038]在设计为空集装箱堆垛机的重型起重车1的情况下,吊具架4也可以设计为所谓 “双箱式吊具”,两个上下堆叠的空集装箱可以用该双箱式吊具提取。通过以下的示例描述 的实施方式中,吊具架4关于其在待提取的集装箱的侧壁上的长边配置方面类似于之前所 述的吊具架4。但是,在这方面,从外侧抓住两个所述集装箱的在相应长边上一个位于在另 一个上方的所述角配件,而没有扭锁卡合在所述角配件上。另外,吊具架4具有用作为抓紧 件并在长边方向上相互间隔开的两个夹持器,这些夹持卡合在合上部集装箱的圆形角区域 的周围。在每个角区域中,夹持器抵接长边侧壁和相关的窄边侧壁。
[0039]图2示出了图1的重型起重车1的动力传动系5的第一实施方式的示意图。通过动力 传动系5,所述重型起重车1的许多功能,尤其是其桅杆3的许多功能可以被驱动,并且为此 目的而分别设置的多个驱动器可以被供应必要的电力。
[0040]在输出侧,动力传动系5包括带有温度控制风扇6a的优选设计为柴油发动机6的内 燃机。柴油发动机6可以经由连接于启动器电池7的启动器8来启动。另外,柴油发动机6机械 性连接于发电机(dynamo) 10以驱动该发电机。另外,通过电气性连接,发电机10经由充电调 节器9连接到启动器电池7以便由该电池供电。启动器电池7还向重型起重车1的车辆计算机 11以及另外的电动马达驱动风扇Id供应电力。 10041]为了能够通过动力传动系5驱动和致动以下将更详细描述的重型起重车1的功能, 动力传动系5还包括在输出侧连接到柴油发动机6的取力装置12。以下功能分别通过经由取 力装置I2有效连接于动力传动系5的专门驱动器来产生。尤其是,动力传动系5包括用于“行 驶”功能的行驶驱动器I3以及作为另外的驱动器的转向驱动器14、倾斜驱动器15、升降驱动 器16以及各种附加驱动器17,所述转向驱动器连接于设计为转向轴的后轴2b用于“转向”功 能,所述倾斜驱动器15涉及桅杆3用于“桅杆倾斜”功能(也参见图1),所述升降驱动器16涉 及负载提取机构或吊具架4用于“升降”功能,所述各种附加驱动器17用于吊具架4的若干其 它附加功能。第一附加功能是“侧移”,其中通过附加驱动器17之一,所述吊具架4可以在其 纵向延伸部的方向上并因此基本横向于重型起重车1的行驶方向上位移,以便于使吊具架4 覆盖所述集装箱的角配件,其中所述行驶方向与待提取的集装箱的纵向延伸部平行。因此, 通过第二附加“扭锁”功能,通过另一附加驱动器17,可以锁定扭锁。通过被设计为双箱式吊 具的吊具架4对集装箱的上述抓紧也经由相对应的附加驱动器17来进行,所述相对应的附 加驱动器17可以与为第二附加功能设置的驱动器一致。第三附加功能是“套管式伸缩”,为 此,在吊具架4的纵向延伸部中吊具架4的彼此相对的端部设计为套管。通过相应的附加驱 动器17,所述套管式伸缩端可以尤其是在吊具架4的纵向延伸部方向上延伸并收缩,从而便 于将吊具架4调整至不同尺寸,尤其是调整到待提取的集装箱的长度。在ISO集装箱的情况 下,例如2〇,30,40或45英尺的长度是常见的。如果负载提取机构具有叉臂,叉臂之间相对于 彼此的距离可以以相似方式被附加驱动器17调整。
[0042]为了从行驶运动中制动重型起重车1或为了将其停止或使其保持停止,可以设置 “制动”功能。为了发挥“制动”功能,在被设计为驱动轴的前轴2c的区域中,制动器26a,尤其 是各自的制动器26a,配置在轮2a上和差动齿轮上,这些制动器经由制动驱动器26来运行。 在静止的重型起重车1的情况下例如在提取或放下集装箱时为了支持“制动”功能,作为任 选功能的“轴锁定”可以额外地经由有效连接于动力传动系5的锁定驱动器28来设置,通过 该锁定驱动器,所述后轴2b和/或前轴2c可以在重型起重车1静置的时候被锁定。
[0043]与常规的重型起重车1的情况相对比,根据本发明的第一实施方式中,连接于取力 装置12的输出端的行驶驱动器13不再包括用于“行驶”功能的带有自动变速器的转换器。取 而代之的是,行驶驱动器13具有电动驱动单元并因此至少局部是电动的,尤其是柴油-电力 驱动的。该电动驱动单元具有配置在取力装置12和驱动轴之间的总成18。该总成18包括也 被称为DC总线的直流电压供电总线18c,第一逆变器18d,优选设计为三相异步马达的第一 电动马达18e和在第一电动马达18e的生成性制动运行情况下用于吸收多于电力的制动电 阻器18f。第一电动马达18e还有制动电阻器18f经由第一逆变器18d连接于直流电压供电总 线18c。第一电动马达18e处于与驱动轴的驱动性和有效机械连接中,以便通过驱动轴来驱 动轮2a。通过有效连接于取力装置12的同步发电机18a,以及通过连接于同步发电机18a的 整流器18b,电动驱动单元或其总成18,尤其是其直流电压供电总线18c连接于取力装置12, 以便被电力供电或由电力驱动。
[0044] 在第一实施方式中,只有行驶驱动器13是柴油-电力驱动的。上述该动力传动系5 的余下的另外的驱动器是柴油-液压驱动的。为此,转向驱动器14、倾斜驱动器15 (也见图 1)、升降驱动器16、任选的锁定驱动器28和附加驱动器17均设计为液压驱动器并连接于第 一液压系统27a,所述第一液压系统27a通过一个或多个液压栗19来供给。在这方面,液压泵 19连接于取力装置12,所述取力装置12有效连接于柴油发动机6并能够被该柴油发动机6驱 动。对于制动驱动器26,独立于第一液压系统27a的第二液压系统27b配置有同样经由取力 装置12驱动的液压栗19。
[0045]由于常规柴油驱动重型起重车中行驶驱动器13的“行驶”功能的功率消耗为由动 力传动系5所驱动的所有功能的总功率消耗的大约70%,上述的对柴油-电力驱动的行驶驱 动器13的使用意味着,重型起重车1的能量效率程度可以大大改善。
[0046]图3示出了图1的重型起重车1的动力传动系5的第二实施方式的示意图。除了以下 所述的不同之处外,第二实施方式的动力传动系5与第一实施方式相对应。
[0047]在第二实施方式中,在第一实施方式中所设置的取力装置12被省略。另外,除了行 驶驱动器13,另外的驱动器部分是电动的并且连接于直流电压供电总线18c。为此,动力传 动系5包括另一电动驱动单元,该电动驱动单元具有优选设计为三相异步马达的第二电动 马达ISh的和第二逆变器lSg,该第二电动马达I8h经由该第二逆变器18g连接于直流电压供 电总线18c。通过第二电动马达18h,可以致动和驱动一个或多个液压栗19用于两个液压系 统27a、27b并且因此用于转向驱动器14、倾斜驱动器15、升降驱动器16、锁定驱动器28和/或 附加驱动器17。
[0048]除此之外,如图3所示,在第二实施方式的情况下,升降驱动器16还可以包括专用 的电动驱动单元,以便替换第一实施方式中为此而设置的液压驱动器。在这种情况下,为此 设置的动力传动系5的电动驱动单元包括优选设计为三相异步马达的第三电动马达18 j和 第三逆变器18i,该第三电动马达18j经由该第三逆变器18i连接于直流电压供电总线18c。 通过第三电动马达18j,而不是通过具有液压栗19的液压驱动器,驱动例如设计为缆索、链 条或带的升降装置或其升降机构以便提升和/或降低所述负载提取机构。所述升降驱动器 16因此在没有液压机构的情况下设计为柴油-电力驱动的驱动器。
[0049]图4示出了图1的重型起重车1的动力传动系5的第三实施方式的示意图。以上关于 第二实施方式的陈述类似适用于第三实施方式。然而,除此之外,配置直流电流功率控制器 18k和设计为超级电容器181的至少一个电容器,该电容器经由直流电流功率控制器18k连 接于直流电压供电总线18c以便能够存储被回收的制动电力,在电动马达18e,18h和/或18 j 的生成性制动过程中该制动电力被供给到直流供电总线18c。
[0050]图5示出了图1的重型起重车1的动力传动系5的第四实施方式的示意图。与之前的 实施方式相比较,已经省略了柴油发动机6,并用优选设计为铅蓄电池20的电池来代替。这 样,第四实施方式中的总成18和另外的电动驱动单元在没有同步发电机18a且没有整流器 18b的情况下用电力供电。为此,直流电压供电总线18c经由相应的第一电线2〇a直接连接于 铅蓄电池20。由于省略了柴油发动机6,第四实施方式中现在不需要启动器电池7、启动器8、 充电调节器9或发电机10。在其适当的位置设置系统电池21和直流电流功率控制器22。在这 方面,系统电池21还有车辆计算机11都连接于直流电流功率控制器22,所述直流电流功率 控制器22反过来经由第二电线22a连接于第一电线20a。通过第二电线22a进行的直流电流 功率控制器22与铅蓄电池20和与直流电压供电总线18c的连接可以经由开关24切断和重 建。通过第一电线20a上的另一开关25,铅蓄电池20与直流电压供电总线18c的连接可以被 切断和重建。在第四实施方式中,电动马达驱动的风扇Id经由逆变器23连接于直流电压供 电总线18c。
[0051] 对于直流电流功率控制器18k和22,木^直流电压转换器或DC-DC转换器以及根据 转换类型的升压(boost)转换器或升压(step-up)转换器或降压(buck)转换器或降压 (step-down)转换器也普遍被使用。 、
[0052] 可选地,在第四实施方式的情况下,与第三实施方式类似,可以增补直流电流功率 控制器18k和至少一个例如以超级电容器1S1形式的电容器。
[0053] 在第四实施方式中,如图3至图5所示,行驶驱动器13和任选的还有升降驱动器16 设计为完全电动的并因此既没有柴油机构也没有液压机构。在第四实施方式中,另外的驱 动器是电动-液压驱动的,没有柴油机构。
[0054]以上所述的实施方式也基本能够互相结合。例如,第一和第四实施方式的结合通 过以下方式是可行的,即电池或铅蓄电池20代替柴油发动机6和取力装置12用作为电源,其 中升降驱动器16是电动-液压的并相应地既包括借助于图3在上文所述的带有多个组件的 电动驱动单元,也包括根据图2的液压驱动器,所述液压驱动器可以通过这些组件来致动。
[0055] 附图标记列表
[0056] 1重型起重车
[0057] la驾驶室
[0058] lb 前端
[0059] lc 后端
[0060] Id 风扇
[0061] 2 底盘
[0062] 2a轮
[0063] 2b 后轴
[0064] 2c 前轴
[0065] 3 桅杆
[0066] 3a 支承
[0067] 3b横向腹板
[0068] 3c前表面
[0069] 4吊具架
[0070] 4a锁定点
[0071] 5动力传动系
[0072] 6柴油发动机
[0073] 6&风扇
[0074] 7启动器电池
[0075] 8启动器
[0076] 9充电调节器
[0077] 10发电机
[0078] 11车辆计算机
[0079] 12取力装置
[0080] 13行驶驱动器
[0081] 14转向驱动器
[0082] 15倾斜驱动器
[0083] 16升降驱动器
[0084] 17附加驱动器
[0085] 18 总成
[0086] 18a同步发电机
[0087] 18b整流器
[0088] 18c直流电压供电总线
[0089] 18d第一逆变器
[0090] 18e第一电动马达
[0091] 18f制动电阻器
[0092] 18g第二逆变器
[0093] 18h第二电动马达
[0094] 18i第三逆变器
[0095] 18 j第三电动马达
[0096] 18k直流电流功率控制器
[0097] 181超级电容器
[0098] 19液压泵
[0099] 20铅蓄电池
[0100] 20a 第一电线
[0101] 21系统电池
[0102] 22直流电流功率控制器
[0103] 22a 第二电线
[0104] 23逆变器
[0105] 24 开关
[0106] 25 开关
[0107] 26制动驱动器
[0108] 26a 制动
[0109] 27a第一液压系统
[0110] 27b第二液压系统
[0111] 28锁定驱动器

Claims (13)

1. 一种重型起重车(1),该重型起重车(1)设计为具有桅杆(3)的基于桅杆的设备,其中 配置一种负载提取机构,使得该机构可以在桅杆⑶上提升和降低,并将该重型起重车(1) 设置至少用于8t的最大载重能力,其中所述重型起重车(1)包括带有行驶驱动器(13)的动 力传动系(5),其特征在于,所述行驶驱动器(I3)包括电动驱动单元。
2. 如权利要求1所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述电动驱动单元经由电线(2〇a) 连接于电池,优选铅蓄电池(20),以便用电力供应所述电动驱动单元。
3. 如权利要求2所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,直流电流功率控制器(2¾经由第 二电线(22a)连接于第一电线(20a),以及系统电池(21)和车辆计算机(11)连接于所述直流 电流功率控制器(22)。
4. 如权利要求1所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述电动驱动单元经由同步发电 机(18a)和整流器(18b)连接于内燃机,尤其是柴油发动机⑹,以便用电力供应所述内燃 机。
5. 如权利要求1至4任一项所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述电动驱动单元包括 具有直流电压供电总线(18c)的总成(18),连接于该直流电压供电总线的逆变器(18d),连 接于该逆变器(18d)的制动电阻器(18f)和电动马达(18e),所述电动马达(18e)经由所述逆 变器(18d)致动并优选设计为三相异步马达,并且所述电动马达(18e)驱动性连接于所述重 型起重车⑴的驱动轴。
6. 如权利要求5所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述总成(18)包括直流电流功率 控制器(18k)和尤其为超级电容器(181)形式的电容器,并且所述电容器经由所述直流电流 功率控制器(18k)连接于所述直流电压供电总线(18c)。
7. 如权利要求1至6任一项所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述动力传动系(5)包 括,作为另外驱动器的转向驱动器(14)、用于倾斜桅杆(3)的倾斜驱动器(15)、用于提升和 降低负载提取机构的升降驱动器(16)、用于锁定所述重型起重车(1)后轴(2b)和/或前轴 (2c)的锁定驱动器(28)以及至少一个用于负载提取机构功能的附加驱动器(17)。
8. 如权利要求7所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述另外驱动器中的至少一个设 计为包括液压栗(19)的液压驱动器。
9. 如权利要求7或8所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述另外驱动器中的至少一个 连接于取力装置(1¾。
10. 如权利要求7或8所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述另外驱动器的至少一个 包括具有逆变器(18g)和电动马达(18h)的电动驱动单元,所述电动马达(18h)可以经由所 述逆变器(18g)致动并优选设计为三相异步马达,并且所述另外驱动器经由所述逆变器 (18g)连接于直流电压供电总线(18c)。
11.如权利要求7至10任一项所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述升降驱动器(16) 设计为没有液压机构并优选包括带有逆变器(18i)和电动马达(18j)的电动驱动单元,所述 电动马达(18j)可以经由所述逆变器(18i)致动并优选设计为三相异步马达,并且所述电动 驱动单元经由逆变器(18i)连接于直流电压供电总线(18c),并且所述电动马达(18 j)驱动 性连接于升降装置以便驱动其优选设计为缆索、链条或带的升降机构,并且通过该升降机 构来提升或降低所述负载提取机构。
12.如权利要求5至11任一项所述的重型起重车(D,其特征在于,风扇(id)经由逆变器 (23)连接于直流电压供应总线(18c)。
13.如权利要求1至12任一项所述的重型起重车(1),其特征在于,所述重型起重车(1) 设计为集装箱堆垛机,尤其设计为空集装箱堆垛机,其负载提取机构设计为吊具架⑷。
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EP3368464B1 (de) 2019-12-04
AU2016344735A1 (en) 2017-11-09
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US20190023544A1 (en) 2019-01-24

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